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Full text of "Creative Computing Magazine (May. 1983) Volume 09 Number 05"

the #1 magazine of computer appli 




Panasonic JR-200 

Video Technology VZ200 

Tl 99/ 4A 

Texnet 

ModemeO 

Z-Term, The Professional 

Micro-Courier 

Apple Business Graphics 

Visicalc Training 

Databases for the Color 

Computer 

ValForth 

Prism 

Apple Games 

Atari Landing Simulator 

Applications: 
Cryptanalysis 
Sorting 
Doomsday 
Medieval Combat 

Columns: 
IBM 
Atari 
TRS-80 
Commodi 



ANNOUNCING 

THE END OP 
THE DISPOSABLE 

COMPUTER. 



- 1983 SPECTRA VIDEO. MC 




SV 601 SUPER EXPANDER 

The real volue in ony compute system lies m its 
otxMy to accommodate a large voriety of Input/ 
output (tenets simultaneously With me addition ot 
m« SV-601, me SV-318 con Interface with OS many 
os seven different devices ot one time Although 
lightweight, the SV-601 con support a 15' TV 
monitor Special front view slots novo been 
designed to monitor the operation of the different 
interface cards that ore connected to the system 




SV 903 DATA CASSE 

This feature pocked data cossette d J 
power from the SV 318. to which it c | 
connected By using a stereo heod. 
data on one channel. and voice or si 
other This greatly enhances the uso] 
stared data Programs such os for* | 
tutorials and voice assisted ti 
and data stored The dc 
be an integral port of your system i 
choose to expand info a disk drive. ' 
cassette even has a built-in conaervl 
you write your own voice support pri 




Man has only recently tested the waters of the home 
computer age. and he has found the waters to his liking. 
But with a brain capable of storing several trillion bits of 
information, he will be continually pushing his new found 
toy to greater limits. Will his machine live up to this 
challenge? 

Sadly, many personal computers will become tomorrow's 
Junk In the attic. The SV-318 is one that will not. Because as 
you get better. It gets better. It does so because of Its 
capability and expandability— both far beyond those of 
any other affordable computer. 

CAPABILITY. The SV-318 isn't just more capable. It's much 
more capable. No other computer at even twice the price 
combines all these extraordinary features: 32K ROM 
expandable to 96K; 32K RAM expandable to I44K; 
Extended Microsoft Bosic (the industry standard); even 
Standard CP/M BOcolumn capability so you can 
Im mediately utilize over IO.OOO existing software 
programs. The SV-318 also has a unique built-in joystick/ 
cursor control— an immeasurably useful feature when it 
comes to playing your favorite video gome. 

EXPANDABILITY. As you become more and more skillful 
with computers, you'll love how the SV-318 "stretches" to 
meet your demands (and actually leads you in fascinating, 
new directions). For one thing, all eleven of our Important 
peripherals are available immediately With most other 
models, you have to wait months. For another, the SV-318 is 
beautifully designed to interface with new options as they 
become available. 

AFFORD ABILITY. The SV-318 is not only eminently afford- 
able, it's the first true bargain of the computer age! Besides 
home budgeting, business applications, word processing, 
programming and self-teaching, the SV-318 is the best 
entertainment value in town. Not only can you use it with 
your TV to play hundreds of different video games, you 
can also use your SV-318 with a TV as a drawing tablet or 
music synthesizer. In play, as in work, the SV-318 will 
continually expand to meet your potential. 

Whether you're just wetting your toes in computers, or 
fully asail on the waters, the SV-318 is a computer that will 
serve you for many, many years You see, we believe that 
even In the computer age, you don t become an object of 
real value unless you're around for a while. 



SPECTRAVIDEO SV 318 COMPUTER COMPARISON CHART 




SPECTRA VIDEO 

SV Jit 


APPlENKLUS 


ATARI MO 


COAMPOOORC M 


NEC AMI 


RADIO SHACK 
COLOR COMPUTtR 


BASE PRICE 


%29t 


Si SAO 


saw 


8SW 


sm 


S2M 


COMPUTING POWER r t ATuftt S 
•utLTINRON) 
EIPANDARLE TO 

DLKLTiNCXTENMO MICROSOFT MUC 
■HTM MM 
EXPANDABLE TO 


UK 

9SK 

UK' 


1JK 

MM 
'[*. 

4A* 
MK 


*0K 
OK 

ADG-TrONAL COST 
ISM 

AfA 


JDK 

NM 
NO 

•AH 

NM 


ISK 
UK 

>SK 
UK 


AK 
l«K 

ALXMTiONAL COST 

4K 

MM 


KfVDOARO FEATURES 
NUMBER Of KEYS 
USER DEFINE f UNCTIONS 
SPECIAL WOftO PROCESSING 
GENERATEO GRAPHICS (FROM *l VftOAROi 
UPPERA.OWERCASC 


n 
M 
YES 
YES 
YES 


S> 
MM 
NO 
NO 
UPPWOML1 


Si 

4 

NO 

m 


M 

1 

NO 
YES 
YES 


10 
NO 
NO 
raj 


•A 

NONE 
NO 
NO 
YES 


GAMEJAU0M7 FEATURES 

SEPARATE CARTRIDGE SLOTS 

■UH.T m JOYSTICK 

COLORS 

RESOLUTION (PIXELS* 

SPRITES 

SOUNO CHANNELS 

OC TAVE S PE ft C HANNE l 

ADSR ENVELOPE 


r*. . i M 

a 
i 
t 
it* 


NO 
NO 

N 

m> . KM 

MM 

i 

4 

NO 


YIS 

NO 

m 

« 

4 
4 
NO 


NO 

NO 

m 
• 
* 

YES 


NO 
NO 

« 

/■A . "IV 

NM 

1 
• 


NO 

NO 

* 

1»>*4 

MM 

1 

•0 
NO 


PERIPHERAL SPECIFICATIONS 
CASSETTE 

AUDIO M) 

MHLTMIMC 

DISK DRIVE CAPACITY 

(LOW PROFILE* 


YES 

YfS 


NO 
NO 
l«K 

NO 


? CHANNEL 
NO 

MM 
MO 


1 CHANNEL 
NO 
NO 
IAJK 

NO 


K.MANN* I 
NO 
NO 
-.* 
NO 


"ANNfl 

NO 

NO 
t/DM 

NO 


CPMT COMPATWHITY , |§ column programs) 

CUM' 10 




NO"* 


NO 


NO •""" 

NO 


NO 

NO 


NO 
NO 



found ( 



ITTE 

■rows its 
. handily 
i can record 

Ion the 
tot cassette 
gn language 
in be used 
I continue to 
l it you 
idato 
r mic to help 
|>grams 




SV 902 FLOPPY DISK DRIVE 

This extremely compact, low profile unit uses 
stondard 5 v. - flexible diskettes Its single side 
double density configuration allows a capacity of 
2S6K bytes of data (unformatted) Linked to the 
Super Expander, the SV 902 is your key to the 
virtually unlimited scope of CP/M 0/S as well os a 
complete variety of program languages such os 
LOGO. PASCAL FORTRAN. COBOL and Pl-1. 



J *3ISrWHI//i7fiL7 




PERSONAL COMPUTER 

SPECTRA VCEO INC. 39 W. 371h Street. New York. NY. 10014 
CIRCLE 261 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



* 'W u w *K>rM**» w>u% "Mi (jo*** vuMxyi 
** i?* vW4M>ni4M[*<i 'MytpNt tufwon 



* AftMl ■ C«Yi «cc«pl modrfcM 40 or 80 CtAjmo CP'M 

* CorvroMmi 64 accapts 40 column CP'M 



M*'osofM jrtOKl^Mlr.4f<TW*0'MKrr^f'Co'()orMior 

CP'M rj » ******* or Dkmd hmwrc* ■ 



YOU WILL NEVER AGAIN 

HAVE TO WASTE TIME 

WAITING FOR YOUR PRINTER. 



MICROBUFFER ALLOWS YOU 

TO PRINT AND PROCESS 

SIMULTANEOUSLY. 

Microbuffer will instantly increase 
your efficiency — and eliminate 
the frustration of waiting for your 
slowpoke printer. 

Now you can simply dump your 
printing data directly to Microbuffer 
and continue processing. 
Microbuffer accepts the data as 
fast as your computer can send. It 
stores the data in its own memory 
buffer, then takes control of your 
printer. 

THERE IS A MICROBUFFER 

FOR ANY COMPUTER/PRINTER 

COMBINATION. 

Whatever your system, there is a 
specific Microbuffer designed to 
accommodate it. 



have a power-efficient low- 
consumption design. Special 
functions include Basic listing 
formatter, self-test, buffer zap, and 
transparent and maintain modes. 
The 16K model is priced at $259 
and the 32K, at $299. 




FOR APPLE II COMPUTERS, 
Microbuffer II features on-board 
firmware for text formatting and 
advanced graphics dump routines. 
Both serial and parallel versions 




FOR EPSON PRINTERS, Microbuffer/ E 
comes in two serial versions — 
8K or 16K (upgradable to 32K) — 
and two parallel versions — 16K 
or 32K (upgradable to 64K). The 
serial buffer supports both hard- 
ware handshaking and XON-XOFF 
software handshaking at baud 
rates up to 19,200. Both interfaces 
are compatible with standard Epson 
commands, including GRAFTRAX-80 
and GRAFTRAX-80 + . Prices range 
from $159 to $279. 



ALL OTHER COMPUTER /PRINTER 

COMBINATIONS are served by the 
stand-alone Microbuffer In-line. 

The serial stand-alone will 
support different input and output 
baud rates and different hand- 
shake protocol. Both serial and 
parallel versions are available in a 
32K model at $299 or 64K for 
$349. Either can be user-upgraded 
to a total of 256K with 64K add-ons 
— just $179 each. 

SIMPLE TO INSTALL 

Microbuffer II is slot-independent. 
It slips directly inside the Apple II 
in any slot except zero. 

Microbuffer/ E mounts easily 
inside the existing auxiliary slot 
directly inside the Epson printer. 

The stand-alone Microbuffer is 
installed in-line between virtually 
any computer and any printer. 




PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS. 

So what are you waiting for? Write 
to us for more information or ask 
your dealer for a demonstration. 

When you see how much 
freedom Microbuffer will allow, 
you'll understand why it's so silly 
to be without one. 



PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS, INC.™ 
31245 LA BAYA DRIVE 
WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CA 91362 
(213) 991-8200 

CIRCLE 240 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







Stake a Claim on the most 
exciting New Game for your 
I Atari Home Computer^ 





e valuations & profiles 

•1 C Panasonic JR-200 Ahl 

Worth the wait 

Ofi Video Technology VZ200 Ahl 

Microsoft Basic tor under $100 

33 TI/994A Gray 

*"* More than just a pretty keyboard 

37 Texnet Cashman 

Computer companionship for the Tl owner 

43 ModemBO Jacobs 

** TRS-80 communications 

4g Z-Term, The Professional McCown 

Advanced Apple communications 

50 Micro-Courier Archibald 

Spreading the words 

54 Cdex Training For VisiCalc Beavers 

** VisiCalc made easy 

g3 Apple Business Graphics Beavers 

*' ,, The Chewie Gobbles case 

7Q Four Databases For The Color Computer Norman 

' ** C.C. File. Color Data Organizer. E-Z File, and Color File 

Q4 ValForth McNamee 

9 A new language for Atari users 

100 Prlsm Murphy 

^^ A real life treasure hunt 

I 06 New Apple Game » Linzmayer 

1 **" Adventure and arcade action 

I I 3 747 Landing Simulator Goodman 

Flying a jumbo Atari 

Cover illustration by Ann Nuemann. 



6a vs^ 



May, 1983 

Volume 9, Number 8 

Creative Computing (ISSN 097-8140) is published monthly by Ahl Computing. 

Inc a subsidiary of Zitl-Davis Publishing Company David Ahl. President. Elizabeth 

B Staples Vice President. Selwyn Taubman. Treasurer, Bertram A Abrams 

Secretary PO Box 789-M Mornstown. N J 07960 Second Class postage paid at 

New York. NY 10001 and at additional mailing ottices 

Copyright ©1983 by Ahl Computing. Inc All rights reserved 

Editorial ottices located at 39 East Hanover Ave . Morris Plains. NJ 07950 Phone 

Domestic Subscriptions 12 issues $2497. 24 issues $4397; 36 issues $57 97 
POSTMASTER send address changes to Creative Computing. PO Box 5214. 
Boulder. CO 80321 Call 800-631-8112 toll-lree (in New Jersey call 201-540- 
0445) to order a subscription 



articles 

11Q Logo Ideas Lawler 

Problems and ideas 

1 OO A User's View Of Prestel Sowers 

I to what it is and what it isn't 

A 37 Electronic Geoboard Piele 

' *" How to solve it— with the computer 

-1 46 Program Your Home Against Burglary Block 

Don't make things easy for a thief 

applications & software 

■y cfi Computers Against Crime Hess 

■ ** w This classroom protected by attack computers 

1 66 The Secret Code Machine Ritchie 

Using the Playfair Cipher 

1 78 Ba,,c Cryptography Peer/ A Wheeler 

Using RND to encipher messages 

1 89 Th * Trapdoor Algorithm Block 

' °~ Another method of safeguarding information 

■1 Q£ The Apocalypse Equations Balsam 

1 ^ v Will World War III be an accident? 

200 Wner « Are We Headed? Baldwin 

"" ww Calculating the limits to growth 

1 7 A Comparison Of Sorts, Revisited Kapton 

*" Bubble, Shell-Metzner. and Quicksort compared 

230 Medleval Combat Pinho 

A strategy game for Atari 

240 A J °y* tick For The Color Computer Hodgson 

*^^ Build an Atari-type joystick 

248 Computer Art Jacobson 

The sine product program 

departments 

6 Input/Output Readers 

•\ 4 Dateline: Tomorrow Ahl 

44 Notices F o* 

250 New P roduc *» Zo "° 

260 Controller Comer Riley & Riley 

fcww Making a multiple socket extension 

272 Outpost: Atari Anderson 

Atari marketing, apologies, utilities, and more 

278 Commodore's Port '.Swank 

fc ' ° Screen manipulations with the Vic 

284 IBM lma<|U Fas,iB 

Swan song 

OQR TRS-80 Strings Gray 

fc ** w Color Computer, disks, and a screen editor 

302 Book Reviews 



May 1983 6 Creative Computing 



staff 



Founder /Editor-in-Chief 



David H. Ahl 



Editor 

Managing Editor 
Associate Editors 



Editor-at-Large 
Contributing Editors 




Elizabeth B. Staples 

Peter Fee 

John Anderson 

Joe Devlin 

Steve Arrants 



Ken Uston 

Dale Archibald 
Charles Carpenter 
Thomas W. Dwyer 
Will Fastie 
Stephen B Gray 
Glenn Hart 
Stephen Kimmel 
Ted Nelson 
Harold Novick 
Peter Payack 
Alvin Tottler 
Gregory Yob 
Karl Zinn 



Staff Writers 
Editorial Assistants 
Secretary 



Owen Linzmayer 
Chris Vogeli 

Andrew Brill 
Laura Gibbons 

Nina Zollo 



Art Director 
Assistant Art Director 
Artists 

Typesetters 



Patrick Calkins 

Chris DeMilia 

Diana Negri Budio 

Eugene Bicknell 

Paul Krasner 

Karen K.Brown 
Renea C. Cole 



Advertising Director 



Jeff Weiner 



Creative Computing Press Laura Conboy 
Operations Manager William L. Baumann 



Comptroller 
Accounting 
Bookkeeping 
Retail Marketing 
Fulfillment 



Shipping & Receiving 



Patricia Kennelly 

Jennifer H. Shaler 

Joanne Sapio 

Jennifer Burr 

Frances Miskovich 

Rosemary Bender 

Linda Blank 

Pat Champion 

Susan DeMsrk 

Elsie Graff 

Gail Harris 

Linda McCatharn 

Bridget Maher 

Carol Vita 

Jim Zecchin 

Ronald Antonaccio 

Mark Archambault 

Bill Thomas 

Scott McLeod 

Mike Gribbon 

Strawvey Montgomery 



advertising sales 

Advertising Director 

Jeff Weiner 

Creative Computing 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 

One Park Avenue 

New York. NY 10016 

(212)725-7957 



Advertising Coordinator 

Ruth Darling 

Creative Computing 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 

One Park Ave 

New York. NY 10016 

(212)725-3446 

Northern California, Northwest 

Jeff Miller 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 

3030 Bridgeway Blvd. 

Sausalito. CA 94965 

(415)331-7133 

Southern California, Southwest 

Tom Whiteway 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 

3460 Wilshire Blvd. 

Los Angeles, CA 90010 

(213)387-2100 

New England 
CEL Associates, Inc. 
27 Adams Street 
Braintree. MA 02 184 
(617)848-9306 

Midwest 
Jeff Edman 
The Pattis Group 
4761 W. TouhyAve 
Lincolnwood. IL 60646 
(321)679-1100 

Mid-Atlantic 

Larry Levine 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 

One Park Ave. 

New York. NY 10016 

(212)725-7668 

Southeast 

Browning Publications 
P.O. Box 81306 
Atlanta. GA 30366 
(404) 455-3430 

Canada 

The Pattis Group 
1623 YoungeSt 
Toronto. Ontario M4T 241 
(416)482-6288 



Consumer Computers a Electronics 
Magazine Division 

President: Larry Sporn 

Vice President Marketing: J Scott Briggs 

Vice President Circulation: Carole Mandel 

Vice President/ 
General Manager: Eileen G Markowitz 

Creative Director: Peter J. Blank 



microfopm 

Creative Computing is available on per- 
manent record microfilm. For complete infor- 
mation contact University Microfilms Inter- 
national. Dept FA. 300 North Zeeb Road. 
Ann Arbor. Ml 48106. or 18 Bedford Road 
London WC1R 4EJ. England, and Micro Photo 
Division of Bell & Howell Company. Old Mans- 
field Road. Wooster. OH 44691 



where to sent) it 

All editorial material, including article 
submissions, press releases, and products 
for evaluation should be sent to: 

Creative Computing 

39 E. Hanover Ave. 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 
Correspondence regarding other Creative 
Computing products and publications 
should also be sent to the Morris Plains 
address. 

Correspondence related to advertising, 
including ad copy, questions on billing, and 
requests for rates, should be sent to: 

Advertising Department 

Creative Computing 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Co. 

One Park Ave. 

New York, NY 10016 
Correspondence regarding subscriptions, 
including orders, changes of address, and 
problems should be sent to: 

Creative Computing 

P.O. Box 5214 

Boulder. CO 80321 
Your help in choosing the correct address 
for your correspondence is appreciated. 
An incorrectly addressed letter or package 
can take as long as several weeks to reach 
its proper destination. 



subscriptions 

All subscriptions orders and other corre- 
spondence related to subscriptions 
should be addressed to: 

Creative Computing 

P.O. Box 5214 

Boulder. Colorado 80321 . 
Foreign subscriptions must be accom- 
panied by payment in U.S. currency. 
Subscription prices: 
U.S. Canada Foreign 

1 year $24 97 1 year 2997 1 year 34 97 

2 years 43 97 2 years 53 97 2 years 63 97 

3 years 57 97 3 years 72 97 3 years 87 97 

Airmail delivery on foreign subscriptions 
is available for a one-year period only at 
$75.00 additional for mail to Asia and 
Australia, and $50.00 additional for all 
other foreign. 

Subscribers in the United Kingdom 
may send payment in sterling to: 

Hazel Gordon 

27 Andrew Close 

Stoke Golding 

Nuneaton. CV1 3 6EL 

Please allow at least eight weeks for 
change of address. Include old address 
as well as new— enclosing if possible an 
address label from a recent issue. 



attention authors 

Creative Computing will not be responsible 
for the return of unsolicited manuscripts, cas- 
settes, floppy disks, program listings, etc not 
submitted with a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope 



May 1983 ■ Creative Computing 



ATARI SINGS YOUR FAVORITE SONGS!!! 

THE Original VOICE BOX Speech Synthesizer by the ALIEN GROUP has received rave reviews: 

MICRO COMPUTING-"The VOICE BOX tweets an endearing personality to your computer. The possibilities are enormous " 

COMPUTE-"The VOICE BOX offers more human-like tones and does not blank out the screen." 

CREATIVE COAAPUTING-"English text and phonetic code may be 

freely intermixed rather than requiring separate modes as is the case 

without exception with every other speech system. A mode called 

talking face displays an animated face with impressive lip sync ^^HHH^^HII^HHHI^H^^^^I^^ 

animation." 

ANTIC-"There is a great potential for teaching children to spell and 

an added dimension to games overall. I believe the VOICE BOX is 

well worth the price tag." 

ANALOG-"For ATARI owners who want to add speech to their 

programs, the Alien Group VOICE BOX is probably the best 

choice." 

POPULAR SCIENCE-"The speech quality is excellent. Besides 

creating speech, the software has a bit of fun with graphics." 

and on the new VOICE BOX II 

TIME MAGAZINE-"Machme of the Year" "The VOICE BOX by the 
Alien Group enables an ATARI to say aloud anythinq typed on its _ 

keyboard in any language „ also smgs "Amazmg Grace" and '^RPOKATE ^ = = P fE 

When Im 64 or anything else that anyone wants to teach it. 





VOICE BOX II 
Speech & Singing Synthesizer 



To order by mail send a check or money order to the ALIEN GROUP 
for $169. Then, try the VOICE BOX II for 10 days, and if it isn't the finest 
value you've ever seen in a computer peripheral, the most challenging and 
provocative addition you've ever made to your system, return it in its original 
condition for a full refund 



THE ALIEN GROUP 

27 West 23rd Street (212)741-1770 

New York, NY 10010 



The New VOICE BOX II for ATARI plugs into the serial port of the ATARI 
400/800 with sound coming out of the TV/monitor. 48K DISK is re- 
quired. It has all of the features of the original VOICE BOX plus many 
exciting new hardware and software features: 

• The ability to sing with voice and 3 part music 

• A library of 30 famous songs. 

• A comprehensive music system thatallows the user to easily enter or 
modify new songs. 

• Software that can convert the bottom two rows of the ATARI keyboard 
into a piano with a range of 3Vi octaves using the shift and control 
keys. 

• Programmable musical sound effects such as tremolo, vibrato, glis- 
sondo and click track. 

• A singing human face with lip-sync animation designed by Jerry 
White. 

• A talking or singing ALIEN face with software thatallows the user to 
change the face and 8 mouth patterns as he sees fit 

• The ability to speak with inflection and feeling. 

• Can speak in a foreign language with correct foreign spelling as 
input. 

• A talk and spell program by Ron Kramer Users can program any 
vocabulary for this spelling game. In fact, this program can even 
speak in a foreign language like French, where the user must spell 
the correct word in English, or vice versa. 

• GREEN GOBLINS A talking arcade game by John Wilson 

• Random Sentence Generator-An amusing grammar game that 
helps teach school children to identify parts of speech and recognize 
a variety of sentence structures. 

• NUMBER SPEAK-A subroutine by Scott Matthews that converts up to 
a 9 digit number into normal English pronunciation. Ideal for build- 
ing your own math games. 

• STUD POKER A talking poker game by Jerry White 

• The screen never blanks out while talking or singing 

• Singing or speaking subroutines can be incorporated into your 
programs, requiring as little as 100 bytes of RAM plus 5 bytes for 
each word. 

• Entries into the $5000 talking or singing game contest can be 
written using the VOICE BOX II send for contest information. 

• Price $169.00 includes VOICE BOX II and all of the above software 

• Inquire about our discounts for educational institutions 



ALSO AVAILABLE AT LEADING COMPUTER STORES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. 

Atari is a registered trodemork of Warner Communications CIRCLE 107 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



itput . . . input /output . . . inpu 



Backsliding 

Dear Editor: 

Thank you for David Ahl's survey of slide show systems for 
the Apple ("Make Your Apple Into A Slide Projector," November 
1982). With so many presentation packages on the market, the 
overview will certainly guide business graphics users to the most 
useful programs. 

However. I would like to point out some features which were 
not described appropriately: 

The review states that Screen Director can hold only 17 
images per disk. In fact, the program has the ability to reduce 
("pack") each screen so that it takes up less room on the disk (as 
much as 50% less). Since text screens fill even less disk space 
than graphs, a Screen Director disk actually can hold 30 to 40 
images. With an Apple III and Profile, the number increases to 
over 200 {Screen Director operates fully on both the Apple II 
and the Apple III). 

Unlike Screen Director, Executive Briefing System cannot 
display images created by Apple Business Graphics. 

In addition, users of Screen Director may select automatic 
display times of one or more seconds; the comparison chart lists 
"5 or more." 

Finally, the article states that when using Screen Director to 
print out slides, one must print an entire presentation. In fact. 
Screen Director allows the user to specify one or several slides in 
a presentation and print out only those. 

Thank you for bringing this to the attention of your readers. 

David Solomon! 

President 

Business & Professional Software, Inc. 

143 Binney Street 

Cambridge, MA 02142 



Pain In The NEC 

Dear Editor: 

I read with interest the review of the C.ltoh 8510A and NEC 
8023 A printers by Joseph Simpson which appeared in your 1983 
Buyer's Guide to Personal Computers. 

I purchased a NEC 8023A in December of 1981 shortly after 
their introduction and have found it to be nearly ideal in every 
respect as did Mr. Simpson. However, I was surprised when I 
read Mr. Simpson's remarks that the C.ltoh printer produces 
better graphics than the NEC. Mr. Simpson explains that this is a 
result of the NEC being unable to support uni-directional print 



thereby printing vertical lines with a slight offset of approximately 
one dot with each pass of the bi-directional print head. 

I would like to point out that Mr. Simpson apparently didn't 
realize that the NEC's "incremental mode" disables the logic- 
seeking mode and results in uni-directional printing of graphics. 
This mode can be selected simply by sending the printer an 
escape sequence code. In the "incremental mode," the graphics 
are identical to those of the C.ltoh and are truly impressive. 

Aside from Mr. Simpson's apparent confusion on this matter, 
his article appeared to describe accurately the fine features 
available on these printers. In my opinion, they are two of the 
best values on the market today. 

I might also add that I have found my subscription to Creative 
Computing to be one of the better values in the personal 
computing field. Keep up the good work. 

Tony Bona n no 
9 Knoll Ridge Drive 
Asheville, NC 28804 



Three Ways Of Looking At A Bug 

Dear Editor: 

I read with interest the article "Three Ways of Looking at a 
Function" by James Fuller that appeared in the January, 1983 
issue of Creative Computing. I was able to get most of the 
equations to yield graphs similar to those illustrated in the 
article, and to obtain a hard copy on an Epson MX-80 FT 
connected to an Apple 11+ with a Grappler and printer 
interface. 

One finds both the program to save a picture on disk and the 
one to display it have bugs in them. Line 140 of the save picture 
should be 140 PRINT CHR$(4); "BSAVE"; A$;",A$2000, 
LS1FFF". Add line 125 to "display picture"; 125 INPUT "name 
of picture": A$. 

The program will have to be modified slightly to yield a 
reasonable graph for the Archimedes' spiral. If line 690 is changed 
to read For G = to 3600 step I one will obtain a spiral of 
3600/360 or ten turns if the X and Y axes are scaled properly. 

The equation in the upper left column on page 206 should 
read f(x) = cos(2x) + cos(x + BB/16). Also, on page 20, 
Figure 5 is incomplete. The bottom part of the plot will "fill in" if 
the program is allowed to run until it is completed. 

George Shellenberger 

Associate Professor 

Natural Science 

The College of the Ozarks 

Clarksville. AR 72830 



May 1 983 f Creative Computing 



FIRST 

FROM 

TECMAR 

NEW 

REMOVABLE 

CARTRIDGE 

WINCHESTER 



Write for new Tecmar Information Kit 

TECMAR 

Personal Computer Products Division 

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Eamon Update 



Dear Editor: 

My article, "Eamon: An Adventure Game for the Apple II 
With (Almost) Everything," (Jan. '83) contained a typographical 
error. 

On page 98, when discussing the Apple Avocation Alliance, it 
said that there is "a fee of $27 on your first order or exchange." 
In reality, this annual membership fee is only $3. 

A number of things have changed on the Eamon front since I 
wrote the article. 

Ron Maleika of 3A and John Nelson have been collaborating, 
and have standardized the catalog numbers of the Eamon 
adventures. John Nelson has written more adventures and im- 
proved the Dungeon Designer Disk. The new version includes a 
"Save game" feature and allows the use of abbreviated 
commands. 

3A now carries 33 Eamon Adventures, three Eamon Tour- 
nament Adventures, the Dungeon Designers' Disk. and two utility 
disks. 

Robert Plamondon 

555 SW Jefferson Avenue 

Corvallis, OR 97333 



common years (with the leap day dropped)." 

So in the calendar program the references to 1900 should be 
changed to 1901; then it can generate calendars up from 1901 
through 2099. 

Applesoft evaluates true Boolean expressions as 1, not -1. 
Apple owners will have to change the Julian date algorithm to: 

J - INTMM-l) * 30.42) ♦ <M-2> - <M>2 AND M<8> ♦ <M>2 
AND (INT(Y/4)-Y/4>> + D 

Dan Meilander 

4384 Wolff Drive 

Brunswick, OH 44212 



Gregorian Can't 



Dear Editor: 

There are two errors in Daniel Smith's article, "Using Step 
Functions in Microsoft Basic" (November 1982). but they don't 
detract from the cleverness or usefulness of his Julian date 
algorithm. The errors are as follows: 

The year 1900 was not a leap year and 2000 will be. According 
to "The Gregorian Calendar" by Gordon Moyer in the May 1982 
issue of Scientific American, pages 150-151, "The plan that 
forms the basis of the Gregorian civil calendar was devised 
by...Aloisius Lilius... The intercalation Lilius proposed in the 
Compendium was simple: The suppression of three leap days in 
centurial years not perfectly divisible by 400. The Gregorian 
intercalation therefore follows the Julian system with the single 
exception that centurial years such as 1700, 1800 and 1900, 
which would have been leap years in the Julian calendar, became 





SORRY BOYS, BUT THAT'S NOT QUITE WHAT I 
MAS LOOKING FOR IN THE WAY OF DIGITIZING. 










>5 




III I B^ 


Of : 




111 




llniiiiilllll I^^^MIIIH 





IBM Squiral 



Dear Editor: 

Regarding the article "Why We Really Buy Creative 
Computing" in the January issue of Creative Computing, I am 
enclosing a listing of the SQUIRAL routine for the IBM Personal 
Computer. It is very similar to the TRS-80 Color version because 
the languages are in Microsoft Basic. However, my listing con- 
tains the missing line to increment the DISTANCE variable! 

LISTING OF PC VERSION-SQUIRM. 

iO CO, {KEY Of'F I SCREEN 1 I WIDTH 40 : COLOR Of 7 

20 PRINT ' BAbIC SUUIRAl FOR TriE IBM PC ' : PRINT 

30 INPUT "ENTER DISTANCE — > ",D 

4u INPUT "L ; NTER ANCLE --> "»ANG 

50 INPUT 'ENTER INCREMENT --> M 

60 Pi = 3.14159 i W = PI/180 : SCALE, FACT0R=2 

70 'CLS 5 WIDTH 40 ! COLOR 0»ANGLE MOD 2 

75 CLS : WIDTH 80 'HIGH RES VERSION 

so ' * = 160 : y = ioo : a = ang 

Jfi X = 320 : Y - 100 5 A = AHC 'HIGH RES VERSION 

90 XN = X + D*C05(W«A)*SCALE. FACTOR 

100 YN = Y t D*3IN(W*A) 

110 'LINE (X>YHXN»YN),D HOD 3 

US LINE (XiYMXfoYN) 'HIGH R'ES VERSION 

120 D = D t I 

130 IF D.-200 TinEN 1/0 

140 A = A + Afffi 

150 SWAP X»XN : SWAP Y,YN 

loO GOTO 90 

1/0 Ai = INKEY* 5 IF A*<>" THEN RUN 

180 GOTO 170 

The high resolution version is B & W but looks quite nice on a 
television monitor. The colors, if desired, of the line and the 
background are selected using the MOD function. The SCALE. 
FACTOR variable helps to make the squirals more distinct. 

I hope others take up the challenge. Keep up your excellent 
efforts in publishing the best microcomputing- magazine in the 
field. 

Thomas R. Hockswender 

3173 Meadowridge Ct. 

Gibsonia. PA 15044 



May 1 983 ' Creative Computing 



TRUNKS FOR THE 




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of disks): The Trunk. 

With its alphabetized library index, you can 
file or retrieve up to 60 disks, instantly. 

The Trunk is made of durable molded 
plastic with a hinged, one-piece lid, to keep 
disks safe from dust, dirt, and other detriments 
which disks despise. 



And, it's portable. Because the lid doubles 
as a carrying handle so your Elephant Memory 
Systems® disks can go anywhere you do. 

There's a model for 5V<f and 8" floppies, as 
well as a cassette -and-game file and a special 
Atari® version. 

So if you're looking for the best disk storage 
system on the market . . . 

The Trunk is an open-and-shut case. 



THE TRUNK. ENDORSED DY ELEPHANTS. 

Elephant Memory Systems* Disks 

A full line of top-quality floppies, in virtually every 5'// and 8" model, for compatibility with virtually every computer on the market. 
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12 million passes lor over a life-time of heavy-duty use). 

Marketed exclusively by Leading Edge Products. Inc.. 225 Turnpike Street. Canton. Massachusetts 02021. 
Call: toll-free 1-800-343-6833: or in Massachusetts call collect 1617) 828-8150. Telex 951-624. 

CIRCLE 193 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



tput . . . input /output . . . inpu 



Too Many Backspaces? 

Dear Editor: 

The article input Without Carriage Return/Line Feed" by 
Tom Disque on page 334 in the December 1982 issue of Creative 
Computing was very helpful to me as I had just encountered the 
same problem in a program I was writing. I immediately tested 
the code for its possible use in my program. During this testing I 
found one important error/omission which needed correcting 
and two cosmetic improvements which I felt should be passed 
along to anyone else who plans to employ Mr. Disque 's code. 
These modifications are shown in the revised code of Listing 1 . 

The error is related to the handling of backspace characters 
(code 8) in line 10020 of the original code. A problem will arise if 
the first character entered is a backspace or if more backspaces 
than other characters are entered (i.e.. the input is erased). In 
this case A$ is a null string. When the MID$ function attempts to 
remove the last character from A$ the length function LEN( A$)- 
1 returns a -1 value which generates an "Illegal Function Call" 
error. To correct this problem, a test on AS must be performed 
in addition to the test for X=8. This was added by removing all 
of line 10027 to make the required check and skip the MIDS 
function when AS is null. 



arrow entry for an erase line command. This is handled by a new 
line 10023 which identifies the entry (code 24) and then issues a 
string of backspaces long enough to erase all of the characters 
printed by the routine. When this is done the routine will start 
over again. 

Despite the high values of the line numbers shown in this 
code, it should be located as early as is possible in the program 
so as to minimize the time between executions of the INKEYS 
function. Even if this is done, the input controlled by this code 
will be slower than that of an INPUT statement and even a 
moderate typing speed could cause it to drop some characters. 

As a final note I believe a quick clarification is in order 
regarding Mr. Disque's comment about testing for control codes 
of 10 through 13 as a carriage return. The Reference Manual 
lists both 10 and 13 as "line feed/carriage return" with 1 1 and 12 
as "top of form (with line printers)". A simple test program (see 
Listing 2) will show the code values of the possible inputs from 
the keyboard. A code of 10 is produced by the down arrow key 

Listing 2. 10 A*= n " 

20 PRINT "?»j 

JO Afc"INKE£» 

U0 IF A*« M " THEN 30 

50 PRINT "-"j t&i »- "; j*SC(Afc) 

60 PRINT 

70 GOTO 10 



Listing I. 
10000 Afce"": 



PRINT "? "j CHR*(95)j 



10010 B**INKKXS» IF B$-" n THEN 1C010 ELSE X*ASC(B*) 
10020 IF X 9 *ND X li* FRIiiT CHH*(8)ji RETURN 
10023 IF X=2l| PRINT S'rRIN(Jij(ifcN(A«,)+3,-HR*(8))j t JOTU 10000 
10027 IF X 8 THEN A&5A*+B$ KLSF, IF A*-"" THEN 10010 ELBE 

A*-MU*U»,1,EEN(A$)_1) 
10030 PRINT UiRv(8); B*j CHRv(95)}« ^>T0 10010 

The first cosmetic improvement causes the routine to resemble 
the standard INPUT statement in operation. To do this, a 
question mark, blank and underline (code 95 for a cursor) are 
printed by line 10000 at the point where input is to begin. When 
the entered character is printed in line 10030 it is preceded by a 
backspace/erase (code 8) to erase the previous cursor and it is 
followed by a new cursor character. Finally, when the carriage 
return is found by line 10020, a backspace must be printed to 
remove the last cursor after the end of the input. 

The second cosmetic improvement implements the shift-back 




and actually represents only a line feed. A code of 13 is produced 
by the Return key and represents only a carriage return. Con- 
fusion over the exact functions of these control codes is very 
easy due to the lack of consistent correspondence between the 
TRS-80 control codes and the ASCII control codes and due to 
the minimal explanations in the manual. The test of X between 9 
and 14 is valid, however, since I have found no way to produce 
the 1 1 or 12 codes from an unmodified keyboard. 

David H. Ternes 

695 Kennedy Dr. 

Bloomfield, IN 47424 



Zapping SuperScripsit 

Dear Editor: 

In his review of SuperScripsit in your February 1983 issue, 
Dan Robinson comments that SuperScripsit will not function 
with operating systems other than TRSDOS. Apparat, Inc. wishes 
to announce that we have zaps available to let SuperScripsit 
operate under Newdos/80 Version 2.0 for the Model I and 
Model III TRS-80. We have sent these zaps to Dan Robinson 
since he submitted his review to Creative Computing. 

In addition, Apparat now offers a printer driver to allow the 
use of SuperScripsit with the Epson printers that have the 
Graftrax-Plus ROM installed. This includes both the Epson MX- 
80 and MX-100. It is available on disk for $17.95 for both the 
Model I and Model III TRS-80. 

Brian L. Uitti 

Assistant Manager, 

Software Research & Development 

Apparat Incorporated 

4401 South Tamarac Parkway 

Denver, CO 80237 



10 



May 1 983 * Creative Computing 



With ASCOM 







personal coi 



puter communication 
never been this easy. 



That's why Big 8 accounting firms and 
Fortune 500 companies use ASCOM. 

ASCOM is an interactive microcom- 
puter telecommunications program for 
timesharing and data transfers. It is 
easy to use because it employs menus, 
simple commands and features an on- 
line help facility 

A typical use of ASCOM is to access 
a data base to retrieve data for storage 
and analysis on your microcomputer. It 
can also be used to transmit program 
files to another machine running 
ASCOM. This can be done locally 
tfrough direct connection, or over 
telephone lines by using a modem 

ASCOM works on IBM PC. MS-DOS. 
CP/M-86. and CP/M-80 compatible 



WESTICO 

25 Van Zant Street • Norwalk. CT 06855 
(203) 853-6880 • Telex 643-788 

Dial up our 24-Hour Computer Hotline for 
300 baud modems: (203) 853-0816 

Please send me an ASCOM program & 
documentation: $175.00 * 
The ASCOM documentation only: $30.00 * 
FREE: Catalog ot over 250 available programs. 

C.O.D. Visa MasterCard 



Card No 

Model of Micro _ 



Name 
Company 
Address 
City 



_Exp._ 



_5'/4" 8" 



Tel: 



St. 



Zip 



('Plus $3.00 shipping and handling in N. America. Ct. 
residents add 7Vi% sales tax.) 

ASCOM is a trademark of Dynamic Microprocessor 

Associates. CP/M is a trademark ol Digital Research 

Copyright 1963 Weatlco. Inc WA + J 



ASCOM features: 

.Works with modems or by direct con- 
nection at speeds from 110 to 19.200 
baud. 

• Transfers both text and program files 
between computers. 

. Protocols to synchronize large file 

transfers. 
. Remote mode permits control of 

another micro running ASCOM 

• Automatic processing with com- 
mand files. 

. Commands for displaying directories 
and files. 

To order ASCOM, call or write today: 

WESTICO 



25 Van Zanl Street • N..iu,,lk C 1 1)6855 
(2031 853-6880 • Trlyx 643-788 



Finalb, 

aliens your kids can 

reason with 

instead of destroy 



- 






This yea r, thousands of kids will be 
searching for the most amazing thing. 

At Spinnaker, we don't believe in the 
"kill or be killed" concept behind most 
computer games. In fact we believe 
computer games should be instruc 
tive dot destructive. Butjustas 
importantly, they should be fun 

Thafs why Id SEARCH OF THE MOST 
AMAZIHG THIHG "is designed to let your 
kids negotiate with aliens instead of destroy- 
ing them. Because given the opportunity, 
kids enjoy using their minds. 
If s Amazingly Fun. 

The Most Amazing Thing is out there 
somewhere. Finding it won't be easy. 

But relax, your kids will have the 
I help of their old uncle Smoke Bailey. 
He'll give them a B-liner (sort of a 
cross between a hot air balloon 
r* and a dune buggy) to use on their 
journey. They'll have to learn how to 
fly the B-liner and navigate it through 
storms and fog. But before they do 
anything your kids will have to talk to Old 
Smoke. He'll tell them about the Mire People 
and the strange language that they speak. He'll 
also tell them to avoid the dangerous Mire 
Crabs and how to get fuel for the B-llner 

Your kids will visit the Metallican Auction 
where they'll trade with the aliens for valuable 
chips. Your kids will then use these chips to buy 
things they'll need for their trip. And your kids 
will learn how to fly over the planet usinq their 
jet pack. 

The Most Amazing Thing 
holds great powers, but it will 
take great skill, persistence 
and imagination to find it. 
Ifs Amazingly Educational. 
Id SEARCH OF THE MOST 
AMAZIHG THIHG is written by 
Tom Snyder, educator and 
author of the best-selling 
Snooper Troops'" Detective 
5eries. 

And like all 5pinnaker games IH 
SEARCH OF THE M05T AMAZIHG THIHG has real 
educational value. For Instance, your kids will 
sharpen their ability to estimate distances and 



B 



quantities. And since they'll be navi- 
gating their B-liner, they'll become aware 
of distance, direction and time. They'll also 
develop a knack for economic and monetary 
principles through trading with the aliens 
And they'll solve problems throuqh trial 
and error. 

They'll learn all of these things, plus they'll 
learn that nothing is impossible if you put your 
mind to it y 

A Mowel Approach to Computer Games 
■m «*o5 5 offerin 9 y° ur children all of the above 
IH SEARCH OF THE MOST AMAZIHG THIHG gives 
them an opportunity to develop their readlnq 
skills. Because included with the game is Jim 
Morrow's new novel The Adventures of Smoke 
Bailey. ' So your children will have hours of fun 
reading the book or playing the game. And 
they'll be learning at the same time. 
Parental Discretion Advised. 

If you're a parent who would rather see your 
kids reason with aliens than destroy them 
you've got plenty of reasons to 
ask your local software retailer 
for IH SEARCH OF THE MOST 
AMAZIHG THIHG. It's compatible 
with Apple," IBM/ Atari," and 
Commodore 64'" computers. 
And it offers so much fun you'll 
probably be tempted to play it yourself. ' 
Or you can write us directly at: 
5pinnaker Software, 215 First 5treet 
Cambridge, MA 02142. 

You'll find this is one computer game that 
won't alienate you from your 
children. 






■ -K*_'< 



"-_^^^^W 



e Copyright 1985 

lorn Vtydef Productions raT 

An nght» rnefveo 



SPf/WMKm 



We make learning fun. 



T^^'Z^^IIZZZ^^'™*^^''™™™™^ ««-* 



"*"'"* Co""™*"* 64 o a trademark or Commode** t«KBor.K5 Umrtw 



iw. . . itatettne;tctncppow 




David H. Ahl 



TI Controlling software Distribution for 99/4A 



Program cartridge. *>r the 99/4A -^^t^rn^ea.^^^r^I^^.T.r^^^i 
TI cartridges have a GROM even though it is not always neea 
so that cartridges without GROMs won t **>**• „ th< . rs hence those who wish to publish TI 

TI will'not license the GROM technology to others, h.nc^ ^ cartridg „. In turn , TI 

cartridge software must now give TI the rignts 

will pay authors a royalty. . „„_ M _. llv giving 99/4As away (street price $14*> so 

^The reason for this is that TI "P r ^* l ""^e V i^ eha ..d later. So far. Milton- 
they must make their money from P«"P hera >" * n * °°^ W " develop TI cartridges, however, most 
Bradley. Scott Foresman. and Walt Disney ^f^ts'to develop TI software. Imagic Activision. 
^£n^?^^/2irSir^ k n^ y c:S^.S on c^.. «>«.« than TI. Too had. 

ROMs. PROMs. GROMs. EPROMs , and now EEPROMs 

,„„... *..« of ~- «J, -or, «?>:^«l ^ ££ £ JSTv^n.S T ' 

proo.bl, won't M in yoor n.»t =»»"'« •°;r«L" , «™ r.I?o. It i. ««> for holding 

P r.r;nrp C Jior^"in b :i~r,o»^^ 

reprogrammed on the fly to deal with new planes. 

In the Education Arena 

A recent article in the London Time, "°-d that Britain is the first country^ have ^ 
provided almost every secondary school in the country with | c m ^^ co "^ ram . Acc0 rding to 
Sonth.. over 5830 schools tooH advantage of ^he Micros in SchO Qoi ^og^ ^ cQinputer 

Kenneth Baker. Industry Minister of state f *""* ,," ach ieve this." 

facility and we are the first country in the world to achieve «» comp uter conferencing. 

Closer to home. New Jersey Institute of Technology, a leader n~P terminal, 
is offering 16 seminars that can he taken via a personal ^Leader sh^l^es. Vie Basic and 
C X 8 »owTo e It:rr a e sm a ai g i%^ine.s? 8 M:tnem ^^J^^ i^^X ^'^ 
5SSSlS l 3»- - 2 S s^s.^oth ^IK'n^-S. can he located anyplace in 

the U.S. __» n r > nationwide computer conferencing system 

Each terminal on the system becomes part of a J"** ?"*" co ^ rtlcipant . a t any time that 

ffisas.-ffansrsKss anrtissas s- " ess, ™~«. . h— . 

in computer conferencing. deliver at least as much material as 

Each seminar runs for three months, and each will de ^" ° f aeltlinar8 will start each 
would be given in four full days of ?»«,•-£- fac« ^^^^^"Dept! of Continuing Education at 
spring, summer, and fall. For more information, call the iwn uept 
(201) 645-5235. 

April Foolishness Haunts Us Too 

chuckles. . ,. h •..„.„ illustration" on the top of page 

On the other hand, we were startled to ^ tl, 'lowing "Sammy, the Sea Serpent." a 
100 instead of the lovely colored one we expected to see Rowing Sammy^ t Ve .^ catc y, that 
delightful program in the PDI Preschool Library. Sorry, readers, oorty. 
April gremlin yet. 

And Some News Notes 

SpectraVideo. who have barely startec .to deliver thei, : nifty ^^comput^. ^av^ 

alreadv announced an upgraded version, the SV-3^U. flavor cnai.yc» 

a^numer™ keyboard compared with 32K and an ^P*- "^*^? [ d p °ice of "fig. The unit has 

NEC began shipping their new ^-6000 computer at a retail price , peripherals. 
16K. 71-key keyboard, three channels of sound. co n or ^"P^ C8 ' -Kages We hope they're 
NEC Ltd. (Japan) is also supplying 30 entertainment software packages, we nop 

translated. c ,. _.„,... ,v,i«» nrmnuter with full-size 

T.ndy .111 .oon .nnounc. « J«p.n..«-m.a«. 5-lb. P°"£J« ^^"Jt-tn «ord proc.lng 

SS£ ^:„"o^n^i.t l :i" , ort;:iioi. o/f. .oE.-r^rfri,,. ^ «. — — 

version of the NEC PC-8201. Expected price, around S70B. 



14 



May 1983 < Creative Computing 



■■••••■; ! 






■IIIIIM 










— ■ — ~~ 








-•Si! Hii" 



tfS*** 



MAROONED! 

And youre the quarry 
for the Questers! 



You're marooned in a derelict 
space station trapped between the 
stars. Waiting for rescue. 

But, you may never make it. The 
deadly space Questers have located 
you and are ready to attack. Your 
first line of defense is to close the 
space ports on A Deck before you're 
overrun, then use the Teleportation 
chamber to head them off on the 
other decks. 

As you navigate the lonely corri- 
dors . . . turning here, hiding there, 
attacking or retreating, the swarms 
of Questers get faster and smarter! 

There's no other game like Spec- 
tre. Deck after deck, you'll find the 
most challenging and original 3-D 
maze action ever! 



^^m 



Get SPECTRE now. only S29.95 for 
the Apple II* at your computer store. 

<!D DATAMOS 

8943 Fullbright Ave.. 

Chatsworth. CA 91311 (213) 709-1202 

CIRCLE 301 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



^T 



\, 



t_ 





VISA MASTERCARD accepted S2 00 shipping handling 
charge (Calitornia residents .idd 6 s.iles la») 
Apple II is a trademark ol Apple Compul. I 



Panasonic 



creative 
computing 
equipment 
evaluation 




David H. Ahl 



The Panasonic JR-200 personal com- 
puter from Matsushita has been several 
years in the making. We have seen ver- 
sions of it at the last two Consumer Elec- 
tronic Shows. Now. it is finally being 
released; it was worth the wait. 

Handsome Styling 

Outwardly, the JR-200 has modern, 
pleasing styling. The case measures 13.5" 
x 8.0" and slants from a height of 1" in the 
front to 2" in the rear. Made of plastic 
and finished in silver and matte black in 
the keyboard area, the case is rugged and 
durable. We carried it in a fabric tote bag 
from Las Vegas to Morristown to Phoenix 
to Orlando and back to Morristown with 
no ill effects. 

The power switch is recessed on the 
left side of the case; a red power on 
indicator is on the top right. The power 
cord is permanently attached at the right 
rear. In contrast to several other small 
computers, the transformer and power 
supply are completely self-contained. Also 



on the rear of the case are six connectors 
of various sorts. 

Connectors and Switches 

Two connectors are provided for the 
video display. An eight-pin D.I.N, con- 
nector attaches to a cable (included) 
which goes to an NTSC composite video 
or RGB monitor. An RCA jack provides 
an RF signal on channel 3 or 4. Interest- 
ingly, this signal is provided at a 75-ohm 
impendence and the supplied 6-foot cable 
has a quick disconnect F Connector at 
the TV end. Most current TV sets have a 
75-ohm F-type input; on such sets the JR- 
200 produces a crisp, clear image, almost 
of monitor quality. For some strange rea- 
son this image deteriorates noticeably if 
this output is routed through a 75 to 300- 
ohm transformer and fed into standard 
antenna terminals. This seemed odd so 
we tried it on five different make TV sets 
with the same result— outstanding with a 
75-ohm F input, mediocre with a trans- 
former. 



16 



Another RCA jack provides 8-ohm 
audio output to an external speaker. Next 
to it is a volume control which controls 
both the volume of the external and 1- 
1/2" internal speakers. Audio power is 
more than adequate; people in the rear 
of a 100-seat conference room had no 
trouble hearing the internal speaker dur- 
ing a demonstration. While JR-200 is the- 
oretically capable of producing tones in 
the range of to 65535 Hz, only dogs will 
be interested in sounds in the upper three 
or four octaves. Realistically, the usable 
sound range is about five octaves, an 
impressive achievement in a computer of 
this size. 

A second 8-pin D.I.N, connector is for 
a cable (included) to a tape recorder. 
The cable has three jacks for input (ear- 
phone), output (microphone), and motor 
control. A DIP switch on the bottom of 
the case selects either 600 or 2400 bps. 
We were pleased to find that the JR-200 
performed reliably at 2400 bps on modest 
quality ($ 19-529) recorders over a reason- 
May 1 983 ' Creative Computing 



HOT STUFF 




You'll find it wherever computergamers 
go to score the latest and greatest in 
entertainment software. 

The HOT RACK. It's where the 
"hot" ones are. 

You'll find games that'll grab you, 
thrill you, and hurl you to worlds you 
never dreamed were possible. Best- 



sellers like CHOPLIFTER. CASTLE 
WOLFENSTEIN. AZTEC. STAR- 
BLAZER . . . and many, many more. 
So, stop wasting your time and 
money on games that could leave you 
cold. Look for the HOT RACK at your 
local computer store. 

If you don't see it, ask for it. 



Dealer inquiries invited. 
Dealers only, call 800 432-3129 (Inside California) or 800 854-6801 (Outside California). 

Another marketing first from MICRO D. 



CIRCLE 211 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Panasonic JR-200, continued... 



EHSiriEr. 

£3Sm fCSSJ^ pE20( pSH| C3H« P23B 



Separate cursor corKro/ keys make on-screen editing a joy. 



ground and background use: blue, red, 
magenta, green, cyan, yellow, white, and 
black. 

Sound 

The JR-200 is capable of producing 
sounds ranging from simple to complex. 
The simplest way of getting a sound is 
with BEEP 1 which turns on the beeper 
(880 Hz or A above the middle octave). It 
stays on until a BEEP is encountered 
which turns it off. 

One step above BEEP is SOUND (P,L) 
in which P is the pitch in Hertz (0 to 
65535) and L is the length of the tone in 
milliseconds (0 to 255). This is very easy 
to use in a program. 

More complicated are the PLAY and 
TEMPO commands which permit playing 
tunes with up to three parts over a 5- 
octave range at any imaginable tempo. 
Notes are stored in memory and may be 
played either in foreground (pauses pro- 
gram) or background (program continues) 
mode. 

JR-200 Bask 

As you may have surmised by now, JR- 
Basic is not Microsoft Basic, but it is not 
far away either. Most of the commands, 
statements, and functions are identical or 
very similar. Rather than going through 
JR-Basic in detail, we will simply highlight 
some of the more interesting and novel 
features. 

As expected, JR-Basic has immediate 
mode and will execute most Basic com- 
mands directly from the keyboard singly 
or in groups (separated with a colon) as 
long as the maximum line length of 80 
characters is not exceeded. 

When the JR-200 is fired up, a copyright 
notice appears along with the number of 
free bytes. In all configurations, 2052 
bytes are reserved for the Basic work 



area and the remaining RAM is available 
to the user. We used a 32K machine and 
thus had 30,716 bytes free. User memory 
can be expanded to 40K. Basic occupies 
16K of ROM while video RAM, I/O and 
the built-in character set occupy another 

6K plus. 

A requirement of JR-Basic is that Basic 
keywords be separated by at least one 
space or a colon or semi-colon from other 
characters. While this requirement is 
imposed by the internal interpreter, it also 
enhances the readability of finished pro- 
grams. 

Numeric values can range from 2.9 " 
to 1.06" and are stored and displayed 
with nine digits of accuracy. Don't ask 
me how. Both numeric and string variable 
arrays can have one or two dimensions. 
Unfortunately variable names are 
restricted to two letters or a letter and a 
number. 

All the standard operators are avail- 
able: arithmetic, relational, logical and 
string concatenation. As expected, LET 
is optional. 

Although the RENUM (renumber) 
command is listed in the manual, it stead- 
fastly refused to work on the JR-200 we 
tested. 

RUN performs its usual function but 
can also be imbedded within a program 
to run another program or to run the 
existing program from any specified line 
number, e.g., RUN 480. When used with 
a filename (RUN "Border"), it will load 
the program from cassette tape and then 
run it. 

The functions HPOS and VPOS return 
the current horizontal and vertical posi- 
tion of the cursor respectively. PEEK lets 
you examine any memory location; its 
counterpart, POKE lets you put a value 
into a location. An unusual function is 
VARPTR which returns the memory loca- 

18 



tion where a particular variable is stored. 

Oil-Screen Editing „,--», , ,. 

A delightful feature of the JR-200 is full 
on-screen editing. To correct a mistake 
or make a change you simply list the line 
or group of lines to be changed, and use 
the four directional keys at the right of 
the keyboard to move the cursor to the 
character to be changed. At this point 
you can type the change or use the insert, 
delete or rub out keys to make changes. 
You then move the cursor to the end of 
the line and type RETURN. Whoosh; the 
change is made. 

The only time we ran into trouble was 
when a change extended a line so that it 
overlapped the next line down. If you are 
not careful in a case like this, you can 
wipe out both lines. The solution? Don't 
press RETURN. Unless program lines are 
short, the best bet is just to list one at a 
time for editing or use the LINE INSERT 
key to open up a new line after the one 
being edited. 

Another handy editing feature is the 
FIND command. It will search for a string 
of characters and list the line(s) with that 
combination of characters. For example, 
FIND "FO" would list all the FOR state- 
ments in a program plus lines containing 
any words with FO (in caps) in them. 
LFIND performs the same function but 
lists the lines on the printer. 



Tape Handling and Files 

Programs are loaded with either LOAD 
or LOAD "Filename." A program must 
be saved with a filename specified. 

Files or other material may also be 
saved and loaded directly from and to 
memory with the commands MSAVE and 
MLOAD. 

A very handy feature is the ability to 
load one program at the end of another. 
This is done using the MERGE command. 
Of course, if the programs use the same 
line numbers, only the most recently 
loaded one will survive. 

Another handy command is VERIFY 
which checks to see if a program in mem- 
ory and on cassette rape match. 

Files of data (not programs) may be 
stored sequentially on cassette tape using 
the PRINT ft command, and read back 
with the INPUT ft command. While 
sequential tape files are not nearly as 
handy as random access disk files, the 
2400 bps I/O speed is quite tolerable and 
such files are probably suitable for lists of 
names and addresses, items in a collec- 
tion, and the like. 

Printed Output 

We did not have a printer with our JR- 
200, hence, we can only note that the 
manual lists five printer commands. Two 
are the expected LPRINT and LLIST. A 
third, HCOPY, generates a copy of the 

May 1 983 » Creative Computing 





















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Panasonic JR-200, continued. 




able range of volume settings on standard 
tape. This is in sharp contrast to many 
other computers which require precise 
volume and tone settings on a high quality 
recorder using premium tape. 

Two other connectors on the rear of 
the JR-200 connect to a printer and exter- 
nal bus. Via this bus, the JR-200 has a 
serial RS-232C port which may be set up 
for half or full duplex, 7- or 8-bit words, 
and odd, even, or no parity. JR-Basic does 
not use the standard format for RS-232C 
communications. Although data may be 
transmitted by using the OPEN-INPUT^/ 
PRINT#-CLOSE statements, the user 
must develop a routine that will send or 
receive data on the end of the line. JR- 
Basic does not have EOF (end of file) 
when using RS-232C communications. 

User-Friendly Keyboard 

The keyboard has 63 "Chiclet" style 
rubberized keys in standard typewriter 
layout. The keys are 1/2" square and the 
spacing is identical to a standard key- 
board. A full-width (5") spacebar is pro- 
vided along with two double-width shift 
keys and a double-height return key. All 
the keys are in the expected places. 

The standard alphanumeric and symbol 
keys are all matte finished in dark gray, 
function keys (shift, return, cursor move- 
ment, etc.) are blue, and the control and 
break keys are white. 

Each of the gray keys can produce five 



inputs: an upper- and lowercase letter (or 
number and symbol), two graphics char- 
acters, and a Basic keyword. Two keys, 
ALPHA and GRAPH, are used to switch 
back and forth between character and 
graphics modes. Holding down the CON- 
TROL key while pressing a gray key pro- 
duces a Basic keyword. 

In total, the JR-200 has 253 built-in 
characters: % English letters, numbers 
and symbols; 5 Greek letters; 63 graphics 
characters; 79 Katakana (Japanese) sym- 
bols; and 10 music and other symbols. All 



told, this is an exceptionally rich character 
set, right down to the inclusion of a happy 
face and stick figure man. All the symbols 
are formed within an 8 x 8 matrix of 
pixels. 

According to the specifications, it is 
possible to define your own characters. 
However, the preliminary documentation 
we had did not describe how to do this so 
we couldn't try it out. 

Although the keys do not provide any 
tactile feedback, each keystroke is accom- 
panied by a beep. All keys with the excep- 
tion of CONTROL, SHIFT, RETURN 
and BREAK repeat rapidly upon being 
held down for about two seconds. 

Screen Display 

The screen display is 32 characters by 
24 lines. Each of the 768 locations can be 
individually addressed with the LOCATE 
(x.y) command. As mentioned earlier, 
each symbol and character is formed by 
lighting pixels within an 8 x 8 matrix, 
hence by using the correct combination 
of graphics characters, it is possible to 
achieve very high resolution images, up 
to 256 x 192 if you are clever. 

Medium resolution (64 x 48) is much 
more easily achieved by use of the PLOT 
(x.y) command which permits direct 
addressing of one-quarter of each char- 
acter. 

PLOT would normally be used in con- 
junction with COLOR which allows selec- 
tion of character color, background color 
and display mode. Four display modes 
are available: normal, user-defined char- 
acters, inverse color of previous char- 
acters, and alter background color for 
positions following the cursor. When we 
got the hang of it, we found the COLOR 
command very powerful for producing 
interesting, and occasionally bizarre, 
effects. See Figure 1 . 

Eight colors are available for fore- 



1 REMARKABLE PROGRAM BY Dave 


Ahl 


10 CLS 


Clear screen 


20 RANDOMIZE 




30 IrINT(23»RND(0)) 


Select starting point between 




and 23 for rectangle 


HO COLOR (INT(8»RND(0))) 


Select random color 


50 X2=63-I 


Right edge of rectangle 


60 Y2=U7-I 


Bottom edge of rectangle 


70 FOR X=I TO X2 




80 PLOT X,I 


Draws top edge 


90 PLOT X.Y2 


Draws bottom edge 


100 IF X2-X<s16 THEN 130 


Tests if length of vertical 




sides is too long 


110 PLOT I,X 


Draws left side 


120 PLOT X2,X 


Draws right side 


130 NEXT X 




110 GOTO 30 




150 END 





Figure I. Program shows the use of COLOR and PLOT to produce a series of 
different colored concentric borders starting at random points in the upper left 
quarter of the screen. Note the clever way of putting the PLOT statements for all 
four sides in a single FOR loop. 



20 



May 1983 T Creative Computing 



M 





KEDIN 



Pascal 

Basic 

Cobol 

Forth 

Pilot 

Fortran 

Spread Sheet 

Inventory 

Logo 



Data Base Management 

Word Processor 

Communication Utility 

Accounts Receivable 

Accounts Payable 

Engineering Utility 

General Ledger 
Mailing List 
Macro Assembler 
Education 




CP/M 



** 



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CIRCLE 201 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



•TRSDOS is a trademark ol Tandy Corp 
**CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research Corp 

1 Performance is based on bench mark test in the JAN 1982 issue of BYTE magazine, pg 54 with LNW80 II as the comparison 

2 IBM PC is a trademark of IBM CORP 

3 APPLE II is a trademark of APPLE COMPUTERS 

4 TRS80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp International orders please inquire for prong/shipping cost 



Panasonic JR-200, continued- 
video display on the line printer. This 
presumably includes graphics, but we 
can't say for sure. 

The last two commands are TAB which 
tabs over from the left margin and SPC 
which spaces over from the last cursor 
position. 

Joysticks 

The JR-200 has two DB-9 sockets on 
the left of the case which accept standard 
Atari-type joysticks. Values from them 
can be read into programs by means of 
the STICK function. 

Monitor Commands 

The JR-200 allows machine language 
aficionados to get into the monitor and 
the assembly language. 

The monitor has only three commands: 
D. M, and G. D displays 128 bytes of 
memory from the location specified. M 
sequentially lists the memory locations 
from the address specified and allows you 
to alter them. G begins execution of an 
assembly language program from a speci- 
fied address. Memory locations are all in 
hexadecimal. 

Since we had only the scantiest infor- 
mation about these commands and none 
at all about JR-200 assembly language, we 
did not check out this feature. 



Software and Support 

From talking to Robert Zangrillo at 
Winter CES, we know that Panasonic is 
sincere in trying to provide support for 
the JR-200. All the early machines have 
been put in the hands of software devel- 
opers such as Datamost, a smart move for 




The JR-200 is a compact 13-1/2" x 8". 

getting third party software on the mar- 
ket. Also Datamost has produced a ver- 
sion of their book. Kids and the Apple, 
for the JR-200. Likewise, we are in the 
process of producing a volume in our 
ideabook series for the JR-200, The Pana- 
sonic JR-200 Ideabook. 

On the other hand, the preliminary JR- 
Basic manual is tough going, has very few 
programming examples, and could in no 



way be considered user-friendly. We are 
told that the Datamost book will be sup- 
plied with the JR-200 as the Basic pro- 
gramming primer— probably a reasonable 
approach. 

In Summary 

The Panasonic JR-200 is one of the 
nicest new computers to make the scene 
in some time. It is attractively styled, is 
easy to use, and boasts an excellent, if not 
standard, Basic language. The graphics 
are very approachable and although reso- 
lution is not exceptionally high, the char- 
acter set is excellent and allows the crea- 
tion of detailed images. The keyboard is 
among the best of its type and the sepa- 
rate cursor movement keys make on- 
screen editing a joy. 

The JR-200 is cassette tape oriented 
and uses it well for program and data 
storage. We are disappointed that Pana- 
sonic does not seem tD be moving in the 
direction of a low-cost compact floppy 
disk unit. 

Peripherals, documentation, software 
and support are, at this time, question 
marks although Panasonic appears to be 
moving in the right direction on all fronts. 
At the suggested list price of $350, the JR- 
200 is an excellent choice. □ 

CIRCLE 400 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



INTRODUCING 



BALir IBM PC 



In the beginning came the onrush of new computer 
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CIRCLE 284 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



.M 




IS GRIDRUNNER 
UNBEATABLE? 



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your reflexes. of the patterns of the X/Y Zappers 

and the Gridsearch Droids which, 
when destroyed, mutate into 
potentially lethal Pods. 

Gridrunner has 32 levels of diffi- 
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the VIC 20 ver- 
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date, the 13th 
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the highest 
achieved. 




Gridrunner 
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for VIC 20, 
Commodore 
64 and Atari 
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Can you beat 
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and find out. 



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a division of USI 

CIRCLE 191 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







Look what 
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You shouldn't settle for any- 
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By 
Jimmy Huey. 

In a predatory world 
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CIRCLE 289 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



treatiue 
computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



Video Technology VZ200 
Personal Computer 



David H. Ahl 



The Video Technology VZ200 is a 
compact microcomputer with a great 
deal of capability and many unexpected 
features at a very attractive price. 

The VZ200 is based on the 6502 
microprocessor, the same one found in 
the Apple, Commodore, and Atari 
computers. The 12K ROM memory in- 
cludes the monitor and an excellent im- 
plementation of Microsoft Basic. 

The RAM memory included with the 



All the Basic 

commands, keywords, 

and functions can be 

produced with a single 

keystroke. 



basic unit is a sparse 4K. Two plug-in 
expansion modules are available, one 
with 16K. and the other with 64K. These 
modules plug into a slot on the back of 
the computer and extend out about 5.5". 
The computer itself measures 11. 4" x 
6.3" x 2". Two-thirds of the top surface 
is occupied by a keyboard with 45 keys 
in four rows. The keys are "Chiclet" 
style rubber and have a very short 
throw. Touch typing is possible in only a 
rather limited way. Although key spac- 
ing is the same as on a regular type- 
writer, the rubberized keys have a 
different "feel." Much more disastrous 
for touch typing is the fact that there is 
no space bar; instead a space key is 




The VZ200 with 16K RAM memory P<*ck 



found at the right end of the bottom row 
next to the period. This also means that 
there is only one shift key (at the left end 
of the bottom row). Several other keys 
do not have the expected characters; for 
example the question mark is on the L 

key- 

On the brighter side, each key on the 
keyboard provides several functions in 
addition to typing a single letter, num- 
ber, or character. All the Basic com- 
mands, keywords, and functions can be 
produced with a single keystroke by 
holding down a control or shift key 
while the key is pressed. This is very 

26 



impressive. Most other computers which 
type Basic keywords with a single key- 
stroke can produce only as many words 
as there are keys, i.e., one keyword per 
key. Each key on the VZ200, on the 
other hand, produces two Basic 
keywords as well as one or two graphics 
characters. So each key actually has five 
outputs: two Basic keywords, two graph- 
ics symbols, and an alphanumeric 
character. 

When a key is pressed, it makes a 
short "beep" indicating one keystroke. If 
it is held down, it automatically repeats 
with a beep indicating each key entry. 

May 1983 • Creative Computing 




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VZ200, continued... 




Four I/O connectors and two plug-in slots are on the back. 



The top of the computer also has an 
on/off light. An on/off switch is re- 
cessed on the right side of the case. 

Peripherals 

The VZ200 has an interface to a stan- 
dard cassette recorder which operates at 
a Baud rate of 600 bps. This is somewhat 
slower than other new computers which 
have rates up to 2400 bps; nevertheless it 
is twice a fast as machines of just a few 
years ago. A program that fills the entire 
4K of memory with program code takes 
about 54 seconds to load; a 16K pro- 
gram takes four minutes to load. Bear in 
mind, however, that most 16K programs 
do not use 16K of code; much of the 
memory space is taken by dimensioned 
arrays and the like. 

The manufacturer specifications note 
that a peripheral expansion bus is built- 
in, however, we are not quite sure what 
this means. It appears that expansion 
modules, which, presumably, can be 
connected to printers, modems, or other 
external devices, can be plugged into the 
back of the computer. 

The VZ200 produces two forms of 
video output: a video signal for a mon- 
itor and RF output (on channel 33) for a 
TV set. It requires 9 volts DC at 800 ma; 
an AC adapter is included. 

Output from the VZ200 can be in one 
of three modes: text, mixed graphics and 



text, and high-resolution graphics. In 
text mode, the VZ200 produces 16 rows 
of 32 characters (upper case only). 
Characters can be displayed in regular 
or inverse video. 



into four rectangles. Individual rectan- 
gles cannot be addressed. However, 64 
graphics character codes define eight 
characters in eight colors. This gives ev- 
ery combination of the four rectangles in 
each character. These characters are 
called with chr$(128) to chr$(191). 
The eight colors are magenta, red, or- 
ange, buff, yellow, green, cyan, and blue. 
If you count black as a color, there are 
actually nine colors available. 

In high-resolution graphics mode, in- 
dividual pixels can be addressed on a 
128 x 64 grid in each of eight colors. To 
turn on any location, the command set 
(x,y) is used; reset (x,y) turns off any 



10 CLS: PRINT "KALEIDOSCOPE BY 




DAVE AHL": PRINT 




20 X=l: Y»i: XU=126: yu=62: Z = l 




INPUT "ENTER 1,2, OR 3"; I 




40 I=.5*l: J=l 
MODE ( 1 ) 


Set hi-res graphics mode 


60 X = X+I 
V«Y+J 


Compute new x and y 
position 


80 COLOR (RND<8) ) 




90 IF X> = XU OR X< = Z THEN I — I: 
SOUND 30, 1 

100 IF Y> = YU OR YOZ THEN J«-J: 
SOUND 27 , l 


Tests to see if edge of 
screen has been reached. 
If so, reverse direction 
of bounce. 


l 1 SE : < X , Y ) 


Draw new spot 


1 20 BO 1 D 60 





Figure I. Program produces a kaleidoscopic pattern of eight colors on the screen. 
The input parameter changes the incremental amount added to each successive 
horizontal or X position. Each time the leading edge of the pattern hits a border of 
the screen, a beep tone is sounded. 



Graphics 

In mixed mode, text resolution is dou- 
bled to 32 x 64 pixels. This is accom- 
plished by dividing each text character 




28 



pixel; and point (x,y) examines whether 
a pixel is on or off. Figure 1 is a listing of 
a simple program that lets a ball bounce 
around the screen. 

By means of the sound (p.t) com- 
mand, 32 notes or pitches (p) are avail- 
able which can be played over a wide 
range of time intervals (t). 

On-Screen Editing 

Full on-screen editing makes it a plea- 
sure to program on the VZ200. To edit a 
line of code, it is not necessary to invoke 
an edit command or remember a set of 
editing commands as one must do on the 
TRS-80 Color Computer and many oth- 
ers. Instead, on the VZ200, the line to be 
edited is listed, by itself, with the whole 
program or with a group of lines. By us- 
ing the four directional keys on the bot- 
tom right of the keyboard, the cursor is 
moved to the character to be changed. 
You type the change, move the cursor to 
the end of the line (remember, a key re- 
peats by holding it down), and type re- 
turn. Voila! The change is made. 
On-screen editing can also use the de- 

May 1 983 * Creative Computing 



For Heroes Only! 



i 




Critical Mass 

On Jan 1st at 10 00 am, 
the U.N. received this 
message: Good Morning 
m exactly 9 days, the 
world s 5 largest cities will 
be destroyed by thermal 
nuclear weapons At 
10:03 am, you received 
this assignment: STOP 
THIS . . LUNATIC! 

Avail on disk tor the Apple II. 
II t or lie and Alan 800 or 
1200 and Commodore 64. 



The planet Lexicon is 

under attack* Letters ot 

the alphabet are falling 

from the sky To repel 

them, you must be able to 

type the letters faster than 

they can fall. Be quick! 

An entire civilization is 

depending on your skill. 

Avail on disk lor the Apple II, 

II* or lie and Atari 800 or 

1200. IBM-PC and 

Commodore 64 and on 

cartridge lor the VIC-20 



The boldest space rescue 
ever! Defenseless Twerps 
are stranded on an aste- 
roid You. Captain Twerp, 
are to board a Twerp- 
craft, blast through the 
Orbiters. land safely and 
rescue your comrades. 
Beware of the Glingas 
and Twerp-eating 
Gleepnites! 

Avail on disk lor the Apple II 
» • or lie and Atari 800 or 1200 



Pure Video Excitement! 

For Your Atari 800 or 1200, Apple II, II + or || e 
Commodore 64, VIC-20 and IBM-PC 

^AT?£3£Z££?£ Cr,,*:,, Ma.„r. .edema*, o, 
AM rights reserved Ap£e7 ^, a^eT^TTf C * 9M27 ,9 ' 6 ' ^ «*■ 

ix^zz^tzz^^™ "* ,bmpc • a 



CIRCLE 266 ON READER SERVICE CARD 








VZ200, continued... 
ieti INSERT, and rubout keys. 

with on-screen editing. First. ^cuM 

directional kevs arc activated by press 

ffi directional keys on the nght. It w» 
aUtooeasy to hit the shift key insteadd 

Se "on.ro! key. but this is probably 
something that one gets used to after us- 
ing the computer for a few days. The 
other problem was that after a while the 
etftinjbuffcr seems to overflow and Mo- 
ther editing is not accepted. Admitted y . 
we were trying to push 'he computer 
over the brink and it is unlikely that this 
will be a problem in normal use. 



~r«nt nlain 1 1ST. If you have a long pro- 
1 "m n the computer and have to. turn it 
f,ff because,, hangs up as we dtdfour^ 

five times, you are forgiven if you be 
come a bit surly toward the machine. 



ATN l 

T0 NEXT BtTURN 



<AL I 

STEP 



R 


LEN I 

DIM 


LEFT St 

GOSUB 


D 


F 


w 





DE F FN RESTORE 



jS^^s^veralSfrom ",* U, prices seven* ou, P u, 
which there was no way to recover short 
of turning the computer off. Even 
break (the equivalent of reset on some 

other machines) faded to return con.ro 
of .he computer to the user. The most 
common irrecoverable condition was 
nisi This would normally list a pro- 
gram on the line printer. However, if no 
line printer is attached, the computer 
hangs. This is particularly bad because 
the rubberized keys tend to bounce a b, 
and it is very easy to type llisi instead 



The surest cure is to use Control/4 to 
list ' -program. After a while, we learned 

,0 S?he h r things that would hang the ma- 
chine are all in the same famdy. m 

particular, trying to use a peripheral de- 
Kerta. is no, attached. In some cases 
the VZ200 gave an error message, but in 
some others it wen, into never-never 

a Ve did not have an opportunity to try 



anv of the peripherals. The printer inter- 
t2c loduE.1 mentioned ear, er plugs 

SJ« P-..;. signal. The Vuleo 
Technology printer appears to m. a 
IShaunit^htch we have prints y 

found to be a satisfactory, cost effective 

^ video Technology also promises a full 
line of software, however, we will re- 
serve judgment on it until we actually 
see some of the packages in operation. 

SU A.Tm-,.l. the Video Technology folks 
in Hong Kong have done an excellent 
lib producing" a versatile srna. com- 
puter. We are impressed With the ex 
client implementation of M.croso . 
Basic, full on-screen editing, repeat keys 
and easy-to-use graphics features. The 
idiosyncrasies were a b„ annoying, bu 

owners will get used to them and will 
probably no, notice them after a week or 

,W0 Of operation. Bottom line: he 
VZ200 is a grea, value for the suggested 
price of under $100. 
P Video Technology (U.S.) i Inc., 2633 
Greenleaf. Elk Grove Village, IL 

CIRCLE 401 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




T* 



How to Choose ,tte Best„Moton grYwr 




* ol Apple Cotpcalioo 



count the Yes-es. SSM s 

Apple ModemCard. the most 
advanced features for the least 
money No external equipment 
required All other modems are 
now obsolete. 

And with SSM's Transend soft- 
ware, your Apple can send 
electronic mail or talk to other 
computers or information ser- 
vices such as the Source and 
Dow Jones News/Retrieval*. (The 
ModemCard is also compatible 
with software for the Micro- 

'^The'sSM ModemCard: The only 
choice for choosy Apple owners 
Available from your local compu- 
ter dealer Satisfaction is guaran- 
teed Or your mon ey bac k 

SSM Microcomputer Products inc. 

2190 Paragon Drive, San Jose. 

CA 95131 (408) 946-7400. 

Telex 171171 SSM SNJ 







CIRCLE 276 ON READER SERVICE CARD 










V 



The game that puts space games in 
perspective. Zaxxon ", one of the most 
popular arcade games of 1 982. is now avail- 
able for use with your home computer 
system 

Zaxxon " technology and creativity present 
a 3-dimensional-like playfield which sets 
Zaxxon " apart from other computer games. 

Zaxxon " looks and sounds like aircraft 
flight, and players can soar to new levels of 



home computer entertainment. From the 
daring attack on the enemy's floating for- 
tress and the blazing battle against the en- 
emy's fighter fleet to the final showdown with 
the deadly armored robot. Zaxxon " chal- 
lenges the skill and imagination of every 
player at every level of skill 

Imagine yourself the pilot, attacking the 
enemy fortress-climbing, diving, strafing to 
score points and extra fuel The enemy 
fights back with a barrage of missiles and 
gunfire. Then you face a fleet of enemy fight- 
ers in a gripping dogfight of altitude strategy 
and flying skill. Survive this battle and the 
enemy's fortress, defended with laser bar- 
riers, then you ve earned the ultimate chal- 
lenge; a blazing confrontation with the pow- 



erful robot, armed with a lethal homing 
missile. 

Zaxxon " is the one game that you must see 
to believe. You have to play it to feel its im- 
pact. If you re ready to face the challenge, 
check with your local software dealer or 
send check or money order with S2.00 post- 
age handling. California residents add 

sales tax. Available on cassette or 
diskette. Suggested retail price $39.95. 

Available in January on Atari ■ February on 
Apple ' and Radio Shack - Color, and April 
on Tl 99 4A v and NEC 6000 " 



Pata rfS Oops; 

~ Vi=X '.■• '■ • SOFTWARE 

9421 Wmnetka Avenue 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 
(213)701-5161 
t 1 982 Datasofl ' Inc 
CIRCLE 155 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
idomark of Datasott IT 

t trademarks of Setj > 



System Saver 

The most important peripheral for your Apple II. 




For Line Surge Suppression 

The SYSTEM SAVER provides es- 
sential protection to hardware and 
data from dangerous power surges 
and spikes. 



_L 



SYSTEM SAVfll I T 

apple i J 



By connecting the Apple II 
power input through the SYSTEM 
SAVER, power is controlled in two 
ways: 1) Dangerous voltage spikes 
are clipped off at a safe 130 Volts 
RMS/175 Volts dc level. 2) High fre- 
quency noise is smoothed out be- 
fore reaching the Apple II A PI type 
filter attenuates common mode 
noise signals by a minimum of 
30 dB from 600 khz to 20 mhz, with 
a maximum attenuation of 50 dB. 



For Cooling 

As soon as you move to 64K RAM 
or 80 columns on your Apple II you 
need SYSTEM SAVER 

Today's advanced peripheral 
cards generate more heat In addi- 
tion, the cards block any natural air 
flow through the Apple II creating 
high temperature conditions that 
substantially reduce the life of the 
cards and the computer itself. 



For Operating Efficiency 

SYSTEM SAVER contains two 
switched power outlets. As shown 
in the diagram, the SYSTEM 
SAVER efficiently organizes your 
system so that one convenient, 
front mounted 
power switch 
controls SYSTEM 
SAVER, Apple n, 
monitor and printer. 





SYSTEM SAVER provides cor- 
rect cooling An efficient, quiet fan 
draws fresh air across the mother 
board, over the power supply and 
out the side ventilation slots. 



The heavy duty switch has a 
pilot light to alert when system is 
on.You'll never use the Apple power 
switch again! 



Easy Installation 



Just clips on. 
No mounting or 
hardware required. 
Color matched 
to Apple n. -^*-* 



[Ousted 







PATENT PENOMG 



Compatible with Apple Stand 




Suggested Retail 
One Year Warranty 



$8995 



Kensington Microware Ltd. 
919 Third Avenue 
New York, NY 10022 
(212)486-7707 

KENSINGTON 
MICROWARE 

CIRCLE 203 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




More Than Just a Pretty Keyboard 



creptive 
computing 
equipment 
evaluation 



The Tl 99/4A 



The Texas Instruments 99/4. long 
disregarded or treated with derision by 
manufacturers and owners of more 
"popular" computers, has finally 
come into its own as the 99/4A. With 
enormous distribution in retail outlets 
across the country. TI now vies with 
Commodore and Timex for the top 
spot on the Consumer Computer Hit 
Parade. And we expect that the birth 
of TI's newest offspring, the 99/2, will 
strengthen the position of the 99/4 A. 
Hence, we take a second look at the 
TI 99/4. 



Fred Gray 



In the beginning there was TI. And it 
was big and strong and mighty in the 
ways of digitals. It had The Watch, and 
it had The Calculator, and it made more 
chips than Frito-Lay. But other compa- 
nies not as big and strong had home 
computers and were selling them like 
twinkies. TI looked in its parts drawer 
and saw a wondrous 16-bit micro- 
processor that it was most proud of. 
"We shall make a Home Computer," 
said TI, and did so. 

The TI 99/4 came out in 1979, was 
small, had calculator buttons for keys, 
and cost a lot. "See!" said TI, "we have a 
home computer!" "Hooray!" said the 
others, "You have a bomb!" And they 
were right and they were wrong. For the 
home computer was not a hit and sold 
like cold cakes, even when the price 
dropped from Apple Sky to Cheap City. 



Fred Gray. 41 Bclvoir Drive, tori Belvoir VA 
22060. 

May 1983 ' Creative Computing 



But under the funny keyboard was a 
mighty machine with dazzling color 
graphics and the 16-bit soul. TI looked 
at the sales figures and said to the en- 
gineers: Fix the fool thing and make it 
live up to the genius inside. And so they 
did. And so it does. And look out, 
others. 

There were many things wrong with 



the TI 99/4 when it hit the street. It was 
much too expensive, it had a calculator 
style keyboard, it could run only Basic 
or plug-in modules, and had no expan- 
sion capability. These were not over- 
sights, and TI had reasons. The cost was 
high because it was a new generation of 
machine and a color monitor came as 
part of the package. The keyboard came 
from the TI calculator heritage and al- 
lowed the use of slip-on overlays to re- 
define the keys for special modules. The 
machine was designed as a home appli- 
ance and the home user was not seen as 
being interested in fancy assemblers or 
exotic languages. Finally, to keep it com- 




Tl 99 4/ A, continued... 

pact and easy for the home user to use. 
there was no provision for slots or 
expansion board space; instead, 
peripherals and expansions were de- 
signed into silver boxes to be plugged 
into the side of the computer. 

The price didn't stay high for long. It 
dropped from $1100 (with mandatory 
monitor) to under $500 (without it) by 
the end of 1980. The Basic on board was 
a good one. full of error-checking and 
editing capabilities, and considerable 
graphics capabilities. But the graphics 
capabilities were slow, too slow to allow 
anything exciting. True to their promise. 
TI did bring out expansion modules in 
silver boxes to plug into an ever-expand- 
ing daisy chain at the right side of the 
computer. 

Chief among these was the Solid State 
Speech box. which gave the 99/4 300 
words of highly understandable speech 
and made it, for a while, the only home 
computer that could talk. 

Still, the 99/4 did not sell, a fact that 
may have been due to the philosophy of 
the TI hierarchy. Because the TMS9900 
is an unusual microprocessor, and the 
99/4 an unusual microcomputer with 
quite different architecture and I/O, TI 
decided to leave the fancy programming 
to their own staff, or to selected large 
organizations such as Scott, Foresman 
and Milton Bradley. So they did not 
publish anything about the workings of 
the machine and did not offer an assem- 
bler, and anyone wishing to do whizbang 
graphics or anything fast had to get a 
minicomputer development system, 
which cost about $50,000. 

The result was predictable: practically 
no one wrote anything for the 99/4. And 
because the internal workings of the 
99/4 were inscrutable and undecipher- 
able, practically no one made any 
peripherals for it. While creative souls at 
TI were working hard on modules and 
peripherals, there were thousands of cre- 
ative souls among the Great Unwashed 
who were writing Adventures and 
Starfights and making superboards and 




*7f s a 'menafte a trois' ■ Ralph, me. and his 
computer. " 



widget controllers for Apples, Pets, and 
TRS-80s. But not for the 99/4. 

To their credit, the folks at TI woke 
up and have rectified virtually all of the 
problems of the 99/4. The 99/4A is all 
the 99/4 should have been and more, 
and now the machine is easier to exploit 
than ever before. 

Hardware Improvements 

Let's look at what is different about 
the 99/4A. 

Of course, there is the new keyboard, 
a sturdy professional one that looks like 
a computer keyboard. It has a bunch of 
new keys, offers braces, square brackets, 
and lower case. It allows any key to be 
repeated at will, and allows keys to be 
used in three ways: key, shift key, and 
function key. Add to this the retained 
capability to redefine all of the keys 
through software and the ability of pro- 
grams to search the keyboard during a 
run, and you have a most impressive in- 
put capability. All that is really lacking 
is a number pad for quick input of 
numerical data, which wouldn't have fit 
on the case. 

But there are other changes, deep in 
the chips and ROMs. One is the use of 
the TMS9918A Video Display Processor 
(VDP) in place of the older 9918. To go 
with it is a revised operating system in 
ROM that opens up some of the ad- 
vanced capabilities of both it and the 
9900 microprocessor itself, as well as 
allowing the use of the expanded 
keyboard. 

The TMS9918 is worth a side trip by 
itself. The VDP is an extraordinary dis- 
play processor, able to display ASCII 
characters or user-defined characters in 
16 colors on a 24 by 32 grid. More than 
that, embedded in the chip is the ability 
to display and move graphics characters 
called sprites, which can move smoothly 
across the screen and which, once set in 
motion by the calling program, continue 
to move at the specified speed and direc- 
tion without CPU attention until 
changed by the program. 

The VDP creates and moves the 
sprites based on data stored in the VDP 
RAM area by the program. By changing 
data, the sprites can be made to change 
course, shape, speed, color, vanish, or 
appear. The sprites afforded an in- 
credible game and moving graphics 
capability to the 99/4, but because the 
internal Basic did not support their use, 
the capabilities were limited to plug-in 
modules, and not available to the home 
programmer. 

The sprite capabilities of the Com- 
puter were opened up through the in- 
troduction of Extended Basic, available 
for both the 99/4 and the 99/4A. This 
module, adding some 36K of ROM to 
the on-board Basic, corrects many of the 



annoying limitations of the original Ba- 
sic and opens up a wide range of addi- 
tional capabilities to the machine. 

With Extended Basic, the pro- 
grammer can create sprites in two sizes, 
set their initial shape, location, velocity, 
direction, and color; change any of these 
at will; detect coincidences of sprites 
with each other or with specified points; 
change their size and make them vanish 
or become invisible — all with a simple 
call to one or more predefined 
subprograms. 

Because the VDP does the work, the 
main processor is involved only with 
initiating the action, and the sprites will 
move as set while the 9900 processor is 
busy computing other things. Heavy 
computing by the CPU has no effect on 
the moving graphics as long as the mo- 
tion doesn't change, and wild motion on 
the screen has no effect on the work of 
the CPU. Since up to 28 individual 
sprites can be defined and set in motion, 
the capability for dazzling color anima- 
tion and games is almost unmatched in 
the home computer field. 

The 99/4A adds another dimension to 
the sprite graphics not available on the 
99/4, bit-mapped graphics. This high- 
resolution mode is attributable to the 
9918A VDP, and provides the capability 
to do bit-mapped color graphics on a 
256 by 192 grid. Now the TI has high- 
resolution graphics in addition to the 
sprite capability. Unfortunately, the bit- 
map mode does not allow the automatic 
movement feature of the sprites to exist 
along with the high resolution capabil- 
ity, as the VDP gets a bit overworked. 
Even with this limitation, the capabili- 
ties are astounding. We should see some 
amazing game and graphics programs 
soon. 

Another capability of the TMS9900 
microprocessor has been opened up for 
the 99/4A through a change to the 
ROM-based operating system. This is 
the ability to define up to 16 operations 
at the assembly level that can be used 
just as if they were added opcodes for 
the processor. The effect is to extend the 
instruction set by 16 and turns the new 
Assembler/Editor into a Macro Assem- 
bler. The ROM change did not take ef- 
fect with the first bunch of 99/4A units. 
but is incorporated in the ones coming 
off the line now. 

Editor/ Assembler Package 

The new Editor/Assembler module is 
now available for the 99/4A. From a re- 
view of the manual I can report that this 
module plus disk set is an extremely 
powerful software tool — in reality a 
minicomputer assembler in micro- 
computer form. TI has taken their 
assembler, editor, and linking loader 
packages developed for the 990 series 



34 



May 1 983 ' Creative Computing 



minicomputers and reshaped them for 
the 99/4A. This was made possible by 
the fact that the 9900 and 990 instruc- 
tion sets are virtually the same. Some of 
the remarkable capabilities that the 
Editor/Assembler brings to the micro- 
computer field are these: 

• Writing of relocatable, linkable 
code. The programmer does not need to 
worry about absolute addresses and can 
write his programs as independent sub- 
programs to be linked together later by 
the loader. By defining certain labels as 
external references, the loader can 
match them up and link the programs 
together, filling in the addresses at load 
time. This also allows the loader to put 
the programs into memory wherever 
they fit best and not be constrained by 
the present configuration. The computer 
begins to look more like a minicomputer 
here. The great advantage for the pro- 
grammer is the ability to write a library 
of subroutines, keep them on disk, and 
bring them into his programs as they are 
needed without worrying about the ad- 
dresses or linkages. 

• Extraordinary editing capabilities. 
The Editor is very complete and offers a 
wide variety of conveniences for the pro- 
grammer. Some of these are: inserting 
and deleting characters, inserting and 
deleting lines, copying whole blocks of 
code and inserting them elsewhere in the 
program, moving whole blocks of code 
around, searching for strings with the 
option to replace each occurrence with a 
new string, and a variety of filing com- 
mands. The system looks rather like a 
word processor for assembler code. It 
makes coding a great deal easier by 
removing much of the nuisance work. 

• Links to Utility Routines. TI has a 
great variety of utility routines tucked 
away in both ROM and GROM that are 
used by the operating system and the 
interpreters. Access to these routines 
makes it much easier to do the com- 
plicated graphics, sound, and speech 
routines. The programmer need only 
load certain parameters in the registers 
and then call on the utility routine to do 
the work. This capability is particularly 
needed with the graphics routines, as 
this area is rather inscrutable anyway. 
The utilities give the programmer the 
ease of programming exhibited by the 
Extended Basic while allowing the speed 
of machine-assembled code. 

In summary, the TI 99/4A finally 
lives up to the promises of its makers. 
With new software and hardware 
improvements, the TI Home Computer 
is finally a powerful force in the micro- 
computer field and should not be 
counted out. At a normally discounted 
price of under $300, the 99/4A is an 
astounding value and may yet make its 
mark on the microcomputer world. 

May 1 983 • Creative Computing 






I \ 



Educational Software That Works 



&* 

^ 



2 disks $49.95 




2 disks $49.95 




2 disks $69.95 



We believe that children have an innate 
curiosity ... a natural desire to learn, to 
discover, to understand. Our software was 
designed with this in mind. Even 
traditionally tedious subjects like math, 
reading, and vocabulary building are easily 
mastered. Why? Because our software 
makes children want to learn. And when 
they want to learn, the results are 
FANTASTIC! 

We know our software WORKS because we 
developed and tested it in the classroom. 
Let our software WORK for your children 
too! 

For the Apple and IBM PC* 

Ask your dealer. 

davidsoifcPassociates 

6069 Groveoak Place #12 
Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90274 

MasterCard and Visa cardholders may call collect to order: 
(213) 378-7826 / (213) 378-3995 

'Apple and IBM are registered trademarks of Apple Computer. Inc. and 

International Business Machines. Corp. 

CIRCLE 162 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




m 



V 




ZS 



7 



M 



TFs new Compact Computer 
It takes over your work, not your desk 



The ordinary personal computer 
occupies too much of the ordinary desk. 

Now Texas Instruments brings you a 
cordless compact computer that solves the 
same sort of problems as the Apple™ or 
IBM™ personal computer. It has enough 
memory and power for complex problems 
in business and science, yet the whole thing 
is smaller than a magazine page. 

Sophisticated software is available right 
now for finance, statistics, production 
planning, graphics— and spreadsheet and 
wordprocessing are just around the comer 

For most personal computer tasks, its 
6K RAM and 34K ROM are ample. The 
system is easily, economically expanded. 

The TI Compact Computer 40 has 
peripherals that make it even more useful: 

'Baaed <** puHishcd nuiHrt.k tun r , MtsrMtxi tcail [*ve 
Art*- is a r,vft,r„i mdaraft .< Apt*- Gxnwr bv IBM is a 
rcjaslrmj iralrnurlf of lmcnwtt.ci.il Ruurrvs Michav I 



a 4-cofor printer/pfotter; an RS-232 interface 
for talking with other computers or running 
a larger printer; and TI Wafertape™ drive 
for program or data storage. TI Solid State 
Software 1 " cartridges offer you a choice of 
convenient, foolproof programs. 




Its built-in language is TI Enhanced 
BASIC, which allows you to write programs 
in everyday words. The integrated liquid 
crystal display shows 31 characters, which 
can be scrolled to show up to 80 per line. 
It operates on four AA alkaline batteries that 
give up to 200 hours of service 

The TI Compact Computer 40 offers 
solutions anywhere you go. Yet it retails for 
less than 1/3* the price of Apple™ or IBM™ 
personal computers. The TI Compact 
Computer— compact in price and six. but 
not in power. See it soon at your Texas 
Instruments retailer 

Creating useful products B^. 
and services for you. wf'B 

Iexas^^ 
Instruments 

CIRCLE 294 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Computer Companionship For The TI99/4 



Texnet 



I bought my TI99/4 because I had 
always wanted to own a home computer 
but didn't have any programming exper- 
ience. Today, I have the ability to hold 
my own when discussing computers, but 
no one to discuss with. 

Apple, Atari, and TRS-80 owners don't 
have to look very far for someone to talk 
to. Most computer outlets sell one of 
these and can supply information on hard- 
ware, software, user's groups, or what- 
ever. 

It's different for TI users though, as 
about the only places that carry the 99/4 
or its accessories are mail order houses 
and retail stores. If you have a question, 
forget the retail stores. You probably 
know more than they do. 

I suppose I could join a TI user's group, 
but I live in Massachusetts where there 
are no user's groups. As a matter of fact 
there isn't one in all of New England that 
I know of. I could also join a few clubs in 
distant locations and communicate by 
mail, but it just isn't the same. 

There is, however, an alternative; it is 
called Texnet, the information service 
that with Source Telecomputing created 
a system developed specifically for users 
of the 99/4 and 99/4A home computers. 

When 1 first heard about Texnet, I 



Ruben C'yshman. 692 Lowell St., Luwrenee. MA 
01841. 



M 



May 1 983 < Creative Computing 



Robert Cashman 



thought it was too good to be true. First, 
you receive all the products of The 
Source— some 1400 different services— 
everything from electronic mail to cat- 
alog shopping, from dining and travel to 
home and leisure. 



Making friends on 

Texnet was great, but 

what I really wanted 

was some of that free 

software. 



But you also get Texnet, a service 
which adds custom features such as: 

• TI News 

• TI Software Directory 

• TI User's Groups 

• TI Service Centers 

• TI Help 

• TI Phonetic Dictionary 

• TI Voice Chat 

• TI Graphics Library 

• TI Music and Sound Library 
• TI Idea 

• TI Logo Exchange 

37 



All of these are terrific, but none can 
compare with the TI Software Exchange 
— free software supplied by the Inter- 
national 99/4 User's Group. (Note: soft- 
ware can be downloaded to a disk drive 
only.) 

We all know how difficult it is to find 
software, but can you imagine getting it 
for free? Recently, Texnet made it pos- 
sible to upload your own programs to the 
TI Software Exchange. If even half of the 
current TI owners would contribute, 
think of the library of programs we would 
have to share. 

Without giving it a second thought, I 
decided to subscribe. But first I had to 
get several accessories. This wasn't a 
cheap experiment; I needed a modem, an 
RS-232 interface, and a terminal emula- 
tor. 1 decided to get the TE II for its text- 
to-speech capabilities, since I already 
owned a speech synthesizer. In all, those 
three items cost me about $400. I also 
had an extra telephone installed for an- 
other $50. 

The cost for a one-time registration is 
$100. Once on-line, you incur charges of 
$20.75 per hour weekdays between 7:00 
a.m. and 6:00 p.m., $7.75 per hour even- 
ings, weekends and holidays, and $5.75 
an hour from midnight to 7:00 a.m. daily 
for 300 baud service. Prices for 1 200 baud 
users are $25.75. $10.75. and $8.75 respec- 
tively. 



Do you want 
ttie #1 Seller 



or the 

#1 Financial 

System? 



Hurt** ^^^- 



*s»°£ 



5**££- 



oM^ 



jK 



•"XL**"! 






^"•IJ 



ns»<*2 



13«S_ 






»*»i_ 

\*«* 



2 *«t 



MONEY MAGAZINE - Nov. 1982 

"Among bookkeeping programs, earns high marks and is easy to use 

CREATIVE COMPUTING - Jan. 1983 

The documentation is thorough, easily read, and complete " 
"The program is so easy to use that rarely will reference have to be made to the 
manual " 

SOFTALK - Jan. 1982 

"For the home user (and perhaps in some less complex small business), the best 
package we evaluated was The ACCOUNTANT by Decision Support Software " 
"The ACCOUNTANT does, indeed, make financial management a simple and 
straightforward procedure " 

LNFOWORLD - Jan 3/10, 1983 

"Complete flexible financial data base package for the home user " 
exceptionally fast highly recommend " 

PEELING U - MARCH 1983 

A magazine oi Apple software and hardware evaluation. Rated A a good 
buy " 

The ACCOUNTANT 

Finance Data Base System™ 

Decision Support Software Inc. 

1438 Iroowood Drive. McLean. VA 22101 • (703) 2414316 • Olden Only (»00) 368-2022 

■ IBM* VinCilc" an. KAtirmatks of Apple IBM and v.s i.oiy 'esp.- ■.■•). 



CIRCLE 163 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Texnet, continued... 

I cant tell you how excited I was when 
I received my ID number and password. 
No longer did I feel alone. Everything I 
wanted was at my fingertips, just a phone 
call away. It's a good feeling to know that 
you are no longer communicating only 
with a computer, but with literally the 
whole world. Some Texnet subscribers 
live as far away as Australia. 

Making friends on Texnet was great, 
but what I really wanted was some of that 
free software, and for that I needed a 
disk drive. Just as I began to shop around 
for a disk drive and controller, a classified 
section for the TI99/4 appeared in The 
Source POST category. I inserted a "free" 
wanted-to-buy ad for the things I needed, 
and got an immediate response and some 
excellent prices -better than I had seen 
anywhere. Needless to say. I am now 
downloading programs. 

How difficult is it to access the more 
than 1400 services on The Source and 
Texnet! It is not difficult at all. When 
you receive your confirmed application, 
an extremely easy-to-read user's manual 
is included. It is a three-ring binder with 
dividers that allow easy retrieval of sub- 
ject matter. 

Can I find any fault with Texnet 1 . 
Unfortunately, yes. Texnet is accessed 
primarily through two computer tele- 
phone networks called Tymnet and 
Telenet. They are located in over 350 
metropolitan areas in the United States. 
The city that I live in is not one of them. 
This surprised me as (here are approxi- 
mately 200.<X)0 people living within a ten- 
mile radius of my city. 

The closest city to me with the tele- 
phone access line is some 20 miles away, 
and 1 have run up some very high tele- 
phone bills. I have contacted the local 
Telenet office (Tymnet did not have an 
access linel to see when they planned to 
install a line in my city. I was told that if 
there was a demand, a line would be 
installed. Until that happens. I have to be 
careful not to lose track of time while I'm 
enjoying Texnet. 

I did experience a little difficulty while 
on-line a few times. I was downloading 
from the Tl Software Exchange and lost 
the carrier signal. This can be aggravating 
when you are close to completing the 
data transfer and lose it all. It can take as 
long as 25 minutes to download a pro- 
gram, so you could end up paying for 25 
minutes of on-line time and have nothing 
to show for it. This has happened to me a 
couple of times. 

Another nice feature of Texnet is their 
terrific customer service. If you should 
have any problems or questions that the 
manual can't help you with, you can call 
a toll-free number and get immediate 
assistance. 

The Source. 1616 Anderson Road. 
McLean. VA 22102. D 

May 1 983 ' Creative Computing 




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Modem80 




ModemSO is a package of communica- 
t it>ns software for the TRS-80 which is 
easy to use and sufficiently flexible for 
all normal computer communications. 
With this program one may successfully 
access bulletin boards, other TRS-80s, 
mainframe computers which permit tele- 
phone access, and other brands of micro- 
computers. Files may be transferred to 
and from other computers provided they 
can be set up either to receive ASCII 
files or to operate under the protocol of 
the CP/M program Modem. 

Files may be sent in their entirety or a 
line at a time- as for example, to get 
material into a mainframe text editor 
such as SOS or TECO. The ModemHO 
package — which consists of seven sepa- 
rate programs — is extraordinarily 
versatile. 

Modem80 

The main program of (he package is 
MODEM80/CMD. Like the other offer- 
ings on the disk it may be copied with- 
out difficulty and runs perfectly under 
TRSDOS, NEWDOS 2.1, NEWDOS-80 
(both versions), DOSPLUS, and LDOS. 
Modem80/CMD loads, initializes the 
RS-232 parameters, and then presents 
the user with a menu which lists a vari- 
ety of activities By using simple control 
codes (the CI EAR key is designated as a 
control switch), you can set the system 
up to receive or send a disk file, toggle 
the printer on or off. or transmit some of 
the characters left off the TRS-80 key- 
board. Alternatively, you may switch to 
the main menu, which offers additional 
possibilities. 

All file transfers are to or from disk; a 
large buffer is established to which or 
from which file material is sent. During 
the transmission, you may query the sys- 



Robert Jacobs 



Robert Jacobs. Department of Political Scieni 
ti.ii Washington I nivcriity, EDcuburg, WA 98926 

May 1983 ■ Creative Computing 



tern and receive a report of file and 
buffer status. One advantage of this 
procedure is that files of unlimited 
length may be sent or received — or, 
more precisely, the largest files your disk 
storage system will handle may be re- 
ceived and sent. 

Transmission may be interrupted at 
any time, and it is even possible to break 
certain kinds of files in the middle and 
put the remainder on a different disk. 
Another advantage of a disk-oriented 
system is that files may be prepared off- 
line, by programs such as Scripsit, and 
saved to disk. Then, should there be 
some transmission difficulty, the ma- 
terial is still safely ensconced on your 
disk, ready for another try. 

Disk file material may be intermixed 
with keyboard characters, thus permit- 
ting the transmission of data to comput- 
ers that cannot accept full-speed 
transmission and which do not use con- 
trol codes to start and stop the 
transmission. 

Reception of files is nearly as flexible, 
especially if the sending computer can be 
set up to respond to control codes, since 
under MODEM80/CMD the TRS-80 
can be set up to use any ASCII control 
code needed to regulate the sending ma- 
chine. Control codes may also be used to 
permit the remote computer to control 
the file operations. 

Two file transmission protocols are 
available. The first is a handshaking 
protocol compatible with the widely 
used CP/M program Modem. As files 
are transmitted, they are checksummed 
in blocks, and the checksums verified at 
either end. Should a block be trans- 
mitted incorrectly, Modem80 automati- 



cally retransmits it. Any type of file may 
be transmitted or received, whether 
TRS-80 compatible or not. This protocol 
requires that the remote computer be us- 
ing a similar program. Should this con- 
dition not exist, transmission and 
reception of files may still take 
place — but here you are limited to 
ASCII files. You may send or receive 
text or Basic programs saved in ASCII 
under the A option, or a binary file may 
be converted to an ASCII file by using 
the utility HEX/CMD, supplied with 
the ModemHO package. Thus the 
limitation to ASCII files turns out not to 
be a limitation; in fact, HEX/CMD of- 
fers a file checksum also, so that you 
may verify correct reception by compar- 
ing the sent version to the received ver- 
sion. And naturally, an ASCII file may 
be converted back to binary form by the 
final option offered under HEX/CMD. 

The main menu of MODEM/CMD 
permits a good deal of local housekeeping. 
The user selects between "echo" and 
"terminal" modes so that full- duplex 



creative compating 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Modem 80 

Type: Communications package 

System: TRS-80 Model I, III 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Seven versatile 

telecommunications 
programs 

Price: $39.95 
Manufacturer: 

The Alternate Source 
704 N. Pennsylvania 
Lansing. MI 48906 



43 



Modem.80, continued... 

transmission may take place between 
computers (one of the two should be on 
"echo"). All of the RS-232 functions 
may be altered from the keyboard by 
changing local communication param- 
eters. In addition, you can set the system 
for full or half-duplex, to add linefeeds 
to carriage returns, to send nulls after 
carriage returns, to receive graphics, and 
to print line feeds or not. In short, com- 
plete flexibility is offered, and though 
my description of the program may 
make it appear complex, it is, in fact, 
easy to use. 

Other Programs 

The remaining programs are also in- 
teresting. HOST1/CMD allows remote 
control of the computer, and 
XMODEM/CMD is a file transfer util- 
ity which may be run under HOST1 so 
as to permit file transfers under the con- 
trol of the remote computer. Only in this 
case must both computers be using 
Modem8Q or other derivative of CP/M. 

TYPE/CMD, also included as part of 
the package, lists a file on the display or 
printer and may be used under HOST1 
to send a file to a remote computer or 



terminal. TYPE/CMD responds to the 
XON-XOFF protocol used by so many 
mainframe computers and thus fulfills a 
function that XMODEM does not. 

The last two programs, SAVE/CMD 
and TEXTFIX/CMD, assist in the 
preparation of disk files for trans- 
mission. SAVE/CMD allows one to key 
directly to disk, thus permitting off-line 
text file preparation. If the user does not 
have a word processing program avail- 
able, this utility fills the gap. TEXTFIX 
cleans up text files by removing control 
characters so that the received file may 
be loaded into a word processor. It also 
has the ability to add the terminal zeroes 
required by Visicalc and Electric Pencil 
files. These are not the kinds to things 
one uses often, but when you do need 
them, you need them badly. 

Uses 

I have been using this package for sev- 
eral purposes. The simplest has been to 
transfer materials back and forth from 
friends' TRS-80s and from Model I to 
III, for which it is ideal. I also access 
bulletin boards and Micronet occa- 
sionally and with complete success. 

The most demanding application has 



been contact with my university's 
computers— a DEC- 10 and a VAX. The 
flexibility of the Modem80 package has 
allowed me to transfer text, Basic, and 
Fortran files without difficulty. 

The author of Modem80. Leslie 
Mikesell, has done a wonderful job on 
the documentation, and it is clear that a 
great deal of thought has gone into the 
design of the program as well. I was 
most impressed by Mikesell's provision 
of four translation tables, which permit 
alteration of all the control codes, 
establishment of special keys, redefi- 
nition of transmitted or display charac- 
ters and the like. These are the output, 
video, disk, and printer translation ta- 
bles. All are readily alterable by the user 
by entering DEBUG, and although most 
applications will not require such 
changes, some will. The ability to make 
these changes is an important attribute 
of smart terminal programs. 

This package of programs is an ex- 
cellent value. It will serve the commu- 
nications needs of practically every user. 
In several months of heavy use, I have 
yet to discover a bug in it and have had 
no difficulty with either specialized or 
common applications. □ 



ces... notices... ncti 



Computers in Education 83 

Computers in Education '83, a con- 
ference and summer institute for edu- 
cators is set for June 20 through July 15, 
1983 at Rutgers— The State University of 
New Jersey. This year's theme is 
"Necessary Direction for Computer Edu- 
cation: Navigational Aids for the 80's." 
The focus of the conference (June 27-29) 
and the four-week Summer Institute cen- 
ters on microcomputers and other new 
information technologies and their impact 
on education at elementary, secondary 
and college levels. 

Included among the featured partici- 
pants are David H. Ahl, founder and 
editor-in-chief of Creative Computing; 
and Creative Computing contributors and 
friends Gary G. Bitter, professor of com- 
puter education, Arizona State Uni- 
versity; Alfred M. Bork, director. Edu- 
cational Technology Center, University 
of California at Irvine: Lud Braun. soft- 
ware director. Office of Instructional De- 
velopment, New York Institute of Tech- 
nology: Jim Butterfield of Toronto. 
Ontario, Canada: Sylvia Charp. director 
of instructional systems. Philadelphia 
Public Schools; Fred T. Hofstetter, direc- 
tor. Office of Computer Based Instruction, 
University of Delaware: Dan Isaacson. 
California State University at Fresno: 



Arthur Luehrmann, founding partner. 
Computer Literacy, Berkeley; Seymour 
Papert, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology; Robert P. Taylor, Teachers Col- 
lage. Columbia University; and Karl L. 
Zinn, Center for Research in Learning 
and Teaching, University of Michigan. 

The final brochure, which contains pro- 
gram details, description of the forty short 
courses in the Summer Institute, and a 
registration form, will be mailed in late 
March. 

Additional information can be obtained 
from: Mitchell E. Batoff. Institute for 
Professional Development, 245 Nassau 
St., Suite D. Princeton, NJ 08540. Tele- 
phone: (609) 924-8333. 

Basic Standard 

The American National Standards Insti- 
tute has approved a public comment 
period for the Basic Standard; it will begin 
around mid-March and last until mid- 
July. 

Persons interested in reviewing the pro- 
posed standard and commenting on it 
should write to: X3 Secretariat, CBEMA, 
311 First St., N.W., Washington, DC 
20001. Ask for document X3J2/82-17 en- 
titled "Proposed Draft for American 
National Standard for Basic." and enclose 
a check or money order of $20 for 
duplicating. 



Radio Shack Educational 
Challenge 

Radio Shack, a division of Tandy Cor- 
poration, has announced America's Edu- 
cational Challenge, an opportunity for 
elementary and secondary school teach- 
ers in the United States to achieve a basic 
familiarity with computers and their use 
in the classroom. 

Information on the program has been 
mailed to every school principal in the 
United States. The mailing includes an 
educator's handbook describing the ways 
microcomputers are being used in 
schools, a basic computer literacy pack- 
age, including spirit masters and teacher 
information designed for use in a class- 
room to teach elementary computer con- 
cepts, a secondary level textbook on com- 
puter programming, information about 
what several school districts are doing 
with computers, and an order form which 
a school can use to obtain two filmstrip 
audio-visual presentations suitable for 
conducting teacher workshops and staff 
development sessions on computer con- 
cepts and the use of computers in 
education. 

Also included are several certificates 
entitling teachers to two free classes in 
Basic programming and an educator's 
workshop at one of over 375 Radio Shack 
Computer Centers. All of these materials 
will be provided to a school on request 
and without charge, according to William 
Gattis. Director of Radio Shack's Edu- 
cation Division. 



44 



May 1983 ■ Creative Computing 



IF YOU LIKED DONKEY KONG, 
YOU'LL LOVF, JUMP MAN I 







f 



If you liked jumping over barrels and climbing 
ladders to save damsels in distress, you 'II love 
the blazing excitement ofJUMPMAN. Your 
incredible speed and jet boosters let you leap 
from girder to girder, scale ladders and ropes 
to disarm the bombs planted in Jupiter Head- 
quarters. Bupt's not easy and there are thirty 
levels of difficulty. You 'II have to dodge missiles, 
killer robots, flying saucers, crumbling girders 
and vanishing escape routes. In the heat of 
battle, JUMPMAN must keep a cool head. 



Award- Winning 
Computer Games 



Epyx, 1043 Kiel Court, Sunnyvale, California 94086 

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DONKEY KONG is a trademark of Nintendo of America. In 




SOI 



Z-Term, 
The Professional 



Do you have an Apple II, a Z80 Soft- 
Card with CP/M. and one of the popular 
modem cards, or a serial interface with 
an outboard modem? Do you wish you 
had some decent software to use the 
combination to connect your computer 
to the outside world of databases and 
other computers in just about every way 
imaginable? 

If so, your wish may not only become a 
reality, but with Z-Term, The Professional 
from Southwestern Data Systems, you 
may get quite a bit more than you thought 
was possible. The Professional, which we 
will call Z-Pro is certainly everything I 
wanted in a communications package. 

A good bit of the CP/M software avail- 
able these days is not something that you 
can buy over the counter in your nearest 
computer store. Some of it may be up 
and running on a friend's computer, near 
or far. There are CP/M bulletin boards 
all over the country with sophisticated 
public domain programs written by very 
competent programmers available for 
download. 

With Z-Pro, you can read or download 
text just as it was originally formatted, 
including control characters from time- 
sharing systems such as The Source, 
Micronct, and others. With an external 
terminal or 80-column board, you can 
take advantage of the mainframe at your 
office and use the screen-oriented editor 
or database. 

You can transfer a COM file between 
your machine and someone else's, or 
download one from a CP/M bulletin 
board. With this package, you can trans- 
fer text, source code, data files, or 
encrypted gibberish from one system to 

J. Robert McCown. 4670 W. 6.Vd Street, Lot 
Angeles. CA wxm.v 



J. Robert McCown 

the other and make sure it arrives in one 
piece the first time. You can even have 
your system answer the phone and do all 
this for another CP/M system with similar 
capabilities! 

Let's start with a general overview of 
Z-Pro. The package supports most peri- 
pheral communications devices at baud 
rates from 50 to 1200 and can also speak 
Baudot (the deaf TTY standard) when 
using the Novation Apple Cat modem. 



creative computing 



SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Z-Term, The Professional 

Type: Advanced communications 

package for the CP/M Apple 

System: An Apple II or Apple 11 + 
with 48K RAM, Z-80 Soft- 
Card, and modem card or 
serial interface with asso- 
ciated modem. 

Format: 5 1/4" disk 

Summary: Excellent data com- 
munications package. 

Price: $149 in computer stores, 
or can be ordered directly 
from SDS 

Manufacturer: 

Southwestern Data Systems 
P.O. Box 582 
Santee, CA 92071 
(714) 562-3221 



46 



Z-Pro supports all kinds of screen dis- 
play, ranging from the standard 40- 
column Apple screen to any 80-column 
display board or external terminal. Any 
disk system currently interfaced to your 
Apple II under CP/M is also supported 
with no modifications necessary. 

If you are using the local Apple key- 
board and 40-column screen, provision is 
made for the generation of lower case 
and other characters normally not avail- 
able on that keyboard. In this config- 
uration, however, you must have some 
sort of lower case board in the computer 
to be able to view the lower case 
characters. 

With Z-Pro you can send or receive 
ASCII (7-bit) data of any type to most 
any dial-up system. Files of any size may 
be sent and files of up to 34K may be 
received at any one time. The package 
also supports the Christensen protocol, 
an established standard among CP/M 
dial-up systems. This makes it compatible 
with MODEM. XMODEM (most vari- 
ations), LMODEM (DEC- 10) and 
CMODEM (Unix). Using this protocol, 
any kind of file (8-bit) of any size may be 
transferred with complete checksum and 
CRC error checking. 

Z-Pro supports the PAN protocol (a 
subset of PCnet) for the sending and 
receiving of forwarded mail by other Z- 
Pro or PAN systems. The system can be 
left on-line unattended to answer the 
phone, receive PAN mail or send and 
receive Christensen transfers. 

You can set up keyboard Macros, 
including imbedded control characters, 
to function as mini-programs. At a key- 
press, you can do such things as sign on 
to a host system or perform custom hand- 
shaking routines with another system. 

We will discuss some of the finer points 

May 1 983 - Creative Computing 



of the system later on in the article, but 
let's see what we get on our screen as a 
menu when we first fire this program up. 

Using The Program 

After executing the program ZPRO. 
COM, the first thing we get is the • 
prompt, which is the indicator throughout 
the program that asks us for a Z-Pro 
command. Pressing * Q, which is the 
single control key we must remember to 
get back and forth between terminal and 
command modes, displays the menu 
shown in Figure 1. 

Figure I. 



-HA IN COMMAND SUMMARY- 

• ■ Display program status 

C = Clear buffer 

D - Dial or connect (if applies) 

E - Echo — duplex full-half 

V = Free buffer space 

G - Get file from host (protocol) 

H - Hang-up (if applies) 

I ■ Disk directory 

J - View disk file 

L « Change logged disk 

M = Macro group select 

P » Printer on-off 

R ■ Copy on-off 

S = Send file 

U = Secondary menu 

V » View current buffer 

W ■ Write file i. clear buff 

X - exit to cp/m 



To examine the secondary menu of 
functions, we type U from the main menu. 
The result appears in Figure 2. 

Figure 2. 



-SECONDARY COMMAND SUMMARY - 

A » Show control characters 
B = Baud rate change (if applies) 
K ■ Terminal chat mode on-off 
N - Set delay after c/r (send) 
O - Auto-save on-off 
Q ■* Main command menu 
T » Transpose *u/RUB 
v ■ Set protocol options 
N - No show 
S = Show 

P = File 

R ■ Received data 

S = Sent data 
Z » Screen format on-off 
: " Auto-disconnect on-off 

• ■ Apple CAT voice modes 

* ■ Apple CAT port switches 

♦ ■ Answer phone (if applies) 
" - Key click on-off 
/ - Do CRC 



A good many of the instructions 
described here have their own sub-menus 
and subsequent choices of things that you 
may want to do, but it is not my intention 
to duplicate the manual. The manual 
contains about 125 pages and each of the 



_ 



May 1983 * Creative Computing 



capabilities of the system is discussed in 
great detail. 

A program called Z-MOD.COM comes 
with Z-Pro. You use this in a kind of 
DDT fashion to modify various tables and 
flags in Z-Pro to customize the program 
for your particular configuration. Among 
the things that can be changed are the 
defaults for most of the main commands, 
the flags to control various peripheral 
devices, and the communications proto- 
cols. 

In addition, you can configure whatever 
terminal you are using to look like the 
terminal that the host computer expects. 
For the most part, if you have a reason- 
ably common set-up with one of the 
modems or terminals listed in Figure 3, Z- 
Pro will run as configured when you get 
it. 

With close attention to the manual and 
some thoughtful planning, you can use 
the Z-MOD program to create a com- 
pletely personalized version of the system. 
With the exception that certain changes 
must be made for some modems or ter- 
minals you can run this package just as it 
is. Z-Pro knows what kind of modem or 
terminal card you have plugged into your 
machine and treats it accordingly. 

Another program that comes with the 
package is GO.COM, which can be exe- 
cuted once you have exited from Z-Pro 
to CP/M. Providing you have not run 



another program or reset the system, you 
can then re-enter Z-Pro with all flags and 
data intact. This really comes in handy if 
you want to rename files, change disk 
files, etc. and continue your session with- 
out disconnecting the phone. 

Figure .?. Some of the peripheral cards 
and modems supported by Z-Pro. 



Hayes Micromodem II 
Apple Communications Card 
SSM AIO board 
CCS Asynchronous Serial Board 

7710A(orD) 
ESI Apple Lynx system 
Novation Apple Cat 
MicroPeripherals Micro Connection 
Hayes Smart Modem (with compatible 

interface) 
Mountain Computer CPS card 
All display cards, provided they are 

compatible with CP/M 
Mountain Computer Clock (original) 
CCS 7424 Calendar Clock Module 
Thunderware ThunderClock 



Z-Term. The Professional is the best 
communications package for the CP/M 
Apple II that I have seen. It is user- 
friendly, and had me feeling like a pro in 
no time. □ 



IHESUPERPLDTTER 




l".-"*, j M,,- t „, v , »• , :tr.r g 



version?? 
TM 



SWWiral 0»t« An*.**! FwfCMltng Toot 



Daemon Mating Tom 




i itmmma t iwu, c*oatMt.i>e 



For use with Apple 
Computer Systems 



The Superplotter is a highly versatile business 
engineering, educational, math and graphics ap 
plications package featuring 

Standard Bar Graphs* Point and Line Graphs* 
Graphics Display ol any Mathematical Function* 
Least Squares Polynomial Curvellt Generation* 
Keyboard Image Shape Tables and 
User Tutorial* Automatic Graphics Disk Storage 
and Recall*Data File Editor* Automatic Disk 
Storage and Recall ol Editor Data Flles*Overlay 
Moda»*Griphics Screen Ten Editor 

Data may be input directly or from previously 
generated data tiles Comprehensive documen 
tation is provided including printer dump instruc 
tions and directions for accessing data bases 
created by other programs Requires Applesoft 
and one DOS 3 3 disk drive 

$69.95 

See your local dealer tor a demonstration 
or order direct from 

Dickens Oats Systems 

476 Engle Or. / Tucker. Ga. 30084 ( (404) 491 7905 
outside Georgia: 

(8001241 6753 ant 503 

COD VISA s, MasterCard accepted 

Mail Orders Add $2 50 for shipping and handling 

($5 00 outside the USA, 




V>*u*i A«J lot P.***ni«i.on« 





11 niltail R*po„* 



.:••:•. 



G*ap*N.< ■>[>.•.(.,... 



CIRCLE 159 ON READER SERVICE CARD 









DESIGNED BY EXPERTS IN THE FIELD OF MICRO-COMPUTERS 
RICHARD ALTWASSER AND STEVEN VlCKERS 

quently he wrote most of the ROM for the Sinclair Spectrum or T.mex 2000. 

SSS SST. honors degree in Engineering a, Trinity College. ^^^^^^^ '" ^"^ 
1980. and was instrumental in the research that led to the development of the Spectrum or T,mex 2000. 

Recently these two experts started their own company and developed the Jupiter Ace range of hardware which is based on 
the exciting new language for microcomputers "FORTH 



Speed Comparison Chart showing times in seconds to perform one thousand operations. 



Type of Operation 



Empty Loop 
Print a number 
Print a character 
Add two numbers 
Multiply two numbers 



Jupiter 
Ace 



0.12 

7.5 

0.62 

0.45 

0.9 



Vic 
20 



1.3 
26 
3.1 
5.5 
6.5 



Spectrum 
TS 2000 



4.2 
19 
7.5 
7.5 
7.5 



ZX81 
TS 1000 



17.7 

430 

24 

28 

32 



Because of the difficulty In dewing exactly equivalent programs, these measurements should only be taken as a guide 



Order Now — Call Toll Free 1-800-523-2909 
Send To ln Pennsylvania 1-21 5-932-4807 
Computer Distribution Assoc. 
56 South 3rd Street 
Oxford, Penna. 19363 



Credit Card No. 



Signature 

POC-4 



Exp. Date 



Product 



Jupiter Ace 
16K Ram Pack 
48K Ram Pack 
Par/Ser Interface 



Price 



$150 
$ 50 
$125 
$100 



Shipping and Handling 



Total Order 



CIRCLE 160 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Qty. 



$4.95 



Total 



lupiter 

ACE 

What can you 
do with a 
Jupiter Ace? 




In Schools 

Teachers already know how 
quickly children take to 
computing, and the Jupiter Ace is 
an ideal introduction. FORTH is 
an easy and important language 
to learn and by making learning 
fun, the Ace can help to teach 
science, music and many other 
subjects. 



£■£■£■£■ 



'■\ 






Your 
Move 



At Home 

The Jupiter Ace is powerful 
enough to play games as complex 
as Chess and with sound and 
high resolution graphics, action 
games written in FORTH will 
stretch your reaction speeds to 
their limits. 



In Laboratories 

For monitoring and controlling 
experiments, the Jupiter Ace has 
many advantages. The language 
is perfect, even the Jodrell Bank 
Radio Telescope is controlled in 
FORTH. The Ace expansion port 
enables it to be interfaced to 
almost anything, and the built in 
quartz timer allows experiments 
to run all weekend. 




In the Office 

Stock control. Accounts and 
Financial forecasts are all possible 
on the Jupiter Ace. With a printer 
and extra memory attached you 
can do word processing as well. 



The Jupiter Ace also features a full-size moving-key keyboard, high 
resolution graphics, sound, floating point arithmetic and 3K of RAM 
Expandable to 51 K. 

For the beginner 

Which Personal Computer is best for you? 

Simple! You need an easy-to-use language and a system that gives you all you need to start off with but with 
room to expand. FORTH is the best language for personal computers and the Jupiter Ace is the only one 
designed to use it. The specification of the Ace is already impressive and with extra memory and a printer in- 
terface it can grow with you. 

For the Personal Computer owner 

You are already aware of the limitations of BASIC. You know how slowly your programs run and how auicklv 
your computer's memory gets filled. suivmy 

FORTH is your answer. It is easier to learn and is typically ten times faster than BASIC and it only uses 20% 
more memory than machine code. 

For the FORTH enthusiast 

The Jupiter Ace closely follows the FORTH 79 standard with extensions for floating point sound and 
cassette. It has a unique and remarkable editor that allows you to list and alter words that have been 
previously compiled into the dictionary. This avoids the need to store screens of source, allowing the dic- 
tionary itself to be saved on cassette. Comprehensive error checking removes the worry of accidentally 
crashing your programs. 

CIRCLE 160 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




"5^ 



Micro-Courier 



:>*^ 



"Jones, take a letter. I want this to go 
to all our salespeople immediately. 
Hrrumph." 

"Right, R.J. No problem. Go ahead." 
"Dear fellows and gals. I'm happy to 
announce that we have had a tremen- 
dous production breakthrough. It allows 
us to cut the price on our model 2342 
from $250 to $150, effective immedi- 
ately. This price cut should increase 
sales immensely." 

"Sign it, 'R.J. Johnson.' Hrrumph." 
"It'll go out tonight, R.J." 
The secretary walked down the row of 
offices to a door labeled Corporate Elec- 
tronic Communications. Inside was an 
Apple II Plus, two disk drives, a Hayes 
Micromodem, monitor, and a printer. 

He sat down and selected Create/Edit 
Mail from the eight-part menu on the 
screen. After a couple of questions from 
the program, he entered R.J.'s message 
and saved it to disk. 

After hitting ESC a couple of times, he 
selected Address and Review Messages 
from the menu. Once there, he chose the 
list of all 47 salespeople the company 



Dak- Archibald. INI7 Third Ave.. N.. Minneapolis. 
MN 55405. 



Dale Archibald 



had by typing Q, then entered a time of 
0100 the following morning. 

When that was complete, he added a 
few extra communications, a couple of 
text files, a VisiCalc formula, and some 
other odds and ends. These were ad- 
dressed to the individual salespeople 
who had need of them. 

After hitting i:sc again to get to the 
main menu, he selected the Send/ 
Receive Mail menu. Leaving the Apple 



A total of 100 different 

messages can be 

placed in queue for 

automatic transmittal. 



turned on, he flipped the lights in the 
room off and shut the door. 

The next morning, at 1:00, the disk 
drives began to whir. In offices around 
the country, a sequence of Micro-Courier 
programmed Apple disk drives mirrored 
this activity. 

50 



By 8:00 a.m., when Jones arrived to 
look at the message log, all salespeople 
had been notified of the price change; 
the text and other files had been 
transmitted; new information had ar- 
rived at the home office from the 
branches; and the company had saved a 
great deal of time and money. 

This fictitious scenario is an example 
of how a product such as Micro-Courier 
can operate. It will send text generated 
by the included text editor, or any DOS 
3.3 file, including programs, data, or bi- 
nary files. A total of 100 different mes- 
sages can be placed in queue for 
automatic transmittal. 

Automatic service will occur only at 
other stations using Micro-Courier. 
However, you can also use the program 
as a terminal program and send text files 
only over the telephone lines manually. 

The program was written by 
Microcom, located near Boston, and 



GPeative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Micro-Courier 
Type: Electronic mail disseminator 
System: 48K Apple II with Applesoft 
in ROM, or 11 + , DOS 3.3 
disk drive, D.C. Hayes 
Micromodem; second drive, 
clock card, and printer optional, 
but highly recommended. 

Format: Disk 

Language: Applesoft Basic 

and assembly 
Summary: Valuable business utility 
Price: $250 
Manufacturer: 

Apple Computer, Inc. 

10260 Bandley Dr. 

Cupertino, CA 95014 



May 1 983 ' Creative Computing 



The Enhancer II Proudly Presents 

A Whole New Cast 




; 



Recognize some of tl 
characters? Yo; them all 

before on your Apple" II screen, but 
now the Enhancer II has given them all 
ew identii 



he Enhancer II uniquely gives your 
Apple II user-definable keys. So you can 
define any key to become what j 

^want it to be. That means 
phrases, paragraphs 
or commands that 
you use frequently 
(up to 510 charac- 
ters!) can be re- 
membered by the 
Enhancer II and then 
» called up at the touch 

of a single key. 

Besides that, the 
Enhancer II gives your Apple II type- 
writer mode, with each key assuming the 






identity of a conven- 
tional r key. Not 
onl\ all 
the char. i II posi- 

■! having 
upper and lowercase letters, 
auto repeat, shift and shift lock 
again! The Enhancer II also has a type- 
ahead buffer of 128 characters, so you 
can keep sending messages to your 
Apple II even while it's busy with 
something else. 



And if you want to meet even more new 
characters, the optional Function Strip™ 
will introduce you to 16 brand-new keys 
across the top of your keyboard which 
are yours alone to define. (These charac- 
ters will never get mixed up with charac- 
ters from the keyboard!) 






We may be prejudiced, but we 
think you're going to like these new 

"key" characters from Enhancer II. In 
fact, we'll bet that once you've seen 
them perform, they'll become the 
stars of your screen. 



* 



Suggested retail prices: 
Enhancer D, $149 
Function Strip, $79 
Combined Package, $215 



I 



idex 










897 NW Grant • Corvallis. OR 97330 

torn II and Function Stan cm In- u*d «*h any An* 
with a knfeianl cncinkt 

Apple and the Apple k«n an- nttMrml trademarks . < Apple 
CIRCLE 295 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






■ 







Products for VIC 20 and CBWI 64 




SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



Wirt Wizard Fir TIk Vie 20' -(Requires at least 8K memory expansion) A user 
friendly WORD PROCESSOR with optional joystick control. Easy edit and string 
manipulation commands that follow the standard format Full use of function keys for 
ease of use 1 00% machine language with Delete Word. Search functions and Full 
Justification Use VIC Graphic printer, or any Centronics compatible printer connected 
to the user port. On Tape (supports disk) $34.95. 

ZAP!-Chmbing the corporate ladder could be fun except for all that falling paperwork 
This Hires arcade type game allows up to 4 players to advance through each floor and 
change levels to scale the corporate ranks Be careful, it's easy to be ZAPPED 1 
CARTRIDGE for VIC 20 ' s29 95 

Bomber Wirt-A unique graphic word game on cartridge that provides the full thrill of 
arcade action Complete with six modes of play options for added enjoyment Play 
against the computer or another player 6 to adult For VIC 20' $29.95. 

Tie Mtiek-A fast action arcade game on Cartridge that challenges all of your 
dexterity Written in machine language for special audio & visual effects. Over 100 
levels of play High score indication. For VIC 20' $29.95 

Bit- A- Lit- As you wander through the maze of life collecting Berries, you happen upon 
some magical fruit Pick one and the treasures appear, but the Meanies are out today 
looking to spoil your fun Defeat them and continue on to a higher level An ever 
changing maze plus arcade type animation and sound will provide a real winning 
CARTRIDGE for the VIC 20 V « 995 

Triple Play- Three word games that are both fun and educational The games that are 
included are CROSSWORDS (requires at least 8K expansion) Five complete puzzles 
are included and each puzzle has up to 1 00 different words CRYPTO- SOLVE will help 
you solve those cryptic messages found in newspapers, books, and magazines with a 

Dealer and Distributor 
Inquiries Invited 

NOTE We solicit hardware and software items tot the VIC 20- andCBM64' Royalties, license fees, or outright purchases 
can be negotiated CBM 64" & VIC 20 - are Registered Trademarks o! Commodore Business Machines Inc 



systematic computer technique. Included are approximately 50 different 
puzzles You can even enter your own cryptic messages HIDDEN WORDS will 
display a matrix of seemingly random letters on the screen Upon closer inspection 
you will be able to find many words Included are approximately 25 different puzzles 
For VIC 20' ONLY $29.95 fir ill 3 

Sketch Pi( & Clur-Gii-This hi-resolution drawing program will allow you to draw 
pictures in detail Use either the keyboard or optional joystick A fill command will 
allow you to fill a block and other commands allow you to easily clear the screen You 
can also save and load pictures Char-Gen is a simple to use custom character 
generator that will allow you to design different characters for each printable key on 
the computer This program is an excellent device to design game creatures, loreign 
alphabets, secret symbols, or other special characters One set is included ^and you 
can make and store others quite easily Both for VIC 20' ONLY $24.95 



E»iiid-0-Rim-16K Expansion Board for the VIC 20' with reset, memory write 
protect full memory allocation, plus TWO expansion slots Like having 2 products in 
1 Can even be used as a cartridge development system ,*,'.: 

Universal Taie Interlace & OnilieitiMUse on the CBM 64' and VIC 20'). With this 
device you can easily load, save or even duplicate tapes easily with your recorder 
Full 3 LED indication of Data transfer makes this the most reliable way to Load. Save 
and Duplicate A complete 1/0 device with extras. NOTE Duplication requires 2 
recorders 0il ' * 

Universal Parallel IMerlacM-Now you can use most any parallel Centronics' type 
printer with your VIC 20'/CBM 64' The inexpensive model will allow \ 
your printer through the user port This cable and driver is ^^ 
only $19.95 Our other model from TYMAC is mr- 
extensive with graphic capabilities Call or 
write for more information and 
prices. 



micro 
umrE 

DISTRIBUTING INC 
1342 B Rt. 23, Butler, NJ 07405 
201-838-9027 




CIRCLE 221 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






Micro-Courier, continued... 

distributed by Apple to Apple dealers 
and customers. 

When I first received this program to 
examine, I was impressed by the care 
that had been taken with it. The 168- 
page instruction manual is bound ex- 
actly as the Apple manuals are. 

The manual/tutorial is clear and well 
documented; the program prompts at 
every step of the way. Overall, Micro- 
Courier appears to be a good program 
for firms that need this type of high 
performance. 

Naturally, a program this expensive is 
protected against copying. One caveat: I 
don't like the offer of immediate replace- 
ment upon return of the master disk; 
when a company needs a program like 
this, they need it now. If they had 
wanted to put up with delays and slow 
delivery, they could have continued to 
patronize the USPS. 

After 90 days, replacements cost $35. 

Using the Program 

You begin by configuring the program 
to your system. Up to four disk drives 
can be accommodated, as well as the 
other peripherals. You also enter your 



The built-in editor is 
simple but complete. 



printer line width, and the sender ID 
which will be attached to each Micro- 
Courier station. 

You have mailbox IDs from 01 to 99 
which you can assign. Select Mailbox 
Directory Maintenance from the menu, 
and the display will give you another 
menu. Among other things, you can 
then add or change mailboxes, print a 
directory or a list of numbers to which 
you regularly send electronic mail, and 
other things. 

Once you have assigned an ID num- 
ber to a recipient, you can enter his 
name and telephone number. Up to 36 
digits can be entered here to allow for 
access and user codes, and pauses (an as- 
terisk will pause for two seconds). 

That's it. That's all there is to entering 
a mailbox ID. To send electronic mail 
after that just select the recipient's 
number. 

Other Features 

If you want to build a specific list 
(from A to Z) to which you often send a 
common message, select a name of up to 
20 characters. The program will display 
the valid mailbox IDs you can add or 
remove. 

The built-in editor is simple but com- 
plete. You can enter up to 4000 upper- 
May 1 983 « Creative Computing 



case only characters with it. It will beep 
at the 3980 mark and at each character 
thereafter to warn you. 

Note: I am told that this 4000 charac- 
ter limit applies to all files. You can 
transmit a longer file, but it won't be 
saved. If you want to send longer ones, 
you must break them into smaller seg- 
ments and give them different file 
names. 

Once you have saved the file under a 
name you have selected, you can come 
back and edit or change it, or print the 
file. 

Next you have the Review/Address 
Outgoing Mail menu. This lets you ad- 
dress messages with mailbox IDs, see a 
log of messages ready to go or that have 
already been sent, and a log of messages 
that were sent during the last sending 
session. You could also remove mes- 
sages, or print copies of them. 

In the case of the message R.J. wanted 
to send to his sales force, he would have 
picked selection 2, Send Message to List, 
from the Address Messages menu. 

You are asked if a file is printable. Ob- 
viously, some text files will be; other files 
must be interpreted by a program to 
have any value. It also asks if you want 
to use the current date and time. Thus, if 
you select this and go into the Send/ 
Receive Mode, the message will be sent 
immediately. 

If you have a clock, you will be 
prompted for a date and time to send. 
This might be helpful for "timed" 
announcements such as press releases, 
the manual points out. 

You could also select Send Mail Only, 
Receive Only, or Send and Receive Mail. 
A block of four characters, two by two, 
mirrors what is being sent. This is visible 
reassurance that something is really go- 
ing on inside the machine. 

During a transmission, you can also 
stop the action with ctri.-h (Halt) or 
CTRL-i (Immediate Halt). Even with the 
precipitous effect of ctrl-i, the program 
will close any open files and place them 
into the message log. 

With Review Incoming Mail from the 
menu, you can see and/or get a printed 
copy of all messages received, plus make 
a log of received messages, you can even 
review only messages addressed to a spe- 
cific person at the receiving Apple. 

The receiving Micro-Courier system 
adds a five-digit number from i 0,000 to 
99,999 to each incoming message. Thus, 
if two sending stations happen to use the 
same file name you won't be stalled, 
since the numbers will be different. 

You can also rename a file incorrectly, 
using a duplicate of a name already 
assigned. 

Micro-Courier will postpone trans- 
missions if a message is being received 
while the Apple is supposed to be send- 

53 



ing. The print-out of the Received Mail 
log can be used for record keeping. 
Thus, records that aren't printable can 
be tracked. 

If a line is busy when the program 
telephones, it will go on to the next mail- 
box immediately and try to connect with 
the missed one later. 

You don't need to set protocols 
(instructions for various machines to 
connect) for other Micro-Courier 
machines. 

There are some weaknesses, however. 
The first is that the machine must redial 
for each message. The second is that to 
catalog the file names, you must go 
through the Utility section of the pro- 
gram. I could find no way to print out 
the file names, either. 

Finally, in some segments of the pro- 
gram, entry of information is very lim- 
ited. That is, a date must be entered as 
MM/DD/YY. 

All things considered, Micro-Courier 
is a good program. It is easy to use, and 
would undoubtedly be of great value in 
the appropriate business situation. 



Microcom 

Microcom views communications 
for small computers as a three-step 
process. 

First is the simple addition of a 
modem, smart or dumb, and some 
basic software so the computer can 
act as a terminal. In this mode, it is 
able to initiate communications lo a 
host computer, but it cannot act as a 
host. Some terminals use a simple 
protocol while others emulate more 
sophisticated special-purpose termi- 
nals (Telex, 3240, etc.). 

Second is communications in 
which the small computer can act as 
a host to either a smart or dumb 
terminal or another computer. Micro- 
Courier is an example of this type of 
system. The computer can then be 
used for point-to-point electronic 
mail, local bulletin boards and data 
bases, and downloading of programs. 
An advanced version of Micro-Cou- 
rier can support several different 
protocols so that, for example, a Ba- 
sic program can be transmitted from 
a TRS-80 Model III to an Apple II (it 
won't necessarily run once it gets 
there, however). 

The third step is a specific applica- 
tions software package overlaid on 
the basic communications software. 
This could simulate a Telegraph or 
TWX and could operate completely 
unattended for both receiving and 
sending. Micro Telegraph is such a 
product. 



Cdex 



VisiCalc Made Easier 




creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Cdex Training for Visicalc 
Type: Computer-assisted training 

for Visicalc 
System: 48K Apple II Plus, disk 

drive 
Format: Three 1 6-sector disks 
Summary: Well-designed training 

program in Visicalc fundamentals 
Price: $49.95 
Manufacturer: 

Cdex Corporation 

5050 El Camino Real 

Suite 200 

Los Altos, CA 94022 



L. L. Beavers 



I once plopped a coworker down in 
front of ;m Apple, handed her the 
Visicalc manual, and said something 
like, "Here learn this — its easy " I lied 
a little. As good as the Visicalc tutorial 
is. it is really not that easy. But with 
Cdex, learning Visicalc on your own is 
definitely made easier. Cdex won't teach 
you advanced Visicalc techniques, but it 
should take you from Visi-innocent to 
competent user in a few hours. 

Not Like a Book 

The Cdex program comes on three 
diskettes, each of which presents a series 
of brief lessons You need not take them 
in the recommended order, but the pro- 
gression appears carefully planned, so 
you probably should. Also encased in 
the Cdex box is a small three-ring binder 
containing a 62-page manual. The man- 
ual is organized into three tabbed sec- 
tions: Visicalc command reference, 
examples of se\ en J isicalc worksheets, 
and exercises 

Using Cdex is not like working 
through the Visicalc tutorial. This pro- 
gram is much more than a book dis- 
played one monitor screen at a time. 



I I Beavers. 2.W0? Ash Okn Ctrdc Valencia, CA 
91355 



Text, graphics, and sound are all 
used — and used well. 

The type font used in the text displays 
is large, easy to read, and pleasant to 
look at. The displays were designed by 
someone who understood how to use 
layout to communicate. There are no 
gaudy flashing or inverse characters to 
detract from the readability of the dis- 
play, but the important points are clear 
at a glance. 

The graphics are equally well done 
The graphic displays are of two basic 
types One is a very nice picture of the 
Apple keyboard (with a couple of 
characters missing- more about that 
later), to help you find the keys im- 
portant to Visicalc. The other is a 
slightly shrunken image of the Visiculc 
display screen. This enables Cdex to 
show you what happens on the Visicalc 
screen when you type a command. What 
you see unfold on these displays is very 
close to what you will see when you try 
the same commands with Visicalc. The 
main difference is that events are slowed 
on the Cdex displays to give you time to 
see what is happening. The text 
accompanying these graphics points out 
what to look for, sometimes with the 
help of flashing arrows pointing to a 



Figure 1. 



Cdex Menu 



subject 



t of «>la>«l lo 



Ma 

you tram the i 



B- Moo) lo Us* This Proo/aa 
a. Kay Tor as Vou Meed to Vj 
C ftaiwng the Curio* on ft* 
D I aboJing fnluani and Room 
t . Entering values and Foroiulas 
F. aai tj lig aith Functions 



■ ■. B. C, 0, E Of F ♦ 
after selection, press RFTURM 



particularly important part of the 
display. 

Cdex uses sound most effectively to 
alert you to watch the screen for some 
important event — just before the Visicalc 
graphic is to change, for example. Sound 
is also used to reward right answers to 
questions (happy beeps — TERRIFIC!), 
and to alert you to errors (not-so-happy 
beeps— NOT QUITE). The sounds used 
are not overly intrusive, though some 
may find the happy beeps a bit heavy 
handed. 

Text, graphics, and sound are not only 
well handled individually, but they are 
well integrated. When something is 
about to happen on the Visicalc facsim- 
ile, text appears alerting you to what is 
about to happen. Then you press Kl - 
M kn or type a command, you hear a 
beep, and you see the event take place on 
the same screen. Then more text may be 
added for emphasis. All of this is usually 
done without the discontinuity and 
annoying delay of erasing and reprinting 
the screen. 

Using Cdex 

A Cdex session begins with two title 
screens, the second of which asks for 
your name, followed by a main menu. I 
have reproduced the menus for the three 
diskettes as Figures 1. 2. and .V Each 
menu item is a lesson on a particular 
Visicalc topic. 



Figure 2. 




ft. Using ( 

B. Saving and Retrieving Vour I 
C Printing Vour Bert 

0. Raaticatingi The Concept 

C. Rapllcattngc The Process 




54 



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Cdex, continued. 



Cdex Menu 

Befermcc hsk 

Please select the topic of I 

VOU *T OS ttM MM below 



l Usino. Bull In functions 

C Km aorisheel Tore* 
0. Entering labels 

E. Ejller inq. Values 

F. Entering Foraaaas 
V. (at lo UnCalc 

B3BD M. B. C. 0. E, F or V) 
Wl« s election. |«nt HIUM 




i the case off faravlas, uou, I 

la decade another each variable is 

to be aawad sett, HO CMHHU or BE1BTII* 

lo its nam tinla 
CH Fro* the Cdex ■onu you can proceed 

■Wat to the process of replicating. 

Brass BFTUBM to Continue 



Figure .?. 



Lessons generally begin with a brief 
review of relevant prior material, con- 
tinue with a series of instructional 
screens, and end with a test question and 
suggested exercises. Throughout this 
process, user input seems to be ex- 
tremely well error-trapped. Pressing ri- 
si i causes the disk to re-boot, but I 
couldn't cause the program to end ab- 
normally in any other way. Generally, 
responses not in the set of possibilities 
are ignored and do not appear on the 
screen. 

Instruction Screens 

The series of instruction screens pre- 
sented for each menu topic contains the 
real substance of the lessons I found 
them generally to be clearly and con- 
cisely written, well paced, and accurate 
in their representation of the behavior of 
Visicalc. 

For instance, the replicate command 
(/R) is probably the most conceptually 
difficult of the basic Visicalc commands. 
Cdex handles it in two lessons, one de- 
voted to the concept and the other to the 
procedure. Take a look at Figure 4, 
which shows a review screen from the 
"Replicating — The Concept" lesson. 

That's a nice, lucid review of the idea. 
It follows a series of other nice, lucid 
explanations, which together commu- 
nicate very well the power and use of the 
replicate command. 

Of course, there are a few places in the 
Cdex training program in which I think 
that the explanations are unclear or con- 
tain errors. I have compiled the ones I 
found in a "Quibble List" contained in 
the sidebar. Those evaluating Cdex for 
purchase should find it easy to scan this 
list and form their own opinions of the 
seriousness of the problems. Those using 
the programs should find some useful 
clarification in the list. In my opinion 
the quibbles listed don't significantly im- 
pair the usefulness of the program. 

Quiz Time 

After Cdex presents the instruction 
screens, it asks one test question. Since 

May 1 983 ' Creative Computing 



Figure 4. 



each lesson covers a relatively small sub- 
ject, and since the instruction screens of- 
ten include some question-and-answer 
interaction, one question seems to be 
enough. 

The question screen offers options 
other than the obvious one of entering 
the answer. You can ask for a hint, you 
can review the material in the lesson, or 
you can skip the question entirely. The 
hints seem to offer a good compromise 



The best feature of the 

quiz routine is its error 

diagnosis. 



between giving too much information 
and giving no help at all. The review op- 
tion simply restarts the series of instruc- 
tion screens over again. This review 
process can be frustratingly slow if all 
you are looking for is one item of 
information. 

I think that the best feature of the 
quiz routine is its error diagnosis. Errors 
that show inadequate understanding of 
some part of the lesson are greeted with 
a message clarifying that point. For 
example, in Visicalc if you want a cell to 
have the same value as that in cell B5, 
you must type 4- B5 to specify the value 
reference. If you omit the + and simply 
type B5, Visicalc treats it as a label 
(which has a zero numeric value) be- 
cause the first character typed was 
alphabetic. When Cdex asked me a ques- 
tion about this, I intentionally omitted 
the plus sign The program told me that 
I had forgoiten it, reminded me of why 
it was important, and invited me to try 
again. Very nice. 

Visicalc Exercise 

At the very end of each lesson is a 
screen directing you to the Cdex manual 
for a guided practice session with 
Visicalc. You can skip this exercise, but I 

59 



suggest that you take advantage of it. 
There is nothing like hands-on experi- 
ence to show you what you don't know. 
The exercises are short, and worth the 
time. 

Cdex and the Visi-Innocent 

I have used Visicalc extensively, so I 
am hardly a typical customer for the 
Cdex program; but my wife is. As a 
lending officer for a major bank, she 
does a great deal of financial analysis. 
Visicalc is well-suited for that kind of 
work, but she has never had a chance to 
learn it. 

Predictably, her reactions to Cdex 
were a little different from mine. First 
there were matters of taste. Cdex starts 
each session by asking your name. My 
wife felt this a bit childish, so she gave it 
a scatological response. I recommend 
that everyone try this at least 
once — some of the resulting Cdex mes- 
sages are hilarious. She also felt that the 
use of sound to indicate right answers 
was "dumb. Correct' would be suf- 
ficient." she said. 

She found the delay in drawing 
graphic displays sometimes annoying, but 
agreed that the graphics were well done 
and informative. She also pointed out 
some ambiguities that I had overlooked. 
They appear in the Quibble list. 

She liked the organization of the pro- 
gram in small segments, pointing out 
that people using it in an office environ- 
ment would be subject to interruptions. 
But this makes the ability to review the 
instruction screens rapidly even more 
desirable, and its absence more 
irritating. 

Overall she thought Cdex a "good 
program." More to the point, she was 
able to acquire a practical working 
knowledge of Visicalc in about six hours. 
These hours were not in a single block, 
but were scattered over a one-week pe- 
riod, just as they probably would be in 
an office environment. 

Summary 

I agree with her evaluation — Cdex is a 
good program, and a very good value for 
its $49.95 price. It should be very useful 
to those who need to learn the fun- 
damentals of Visicalc. Having someone 
available to answer questions might be 
useful, but I think Cdex is easily good 
enough to stand alone if necessary 

Cdex is not (and does not claim to be) 
a substitute for reading and understand- 
ing the Visicalc manual. I suggest a care- 
ful reading of Part III (Visicalc 
Command Reference) of the Visicalc 
manual after completing the Cdex 
course. You will not then be a sophis- 
ticated Visicalc user — that only comes 
with experience — but you will have a 
solid foundation on which to build 
sophistication. 



Cdex, continued. 



Quibble List 

Below arc some quibbles I have with the Cdex program. 
These quibbles fall into two broad categories: misleading or 
inaccurate statements regarding Visicalc, and unclear or 
ambiguous instructions. I have organized these in a rough 
order from most to least serious. I don't think that any of 
these problems, or even all of them taken together, is serious 
enough to significantly damage the usefulness of Cdex as a 
training tool — which is why I call them "quibbles." 

Inaccuracies 

Graph Format (/F*) 

Cdex says that Visicalc rounds decimal numbers to inte- 
ger values to determine the number of asterisks plotted. Ac- 
tually the program truncates (Visicalc manual, p. 3-20). 

Formula Calculation 

The conventional way of resolving formulas uses a 
"hierarchy of operations" — multiplication and division op- 
erations are performed first, then addition and subtraction 
operations. For example, in Basic the statement PRINT 
2 + 4/2 would give 4. Visicalc doesn't work that way. It re- 
solves formulas from left to right, so that the formula 
2 + 4/2 would give a Visicalc result of 3. Many Visicalc users 
expect the hierarchy of operations to be obeyed. Cdex 
should have alerted them that Visicalc behaves more like a 
hand calculator than a computer program in this respect. 
Worse, Cdex does not mention the function of parentheses 
in grouping terms (see pp. 2-69 to 2-70 and 3-72 in the 
Visicalc manual). I consider this important enough to label 
it an inaccuracy — by omission. 

Overlaying 

According to Cdex, when you are loading a file from your 
storage disk (/SL), the Visicalc screen must be clear. Ac- 
tually, Visicalc has no such requirement, and if you adhere 
to it you will lose what overlaying capabilities Visicalc has 
(see pp. 3-60 to 3-61 of the Visicalc manual). 

Keyboard Graphic 

The Cdex graphic display of the Apple keyboard does not 
show two of the characters needed for Visicalc applications. 
One is the circumflex (a), which Visicalc uses to indicate 
exponentiation, and which is typed as SHIFT-N. The other is 
the (« . which Visicalc uses as the first character of all func- 
tion references, and which is typed as SHIFT-P. 

Ambiguities 

File Deletion (/SO) 

In its discussion of the command to delete a file on the 
Visicalc storage disk, Cdex says that after the command is 
completed you can change your mind and resave the sheet 
with /SS. That is true //the sheet on the screen is the same 
as the file that was deleted. Visicalc will let you delete any 
file on the disk, and if the one you delete is not the one on 
the screen, the deletion is final. 

Cell As Third Dimension 

Cdex discusses a cell on the Visicalc worksheet as having 
"depth" and as giving Visicalc a "third dimension." I think 
this obscures a simple idea: a cell is just a place on the 



worksheet into which you can write a label, a number, or a 
formula. 

Forward Reference 

Cdex has only a rather oblique reference to a common 
Visicalc problem, "If you reference a cell that Visicalc has 
not yet calculated, an error may occur." This is called a 
"forward reference" in the Visicalc manual (pp. 2-63 to 2- 
64), and it is an important source of error — especially for in- 
experienced users. Cdex also mentions the Visicalc 
commands to change the order of recalculation (/GOR and 
/GOC), without telling you why you would want to do such 
a thing. Avoiding forward reference is the reason (see pp. 3- 
22 through 3-25 of the Visicalc manual). 

Printing (/P) 

Printing a worksheet is one of the more complicated 
Visicalc functions, primarily because of the differences 
among printer configurations. One of the Cdex screens says 
that a setup string is used for producing special effects on 
the printer. Since those "special effects" include printing 
anything more than 40 characters on a line, the setup string 
may be essential to effective use of your printer. The Cdex 
manual notes this possibility (p. 12) and refers you to the 
Visicalc manual for details (I suggest pp. 3-40 to 3-48). If 
you read that section of the Visicalc manual, you may also 
notice that the Cdex discussion of the /PP option is not en- 
tirely correct. Cdex says that you must specify the slot num- 
ber of the printer interface if it is any slot other than 1. 
According to the Visicalc manual, /PP causes Visicalc to 
output to the lowest numbered slot containing a peripheral 
communications card — not necessarily slot 1. You would 
have a problem typing /PP if you had an inactive peripheral 
on a lower-numbered slot than the one the printer interface 
is in, so you are better off to develop the habit of typing the 
printer slot number rather than /PP. 

Visicalc Functions 

The way the Visicalc functions are categorized on Cdex 
Disk 3 is not particularly clean. One of the categories is 
"List Functions," which is said to include ©SUM, ©MAX, 
«< MIN, ©COUNT, and ©AVERAGE. From the name of 
this category and the functions in it, you might conclude 
that these are the functions that accept lists of Visicalc cells 
as arguments. But some of the logical functions do too 
(@ AND and ©OR), as does ©CHOOSE. Also, while we're 
on the subject of functions, Cdex says that the result of the 
©MAX function is the "identity of the largest value." Ac- 
tually, Visicalc just returns the largest value. What's the 
"identity or* 4? 

Exercises 

On Cdex Disks 1 and 2, the final screen of each lesson di- 
rects you to an exercise outlined in the Cdex manual. The 
directions presented on that final screen are out of order. 
Item 2 tells you to read and follow the printed exercise. But 
the printed exercise begins with the statement, "A blank 
Visicalc worksheet should now be showing on your screen." 
Item 3 on the Cdex display screen tells you how to boot the 
Visicalc disk, and so produce that blank worksheet. The 
printed instructions preceding the series of exercises in the 
Cdex manual also tell you how to boot Visicalc. but some 
users might still find the sequence on the display screen 
confusing. D 



60 



May 1 983 Creative Computing 



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A Picture Is Worth 1 ,000 Words 
But How Many Numbers? 



L. L. Beavers 



I like numbers. That makes me a little strange, because most 
people don't. In a sense, they're right: numbers don't commu- 
nicate. Consider Ms. Big. 

A Session with Apple II Business Graphics 

As an executive with Chewie Gobbles Confections, Inc., you 
have been asked to design a presentation for Ms. Big, executive 
vice president of your parent company, International 
Munchies. Ms. Big is your basic bottom-line sort of 
person — she wants specifics, she wants to see them clearly and 
quickly, and she wants to know what they mean to her. You 
are supposed to turn some sales and margin numbers into a 
presentation that will make her smile. You have one hour. 

First, feed the computer. You put the Apple II Business 
Graphics disk into drive 1 and a data disk you have named 
CHEWIE: into drive 2, and turn on the power. After some 
whirring of disks, and some noises that sound like the program 
disk is being initialized (one of Apple's technical support people 
assures me this is normal), you get a prompt. 

You type edit to invoke the editor, and after a few seconds 
the number one and a question mark appear on the screen. You 
want time on the horizontal axis, so you enter the sales figure 
this way: 

, 1 .06 

40 

80 

27 

71 



L. L. Beavers. 2M05 Ash Glen Circle. Valencia. CA 91355. 



1 


? "19 7 7" 


2 


? 1978 . 1 


3 


? 1979, 1 


4 


? 1980,2 


5 


? 1981 ,2 


6 


? END 



The word END exits the editor, and the computer responds 
with: 

5 LABELS LOADED 

5 POINTS LOADED 

You save the data with the command SAV1 < hi WI1 sai i S. 
Now you type CI BAR to clear the work file and edit to 
reinvoke the editor, and you enter your gross margin figures: 



1 


? " 1977" ,41 


2 


? 1978,37 


3 


? 1979, 38 


4 


? 1980, 38 


5 


? 1981 .40 


6 


? END 



You save these data on your CHEWIE disk with the com- 
mand SAVE CHI Wll -MARGINS. 

The computer now has all of your data. 



creative competing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Apple II Business Graphics 

Type: Interactive business graphics package 

System: 48K Apple II, at least two disk drives, 

language card or 16K add-on memory card. 
Format: Disk 
Language: Pascal 
Summary: Excellent general purpose business 

graphics package 
Developed By: Business & Professional 
Software, Inc. 
Cambridge, MA 
Distributed By: 

Apple Computer, Inc. 

10260 Bandley Dr. 

Cupertino, CA 95014 



63 



May 1 983 ■ Creative Computing 



Business Graphics, continued... 

Elapsed time: 5 minutes. You decide to look at the sales data 
first, so you type: 

CLEAR 

LOAD CHEWIE SALES 

The program responds with: 

5 LABELS LOADED 

5 POINTS LOADED 

How about a bar graph? You type draw bar, and the 
following graph appears on your screen. 



Graph 1 



That looks fine. You save this display by typing swi 
SCREEN CHEWIE5AJ is. Elapsed time: 11 minutes. 
Now for the margin figures: 
CLEAR 

LOAD CHEW I E : MARG I NS 
SET VERTICAL RANGE 45 
DRAW BAR 
What you get looks like this: 

Graph 3. 




Now for some titles: 

SET TITLE "CHEW I E GOBBLES CONFECT I ONS , I NC . " 

SET HOR I ZONTAL T I TLE "F I SCAL YEAR" 

SET VERTICAL TITLE "MILL IONS" 

The title should be more specific, so: 

SET FLOATING TITLE "GROSS SALES, 1977- 1981" 

A box appears on the graphics screen, and you use the U 
(up), D (down), L (left), and R (right) keys to position the title 
under the title of the graph. The results look like this: 

Graph 2. 



Not so good. The fluctuations in the margin 
among the trees. Maybe a line graph would be 
CLEAR SCREEN 
CLEAR VERT I CAL RANGE 
DRAW L I NE 

Graph 4. 



figures get lost 
better. 



CHEWIE GOBBLES CONFECTIONS, INC. 
3 -*HI GROSS SALES, 1977-1981 




1977 1978 1979 1988 1981 
FISCAL VEAR 




Now we can see what's happening, and it isn't all good. Ms. 
Big should be told what happened in 1978: 

SET FLOATING TITLE "1978 SUGAR UP 60%" 

You position that title, and type in the remaining titles: 

SET TITLE "CHEW I E GOBBLES CONFECT I ONS , I NC " 

SET VERT I CAL T I TLE "% OF SALES" 

SET HOR I ZONTAL T I TLE "F I SCAL YEAR" 

SET FLOATING TITLE "GROSS MARG I NS . 1977-1981" 



64 



May 1983 « Creative Computing 



Lee McFadden makes 
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Business Graphics, continued... 

The result of your efforts looks like this: 
Graph 5. 



OCHIE GOBBLES CONFECTIOf^. INC. 
41.eT i, GROSS MARGINS, 1977-1961 





nears to say. Plot on a large scale and fluctuations and trends 
ffiodc Imall; plot on a small scale and they w.ll look large. 
Apple II Business Graphics lets you choose a scale that ac- 

""fifr SSSSSiffolfcr. one more option useful with 
lineTraphs You can color in the area between a curve connect- 
ing ?o U P r data points and the horizontal ax,, This is called 

" Sh One n c^mmon use of shading is to emphasize the difference 
between two sets of numbers. Suppose I am interested in the 
prices of unleaded gasoline and of diesel fuel, and .n the dif- 
ference between them. Then I might use this graph: 

Graph 6. 



1977 



1 978 SUGAR UP 68% 
1981 



1978 1979 1988 
FISCAL YEAR 



You save the graph by typing, save screen 

CHEWIF.:MARGINS. , 

You are now ready to print the results for your boss s ap- 
proval. Total elapsed time: 20 minutes. Have a cup of coffee. 

Which Graphs You Need 

The man who wrote of office buildings, "Form ever follows 
function." could have been talking about graphics. In graphics 
"function" means communication: communication between 
you and your data (interpretation), and communication be- 
tween you and other people (presentation). 

For both interpretation and presentation, you need three 
kinds of graphs: line graphs, bar graphs, and pie charts. 



When you have few numbers and 

large differences between them, try 

a bar graph. 



c 145-, 

E 
N14B- 

T 

8 OS 

p 

£138 



U.S. MOTOR FUEL WICES 

REGULAR UNLEADED GASOLINE 

VS. DIESEL FUEL 



REG. UNL. GASOLINE 




D*t* courtesy of Lundberg Survey, Inc. 



Line Graphs . 

You need line graphs to depict trends, and Apple II Business 
Graphics offers extensive line graph capabilities. 

First, you want to be able to plot as many points as you need 
on a single curve. With Apple II Business Graphics the number 
of points is limited more by practicality than by the program. I 
have plotted as many as 400 points on one curve. 

Second, you want to compare curves by plotting them on the 
same graph. Of course, the curves must be distinguishable. Ap- 
ple II Business Graphics provides two methods: eight different 
symbols for the plot points and six different curve types. Here, 
too, practicality is the limit: you could plot 15 distinguishable 
curves, but no one would read them. 

Third, you want control of the ranges of the numeric scales. 
The scale can have a tremendous effect on what a graph ap- 



Unfortunately, there is no command for filling in the area be- 
tween curves. I did the display by first filling the area under the 
unleaded gasoline price curve. Then I filled the area under the 
diesel price curve with the color set to black, thus erasing that 
shading. The remaining shaded area is between the two curves. 
I then drew the two curves and drew a horizontal line at 115 
(since the horizontal axis had been partially erased). 

Those are the most important line graphing capabilities, and 
they are all available— though perhaps requiring a little fudg- 
ing. But you don't want to draw lines for the rest of your life do 
you? 

Bar Graphs ,.„ . , 

When you have few numbers and large differences between 
them, try a bar graph. Bar graphs are properly drawn from a 
zero baseline, so small differences get lost. That s why we re- 
jected the bar graph of gross margins for Ms. Big. 

As with line graphs, the ability to plot more than one set ot 
numbers on the same bar chart is useful. Apple II Business 
Graphics limits you to four data sets per graph. If both scales 
are numeric, you can use overlapping bars and plot more data 
sets, but the need rarely arises. 

The bars can be vertical or horizontal. They can be filled, 
outlined, or both. Furthermore the filling or outlining can be 
done in your choice of colors (green, violet, white, orange, blue, 
or black). Even with a black-and-white display, colors can be 
used to vary the density of lines and shading. 

You don't have control over the width of the bars. Rejoice. 
You don't want it. The program scales the width based on the 



66 



May 1983 • Creative Computing 



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Business Graphics, continued... 

STL!£ ban bei " 8 dTa , Wn - Practical ^Plications for variable 

2*£ nul^ce. ™* "* **"* * ""^ *»"* ca " * a 

Also not available is one option you might want— segmented 

bars. The need for this kind of display is fairly common n 

?£r*£2 Z ""E ' "*£ "-*««£« *« wan, to "how i 
a bar graph, but each number has two or more components that 
you also want to show. For example, suppose youTmter^ted 
n the growth of the U.S. population, but yoJalso wa"7 to ee 
he urbanization of that population. You could represent the 
total population, the urban population, and the rurah^ula- 
t.on as three data sets on a multiple bar graph, like this: 

Graph 7. 



JJRBANIZATION OF THE U.S. POPULATION 
"°1 1959 - 19SB 




The problem with this is that the reader can't see that the to- 
tal is the sum of the urban and rural populations. Until the 
reader knows this, the increasing proportion of the population 
follow!" C ' ,,eS " S CUI " e A much be,,er dis P lav wou| d he the 

Graph 8. 



URBANIZATION OF THE U.S. POPULATION 
1798 - 1988 



258-, 
225 

288-1 



Bar = Total U.S. Census: 
Rural Pop., shaded 
Urban Pop., unshaded 




1798 1828 1858 1888 1918 1948 1978 
CENSUS 



tlJ! H , g 3 C Carer display of ,he data - ** graph shows 
that cheaters somettmes prosper in computing. I said thatX/, 
'I Business Graphics has no option for producing : «gmenS 
?/n, graP H h , S K ye ' ' ^ VejUSl sh<nvn y°" °»* How- fch£?n£ 
ThenT ^ Tu P°P u,a,ion da « a a "d drew a set of SX tars 

2 of Z < l^ ,0,a ' U ? P°P ula,i «" da < a a "d drew another 
set of bars (,n the same place) with the ... , set to OFF flu- 
blank ,ns,de each bar is then the urban population 

Pie Graphs 

Another way to show fractional parts of an aggregate is with 
a pie chart. Normally you use a pie when only the S ve cs 

Sows vl °";V n,ere ^ yOU F ° r exam P' e -'he following car 
snows U.S. energy production by source. 

Graph 9. 



U.S. ENERGV PRODUCTION, 1981 



NUCLEAR 

* HYDROELECTRIC 



NATURAL GAS 



OIL NGPL f 

'Natural Gas Plant Liquids 
Source: U.S. Departeent of Energy 




May 1983 • Creative Computing 



You don t control the size of the pie, nor can you overlay a 
pie on another chart. Unfortunately, neither can you highlight 
one of several slices by offsetting it from the rest " 

But the essential capabilities are there. You can draw a pie 
with each slice clearly distinguishable from its neighbors You 
can control the colors that create this distinction. The program 
automatically labels the slices, and you can put additional la- 
bels on the graph. You can even draw a pie with a slice missing 
to show that your data don't cover the universe of interest 

Titles 

One of the most appealing things about Apple II Business 
Graphics is the flexible way it handles titles for all these graphs 
There are four flavors: a general title, a vertical title printed to 
the left of the vertical axis, a horizontal title printed below the 
horizontal axis, and floating titles— as many as you 
want— printed anywhere. Any of these titles can be printed in 
both upper- and lower-case characters, and 26 special charac- 
ters (including trademark and copyright symbols) are also 
available. 

The real beauty of this scheme is in the floating titles You 
can print them horizontally or vertically, and you can use them 
to label curves in a line graph, bars in a bar graph, slices in a pie 
graph, or groups of points in a scatter plot. You can also use 
floating titles to add lines to the general title or a fool note- 
below the graph. 



71 



Business Graphics, continued... 

°urJ5Son"to drawing lines, bars, and Pf*J-J-*« 

descriptive statistics, develop a frequency distribution 
"smooth" the data (unweighted moving average), or fit any of 
fivT^urves (constant, line, parabola, logarithmic curve or sine 
curve) to the data. You can even use the curve-fitting or 
smooth ng options for forecasting, though I urge extreme 
cSn-Vcially with parabolic and 'of "thmic curves 

There is also a "take file" feature similar in concept to Ap- 
nle DOS exec files: it automates a sequence of commands 
executing them from a disk file as though the user had typed 
"hem from the keyboard. With this capability, Apple IIBusmess 
Graphics has some of the features of an electronic slide show 
system. 

U wf t h h a e ve P Ss'Ll what Apple II Business Graphic* ; can do 
but how easy is it to make the program do it? We will look at 
that question in two parts. First, how easy is it to enter and 
manipulate the numbers? Second, how easy are the commands 
to remember and use? 

Data Entry and Manipulation ... ..... 

Apple II Business Graphics defines data in terms of points. 
A point is a pair of coordinates, specifying a unique location on 
any graph. Either or both of these coordinates can be a label or 
a number. 



Once entered, the data can be 
changed in several ways. 



You enter data to the program in a variety of ways. Most 
people will probably just use the program editor, but there are 
alternatives. For the VisiCalc fanatics in the audience, Apple II 
Business Graphics accepts data directly from VmCalc print 
files. It also accepts files stored in the Data ln»e"*angeFormat 
(DIF), and data from text files stored on DOS 3.2.1, DOS i.s, 
or Pascal/Fortran disks. The manual includes details on the 
structure of these files. 

But even fanatics will often find themselves using the editor. 
You probably got some idea of the editor from following the 
example for Ms. Big: you type the horizontal coordinate, type a 
comma, then type the vertical coordinate. An entry beginning 
with an alphabetic character is assumed to be a label, and num- 
bers can be made labels by enclosing them in quotes. 

Once entered, the data can be changed in several ways. You 
can changi . i)i 1 1 ie, or insert with the editor. You can also 
transform the data mathematically by Adding, Subtracting, 
Multiplying, or Dividing either a constant or the values in a 
saved file. Logarithmic transformation is not offered, unfortu- 
nately. You also have a shift function, which is equivalent to 
the "lead" and "lag" time-scries functions. Finally, you have 
cumulative sum and point-to-point difference functions 
available. 

Command language 

By now you probably have a general feel for the commands 
Apple II Business Graphics accepts, but notice the language in 
which they are written. In both vocabulary and structure it is 
similar to English. Commands begin with English verbs like 
edit, set, draw, and multiply. A noun and sometimes a 
modifier to either the verb or the noun may be added, and the 
result sounds like an English sentence, edit labels, set color 



white draw pie, multiply by 100, and so on Such a com- 
mand language feels familiar, because it exploits the users 
familiarity with his natural language. i„„„„. - 

O her advantages flow from the same source. For a language 
as Se as «his g one, i, is easy to learn and easy ; to remember 
More important, it has the scope and simplicity tnat a ^J°'"" y 
necesiTfor a comfortable, creative interaction with he conv 
pu'er S?nce designing graphics is a creative process, this kind 
of interaction is a tremendous asset. 

°With all of the above features, you should be able to draw 
alrn^st any graph you need on the high-resolution graphics 
Seen (Those with 80-column cards should test compatibility 
S Apple II Business Graphics-mi all 80-column boards can 
Splay high-resolution images.) But can you put the graphs on 

Pi l Apple II Business Graphics will output to Apple Silentype 
and Qume Sprint 5 printers and to some plotters, according to 
*™ manual. For other printers, there are programs designed to 
prin™ high-resolution picture from the Apple memory. I ^you 
have one that uses Pascal-format files, you can print from 
scr^n files saved by Apple II Business Graphic, I your pnm 
program expects DOS 3.3 files, you can still use >« > Draw 
lour eraph 2. Put your print program in drive 1, 3. Press re- 
set When you pr ess reset. Apple II Business Graph.cs tries to 
rebU and" boots your graphics printer instead. Your graph 
should be intact on hi-res page 1 of memory, and you can then 
print it. 

Fl protrbr.he Cn weakest part of Apple II Business Graphics is 
the way it manages disk space. As in Apple Pascal, deeted files 
leave gaps on the disk. Files must be stored in a set of cont.gu- 
ous storage blocks, so gaps created be deleting smaller files are 
usually unavailable for storing larger ones. , 

Despite what the manual says, Apple II Busmess Graphics 
tells you only how much total space is left on the disk^ So one 
day you will try to save a screen file (requiring 16 blocks of 
storage space) on a disk with 21 free blocks, and the save com- 
mand will fail (? volume is full). This means that the largest 
chunk of disk storage has less than 16 contiguous blocks in it. 
Worse, there is no utility in Apple II Business Graph.cs com- 
parable to Pascal's Krunch— so you can't fix the problem. II 
vou have Pascal, you can run the Pascal Filer against your Ap- 
ple II Business Graphics data disks. If not, use more disks. 




"I'm sorry 



Leo. but vou re being replaced by a computer!" 



72 



May 1983 < Creative Computing 



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Business Graphics, continued... 

Summary 

I have offered both kudos and criticisms in this article. As 
Ms. Big might ask, "What's the bottom line?" 

Of course that question is never as simple as it sounds. In this 
case I think three evaluations are important: 1. Does the pro- 
gram do what a graphics program should, 2. Is it easy to use, 
and 3. What are the extras offered and the limitations imposed? 

My answer to part one is a unqualified "Yes." The essential 
business graphics are all there. The quality of your product is 
limited much more by the output device than by the program. 
With a pen plotter, you can produce professional quality busi- 
ness graphics. 



The limitations tend to be more 
inconvenient than debilitating. 



Not only can you do what needs doing, but you can get it 
done quickly and easily. I like the feel of using this system. It 
doesn't get in your way. Rather, it efficiently handles the 
drudgery, so that you are free to sit there and create. 

As far as extras and limitations are concerned, there are 
some important instances of both; but I judge the balance to be 
far on the plus side. The extra capabilities tend to be very use- 
ful, while the limitations tend to be more inconvenient than 
debilitating. I suppose that the computer will become the ideal 
knowledge tool when the least sophisticated user is more lim- 
ited by his own ingenuity than he is by the system he is using. 
We aren't there yet, but I think that Apple II Business Graphics 
is a significant step in the right direction. □ 



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May 1 983 ' Creative Computing 



1985 WAS NOT A VERY GOOD YEAR. 

THE RUSSIANS INVADED GERMANY, 

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ATTACKED NORWAY, AND 

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For improved playability. the computer 
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Four Database Programs 
For The Color Computer 



Among the most useful tasks a per- 
sonal or household computer can per- 
form are the storage, ordering, and 
selective retrieval of alphanumeric 
information. The information may con- 
sist of lists of addresses and telephone 
numbers, household inventories, or a 
variety of personal histories; it really 
isn't important which. The point is that 
the manipulation of this sort of data is 
an appropriate task for today's civilized 
micros. 

It is possible for enthusiasts to write 
their own database programs, even if Ba- 
sic is the only language available. How- 
ever, it can take quite a while to develop 
a suitably flexible, bug-free program. 
Add to this the motivation of making 
computer-based information manage- 
ment available to non-enthusiasts, and 
you can see the desirability of ready-to- 
run database manipulation packages. 

In this article, I will review four such 
packages which run on the Radio Shack 
TRS-80 Color Computer: Trans Tek's 
C. C. File (formerly known as Quad Data 
Base), Computerware's Color Data Or- 
ganizer, Wizard Software's E-Z File, 
and Radio Shack's own Color File. 



Scott L Norman. K Dons Rd . Framingham. MA 
01701. 

May 1 983 c Creative Computing 



Scott L. Norman 



The popularity of the Color Computer 
is growing, and so is the list of database 
management systems for it. My selection 
represents software with which I have 
become familiar over a period of time. I 
believe that it represents a good cross 
section of the moderately priced soft- 
ware available. 

The four programs differ in flexibility, 
in features, and in format. C.C File and 
Color Data Organizer are available on 
both cassette and disk, Color File comes 
in a ROM pack and uses cassettes for 
data storage, and E-Z File is on disk 
only. 

I have chosen the disk versions of the 
first two for convenience; in fact, my 
copy of Color File also resides on disk, 
but still uses cassette I/O. All of these 
programs will run on 16K. machines. Fi- 
nally, please note that these programs 
are intended for "stock" Color Comput- 
ers, and do not require either of the ad- 
vanced operating systems (Flex or OS-9) 
now being used by people who have 
modified their machines for 64K 
operation. 

79 



C.C. File 

Trans Tek's Bill Dye has said that the 
Quad in the old name of this program 
stood for "Quick And Dirty," and it is 
true that the program is both easy to 
learn and relatively free of extra fea- 
tures. Don't underestimate it, though; 
C.C. File deserves high marks for 
flexibility and user-friendliness. 

Its most attractive feature is the abil- 
ity to accept data in free form. This 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: C.C. File (formerly Quad 

Data Base) 
Type: Database manager 
System: 16-32K TRS-80 Color 

Computer 
Format: Cassette and disk versions 

furnished on a single cassette 
Language: Color Basic 
Summary: Best buy of the bunch 
Price: $7 
Manufacturer: 

Trans Tek 

194 Lockwood Lane 

Bloomingdale, IL 60108 







Databases, continued... 

means that there is no predefined format 
for the records which make up a 
database file, and in fact the records 
within a given file do not even have to 
have the same structure. The various 
fields within a record do not have to be 
identified ahead of time as to their 
alphabetic or numeric character, either. 

To appreciate the freedom which this 
gives the user, suppose that C.C. File 
were used to maintain a personalized 
address/telephone directory. You might 
begin with entries having the address be- 
fore the telephone number, but you 
could switch at any time and reverse the 
order for part of the directory. If it 
suited you to have the number first, then 
the address, and then the name, that 
would be all right, too. The search rou- 
tine finds a key string regardless of its 
position in a record. 

I will get to the mechanics of all this 
in a moment, but first a few prelimi- 
naries: You receive both cassette and 
disk versions of C.C. File in ASCII for- 
mat on a single cassette. Since the pro- 
gram is written in Basic, it is a simple 
matter to save or csave your working 
copies in conventional tokenized form. 

As I mentioned, I have used only the 
disk version, and although the cassette 
version seems to offer the same options, 
I must admit to being devoted to the 
speed and convenience of a disk system 
for file manipulation. 

In any case, when C.C. File is run, it 
begins by asking for the name of the 
database to be read. If you are starting 
from scratch, you enter new and are 
prompted to assign a name. Obviously, 
several databases can be stored on a sin- 
gle disk; a given database can consist of 
up to 300 records. 

Once you have named the new 
database, you are presented with a mas- 
ter menu. There are only four choices. 
Search and Print, Search, Update, and 
Quit. The Update option is used for 
writing the initial data, as well as for 
changing it at any later time. Here is 
where you first encounter the joys of free 



form data entry; each record is simply 
entered as a single alphanumeric string. 
The individual fields are separated by 
the (" symbol, which is replaced by a 
carriage return when the record is later 
printed or recalled to the screen by the 
search routine. As an example my entry 
in someone's electronic address book 
might be 
Scott L. Norman©8 Doris Rd . 
©Framingham, MA01701© 

(617)101-0101 
(No, I don't really have a binary phone 
number!) This would be properly 
formatted when subsequently displayed. 

The @ sign is one of only two special 
control characters in C.C. File. The 
other is the "greater than," >, which 
generates ten blank spaces in a printout 
or CRT display. This is handy for 
indenting code fields on mailing labels, 
for example. It is important to allow for 
the proper number of characters asso- 
ciated with @ and > when composing 
your entries, since a C.C. File record is 
limited to 250 characters overall. 

If you make an error while entering a 
record, you merely backspace and type it 
again — just as in Basic. Once you have 
hit the enter key, though, it is nec- 
essary to get into edit mode to make 
corrections. The editing procedure will 
be familiar to users of Trans Tek's C.C. 
Writer word processor; it is more com- 
plicated to describe than to do. 

First, return to the master menu with 
the Q (Quit) command. Next, select the 
Search option, and receive the prompt 
for keywords look for > . Enter any 
string which unambiguously identifies 
the record you want to change and it 
will be displayed, fully formatted. 

The bottom of the screen now con- 
tains a secondary menu with four 
choices: Delete, Print, Edit, or an arrow 
symbol. The first two are self-explana- 
tory; the arrow indicates that the up and 
down arrows on the keyboard can be 
used to scroll back and forth through the 
database. The Edit option causes the dis- 
played record to revert to the string for- 




80 



mat in which it was entered, complete 
with @ and > symbols. Now, however, 
there is yet another menu on the screen: 
(I)nsert/(C)hange/ (Delete. 

The cursor can be positioned any- 
where in the record with the arrow keys. 
Typing I causes the text to open up to 
receive insertions, the C lets you 
overtype and correct text, and each time 
the D key is pressed the character to the 
right of the cursor is deleted. You can 
recover the formatted version of the data 
by pressing enter and return to the 
master menu with the Q command. 

In covering the editing procedure, I 
have actually touched on most of the 



C.C. File provides a 
simple, inexpensive 

way to add 

rudimentary database 

management capability 

to the Color Computer. 



features of C.C. File. As you have prob- 
ably guessed from my description of the 
Search option there are no privileged 
keywords. The ability to search on any 
substring means that our hypothetical 
address book database could be searched 
by last initial, zip code, or telephone area 
code. 

You can set up keywords if you wish, 
though. For example, you might make 
the convention that keywords are to be 
denoted by a leading asterisk or other 
special character (except @ or >, of 
course). You do pay a small price for 
this simplicity, though. For one thing, 
the match to a search key must be exact: 
uppercase and lowercase characters are 
distinct from one another. Also, it is not 
possible to logically combine search cri- 
teria with and or or; these would just 
be considered part of the search key by 
the program logic. A final point is that it 
is not possible to quit the search routine 
at any arbitrary stage. You must page 
through all successful "hits" resulting 
from your search criterion. 

What about some of those other op- 
tions? Recall that the Search routine 
gives you the choice of printing each hit 
or skipping to the next one. The master 
menu also has a Search and Print option, 
which prints each and every hit. If you 
enter a null line in response to the LOOK 
POM prompt in this option, the entire 
database will be printed out. I have al- 
ready mentioned the Q command for 
returning to the master menu from the 
edit routine: entering a Q from the mas- 
May 1 983 Creative Computing 



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How To Do It On The TRS-80. 

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Electric Pencil Operators Manual. 

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The TRS-80 Beginners Guide To 

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Simple programs teach basic 

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SOFTWARE 

Electric Pencil 2.0z Word 
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The easy to learn, easy to use word 
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BLUE Pencil — 50,000 Word 
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BFBDEM — BASIC Faster & Better 
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32 demonstration programs, BASIC 
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UTILITIES 
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IJC. products are available at 
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If IJG products are not available from 
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ITS JUST GREAT! 




TRS-80 TM Tandy Corp. 
Microsoft TM Microsoft Corp 



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CIRCLE 192 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



IJG. Inc 1963 



Databases, continued... 

ter menu itself causes the database to be 
written to the disk or cassette in ASCII 
You then exit the program and return to 
Basic- 
Summing up, C.C. File provides a 
simple, inexpensive way to add rudi- 
mentary database management capabil- 
ity to the Color Computer. Its command 
syntax is easily learned (especially for 
C.C Writer users), and the on-screen 
prompts make it difficult to get badly 
lost. To be sure, the program lacks the 
ability to sort and merge files, but in my 
opinion it remains a best buy. 

Color Data Organizer 

Computerware's Color Data Organizer 
is also written in Basic and has both a 
file sorting capability and a provision 
for selecting records according to 
numerical limits which the user sets on 
data fields. Unfortunately, there are 
rather stringent limits on both the length 
and format of records. Each can contain 
at most four fields: two numeric, two 
alphanumeric. The numeric fields may 
be up to nine digits long (the display- 
switches to scientific notation for larger 
or smaller numbers), while the alpha- 
numerics are restricted to 16 characters. 
As a result, the program is useful only 
for very restricted types of data. It 
would probably serve for home in- 
ventories, for example, but not for ad- 
dress book applications. The disk 
version of Color Data Organizer can hatv- 
dle up to 255 records; the cassette ver- 
sion can work with only half as many. 
Either will run in 16K, and in fact hav- 
ing a 32K machine is no advantage; this 
program lacks the dynamic memory 
allocation capability of C.C. File. 

Like the other database managers re- 
viewed here. Color Data Organizer uses 
nested menus to guide the user through 
the many options. The menu structure is 
fairly complex, however, and places 
responsibility for a surprising amount of 
detail on the user. For example, users 
must issue specific commands to open 



r.iMwiMvi; computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Color Data Organizer 
Type: Database manager 
System: 16K Color Computer 
Format: Cassette or Disk 
Language: Color Basic- 
Summary: Restricted data format 
Price: Cassette, $19.95; disk, $29.95 
Manufacturer: 

( omputerware 

Box 668 

Encinitas, CA 92024 



and close disk files, a chore which is nor- 
mally automated in such programs. 

A fresh disk contains three programs: 
DATA-ORG, which is the Color Data 
Organizer program itself; DATA-CON, 
for converting cassette data files to disk 
format; and a sample database named 
DATAFILE. Before starting work with 
a I6K Color Computer, you must enter 
the commands PCLEAR 1 and FILES 2 to 
allocate sufficient memory; this is un- 
necessary with a 32K machine. The first 
display is the Master Menu, with four 
entries: Storage Control, File Control, 
Sort-Print, and Basic. 

Almost all responses are made with a 
single number. No matter what you are 
planning to do with Color Data Or- 
ganizer, your first selection is Storage 
Control, which has its own menu: Open, 
Close, Directory, Create, and Return. 
The first two options open and close disk 
file buffers, Directory lists all files with 
DAT extension, Create defines the 
names of data columns for a new file, 
and Return brings back the Main Menu. 

Here is the procedure for building a 
new file from scratch. Choosing the Cre- 
ate option of Storage Control, you are 
presented with a third-level menu which 
asks for the titles to be assigned to the 
four data fields. The numeric columns 
are specified first, and input data are 
later called for in this order. When you 
have entered and approved all four titles, 
you are asked for a filename. There is an 
explicit (if small) warning in the instruc- 
tions not to specify an extension; the 
program assigns /DAT to all data files. 
With the filename and data column 
headings specified, the program writes 
the name onto the disk (drive as- 
sumed). The Storage Control menu then 
returns. 

Ready to enter data? Select the Open 
option of Storage Control and you are 
prompted for the filename. The disk is 
read and the Main menu returns; now 
select the File Control option. This time 
there are only three options on the sec- 
ond-level menu: Input, Look, and Re- 
turn. As you might expect, Input is used 
for data entry. The third-level menu 
prompts you for the four data fields in 
turn, and upon completion, gives you 
the option of re-doing the whole record 
or approving it and going on. 

There is also a running display of both 
the next unused record number and the 
total number of records still available for 
your file. When you have finished, an M 
command gets you back to the File Con- 
trol menu. Before you can call it quits, 
though, you still must return from File 
Control to Main, then go back to Stor- 
age Control to give the Close command. 
Disaster awaits if you remove a disk or 
quit the program without closing the file 
buffers. 

82 



One quirk in the system: The program 
drops leading zeros from numerical 
data, which can make zip codes look 
rather strange. 

What about some of those other op- 
tions? The Look option of File Control 
is used for viewing, deleting, or changing 
data already stored in files. Once again, 
it is necessary to bounce back and forth 
between the Main. Storage Control, and 
File Control menus. The third-level 
menu for Look asks you for a beginning 
record number and then it displays a 
command line giving your options: 
(F)orward one record, (B)ack one, 
(N)ew record somewhere else in the file, 
(C)hange the displayed record, (D)eiete 
it, and (M)enu, which returns you to 
File Control. If you select C, you must 
re-enter all four fields— there is no finer 
selection or change process. The D op- 
tion clears alphanumeric data fields to 



Unfortunately, Color 

Data Organizer lacks a 

capability for selecting 

records according to 

keywords or other 

strings. 



blanks and puts zeros in the numeric 
fields, but does not renumber subsequent 
records to close up the file. 

The Main menu has one more selec- 
tion which I haven't explained: Sort- 
Print. This is actually one of the better 
features of Color Data Organizer. The 
second-level menu gives you, naturally 
enough, Sort, Print, and Return (to 
Main menu) options. Sort causes the ti- 
tles of the four data fields to be displayed 
and asks which one you wish to sort on; 
the sort will be in ascending order. The 
disk drive goes on as soon as you re- 
spond, since this option rewrites your 
file. 

The sorting routine isn't especially 
fast, being written in Basic, but at least 
you have the option of using either nu- 
meric or alphabetic data to order your 
file. 

The Print option is fairly versatile. 
First, you are given the choice of print- 
ing in a 40-column label format or an 
80-column report format. The former 
prints each field on a separate line, in the 
entry order: both numerics, then both 
alphabetics. The title of each field is 
printed to its left. 

The 80-column format is more flex- 
ible, allowing the user to specify the or- 
der in which fields are to be printed. The 
four fields of each record are printed on 

May 1 983 ' Creative Computing 



■i 




- r*^.r »J«...'-,. 



The speed and power of an IBM PC 
on a $345 Apple Card. 




ADVANCED 16-BIT PROCESSOR 

Technology moves quickly in the computer world. 
Your Apple's 8-bit processor and 64K memory were 
state-of-the-art just a few years ago. Today's 
technology: the 16-bit processor, with the speed and 
power you need to tackle today's problems. 

MEETING THE CHALLENGE 

How do you give your Apple the advantages 
of the latest technology? ALF's $345 Processor 
Card is the answer, with its 16-bit 5 MHz 
8088 processor. The same 
processor used in the 
newest computers 
available: the 
IBM PC, the 
the DEC Rain- 
bow 100 and 
and Professional 
350, the Zenith 
Z-100, the TI Professional Computer, and others. 

With ALF's Processor Card, you get the best of 
both worlds. You can still use all your Apple soft- 
ware. And you can run the latest 16-bit programs. 
With CP/M "-86 (the 8086/8088 version of the 
CP/M operating system), you can use the latest 
high-level programming languages: Digital Research 
CBASIC-86 and PASCAL/MT + , Computer 
Innovations C86, and more. Take advantage of 
sophisticated applications programs like Sorcim 
SuperCalc, MicroPro Wordstar-86, Ashton- 
Tate dBASE 11-86, and Peachtree 
accounting programs. Or use your Apple 
to develop programs for other CP/M-86 
compatible computers. CP/M-86 is 
available for just $200. 

EXPAND YOUR APPLE T0192K 

Of course the Processor Card can use your 
existing Apple memory to run programs up to 46K 
long under CP/M-86. If you need to run larger 
programs, add ALF's Memory Card with 64K or 
128K (for programs to 110K or 174K). It's accessed 
directly by the 8088 processor (not by the Apple's 
processor) for fast 5 MHz operation. When using 
DOS 3.3, you can use the 128K Memory Card as a 
disk emulator for ultra-fast DOS functions. The 
Memory Card is only $370 with 64K, or $445 with 
128Kand the disk emulator program. 

FASTER MATH FUNCTIONS 

Today's financial and scientific calculations 



rely on floating-point math functions. Programs can 
be rewritten in the new high-level languages for 
faster execution, but rewriting isn't always desirable. 
ALF's Processor Card lets you speed up math 
functions in existing programs, without modification 
— and without buying new operating systems or 
languages. 

The "FTL" program supplied with the Processor 
Card speeds up most math functions 
in Applesoft programs (including 
programs compiled with most 
Applesoft compilers) . And 
"FTL87" gives you even faster 
math functions with the optional 
8087 Numeric Data Processor 
chip. Both programs are incredibly 
easy to use. 
Micro Magic's "Pascal Patch" speeds up math 
functions in your Apple Pascal programs. Like FTL, 
the Pascal Patch sends numbers to the Processor 
Card for faster computation. The Pascal Patch is 
simple to use, and is priced under $50 

RELIABLE DESIGN 

ALF's years of experience in building Apple acces- 
sories and our reputation for quality 
products stand behind every card. 
Low-power components help 
avoid overheating: the fully 
expanded Processor Card 
and the Memory Card 
with 128K each draw 
less than Apple's 

ROM card — far 
less than many of 
today s complex 
cards. 
The Processor Card can 
be used in any slot except 0. 
The Memory Card can be used in 
any nearby slot, including slots which 
cannot usually be used (slot 3 on the Apple He or 
slot on the Franklin Ace 1000) . 

SEE YOUR COMPUTER DEALER TODAY 

See your dealer, or write us for more information. 
Whether you have an Apple II, an Apple II-Plus, an 
Apple He, a Basis 108, or a Franklin Ace. ALF's 
Processor Card gives your system the speed and 
power you need today! 

"Apple" is a trademark of Apple Computer "<T M 86" \l i trademark 
of Digital Research. 




ALF 



A L F Products Inc. 1 31 5F Nelson St. Denver, CO BQ215 
[303] 234-OB71 Telex: -4391 824 






*8S , 



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Databases, continued... 

a single line with titles at the top of the 
printout. You are also allowed a limited 
degree of selectivity in choosing the 
records to be printed. This takes the 
form of setting inclusive upper and 
lower bounds on the data in one of the 
fields. Finally, you can specify that the 
data in either of the numeric fields (but 
not both) be totalled at the bottom of the 
report . 

Unfortunately, Color Data Organizer 
lacks a capability for selecting records 
according to keywords or other strings. 
The setting of bounds for print selection 
is your only option along these lines. 

How to characterize this program? I 
must confess to being disappointed. The 
data format seems just too restricted to 
be of general utility, although I can 
imagine using it for some technical data, 
where the scientific notation feature 
might be appreciated. I also think that 
the ability to select records from a 
database for on-screen examination is 
absolutely essential, and that some sort 
of keyword capability should have been 
included. 

Finally, although the whole Storage 
Control/File Control system is less 
cumbersome than it may have sounded 
from my description, it is still more 
cumbersome than it should be. In fact, 
this is my principal criticism of the pro- 
gram. I feel that database management 
systems should serve the user who is 
indifferent to the charms of the com- 
puter and who merely wants help in 
organizing his information. 

E-Z File 

This is a rather quirky, frustrating 
program. Although most of the opera- 
tions of E-Z File are straightforward, 
there are just enough oddities to be 
annoying. In addition, there is one ab- 
solutely crucial omission in the docu- 
mentation; if nothing else, I hope that 
this review can rectify that particular 
oversight. 

The E-Z Eile disk contains three pro- 
grams. A short loader called GO sets up 
the storage parameters and loads the 
main program, which is itself called E-Z 
FILE. The main menu of 16 options is 
then displayed. There is no printed 
documentation; instead, the user is ad- 
vised to use the Load File command to 
call up E-Z INST, the third disk file. 
You can then display the complete set of 
instructions by invoking the List File 
option. 

The instructions aren't especially 
long, and I am all for generous on-screen 
prompts, but, I do think that a set of 
written notes should have been included. 
It is possible to generate your own by us- 
ing the Print File option, but the printed 
format is very poor. There is also ev- 



idence that the program has been under- 
going modification at a rate too fast for 
its own good. There are several dis- 
crepancies between the option numbers 
assigned by the on-screen menu and the 
instructions. The menu is correct in all 
cases. 

It is probably simplest to run through 
the menu selections in numerical order. 
Number 1 is called Give to New File on 
the screen and Create New File in the 
instructions. At any rate, it is, indeed, 
the choice for starting out to build a new 
database. When you select it, the screen 
clears, and you are ready to enter the 
first record as a single string of up to 249 
characters. A dark graphics block is set 
at the proper position to remind you of 
the length limitation, and the prompt 
RECORD: 1 appears at the bottom. 
When you have finished with the first 
record, the ENTER key generates the 
prompt for the second, and so forth. 

Unlike C.CFile, E-Z File does not use 
special delimiter characters to separate 
the different fields within a record. If 
you want a multi-line format at this 
point, you must enter a series of blank 
spaces to position the cursor. There is an 
easier way to go about this, and I will 
discuss it below when I get to the Edit 
option. Right now, though, I must bring 
up the documentation flaw that I 
mentioned. 

There eventually comes a time when 
you have entered all the material for 
your database and want to return to the 
main menu to name and save it. But 
how? The instructions don't give you a 
clue. A null line (the enter key by it- 
self) doesn't work — it just generates a 
blank record and brings up the prompt 
for the next one. Well, folks, it seems 
that E-Z File uses its own null character, 
and it's a beauty: two exclamation points 
separated by the number sign. That's 
right, the !#! combination terminates 
data entry. It doesn't actually get the 
menu back, though. It returns the first 



creative competing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: E-Z File 

Type: Database manager 

System: 16-32K Color Computer 

Format: Disk 

Language: Color Basic 

Summary: Not bad, but 

documentation is lacking 

in early versions 
Price: $24.95 
Manufacturer: 

Wizard Software 

3410 Leigh Rd. 

Pompano Beach, FL 33062 



86 



record in your database, and you must 
then step through the whole thing (using 
any key) until you reach the end. Then, 
and only then, does the menu reappear. 
The idea of using a special character 
or series of characters to mark the end of 
the data entry process may be worth- 
while. However, I must take Wizard 
Software to task for leaving the user in 
the dark. I only stumbled upon the !#! 
combination because it is also used in 
the Search and Replace routine to in- 
dicate a null replacement string. Let's 
hope that future documentation corrects 
this error, because the overall perfor- 
mance of E-Z File is far from shabby. 

Assuming that you have gone through 
the data entry phase and gotten back to 
the main menu, Option 2 (Edit) may be 
in order. The editing procedure is simi- 
lar to that employed by C. C. File, with 
the same Insert, Delete, and Change op- 
tions. The four arrow keys control 
cursor movement, and there is an auto- 
repeat feature. 

You start with the first record in the 
file and advance by moving the cursor to 
the end of each record in turn. A 
prompting line at the bottom of the 
screen gives the numerical value of the 
current cursor position, the number of 
the record being edited, and the total 
number of records in the file. 

The Change option is more flexible 
than that of C.C. File, since it can be 
used to add material past the end of the 
original record. This paves the way for 
better formatting. The idea is to place 
the cursor just in front of the last 
character in the original file, hit C, and 
start typing. In this mode, the ENTER 
key is recognized as a linefeed (instead of 
a call for the next record, as in Option 
#1). Thus you can use ENTER to set up 
a multi-line record. 

The whole process is a little awkward, 
though. It calls for entering just the first 
line of data for each record on the first 
(Option 1) pass, and adding the rest on a 
second pass under Option 2. Is it worth 
it? It all depends on how much you care 
about the appearance of your database. 
Option 3, Add to Present File, is quite 
simple. It just sets up the prompt for the 
next unused record number, and data 
entry proceeds as usual. 

Option 4, is Search and Replace. You 
are prompted for the target string for the 
search and for a replacement string. As 
in C.C. File, there are no privileged 
keywords. If you just want to examine 
your "hits," and not necessarily change 
them, you answer the second prompt 
with the notorious !#! combination. The 
program displays each hit in turn, and 
informs you of its entry number in the 
database and the cursor position at 
which the hit was found. Any key will 
advance you to the next hit, if there was 

May 1983 « Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 244 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






Databases, continued... 

more than one. When you have reached 
the end of your hits, you get a im>m 
message; p-cssing Ml) key will return 
you to the main menu 

If you know at the outset that you 
want to replace your target string, you 
enter the replacement in response to the 
initial prompt. Unfortunately, in this 
Diode you never see the actual hits- just 
the ix)M when the whole process is 
finished. 

Options 5 through 7 allow you to kill, 
save or load I data file They are quite 
straightforward. You just supply a 
filename when prompted Files are saved 
m ASCII format 

Option 8 is used to get a screen listing 
of a file after it lias been loaded into 
memory. You get one record at a time, 
starting with the first and must scan 
through the entire file before you can do 
anything else. There doesn't seem to be 

E-Z File could be a 
serious contender for 
your database dollar. 



spond with ENTER, your insertion be- 
comes the new entry #1. Of course, the 
sorting routine can be used to straighten 
things out later. 

I have gone on at some length because 
of my distress at the flaws in the docu- 
mentation of E-Z File. To be sure, it 
isn't the perfect database manager; there 
are too many processes requiring the 
user to cycle through the complete file, 
for example. Still, the program deserves 
a fair shake. The naive user doesn't have 
to worry about a multitude of nested 
menus, and many of the operations arc- 
really rather straightforward. If future 
versions are supplied with adequate 
documentation, E-Z File could be a seri- 
ous contender for your database dollar. 



any way to break off in the middle of 
things. If you want a printed list, use 
Option 9; you are given the choice of 
deleting the record numbers from the 
printout. By the way, the print is single- 
spaced with no extra spaces between 
records. To spread things out, you must 
insert additional linefeeds with the Edit 
option. 

Option 10, Auto Header, is used when 
setting up a new database. It allows the 
user to specify a header which will be re- 
peated automatically at the top of each 
record If this feature is desired, it 
should be the first option used in the 
setup procedure It will call Option 1 af- 
ter the header is specified 

Option 11 allows you to change the 
default disk drive number for loading, 
saving, or killing a file from zero to an- 
other value. Option 12 toggles the Verify 
command on and off. 

An E-Z Fih database can be sorted 
into ascending order with Option 13. 
That's the good news The bad news is 
that each record is treated as a single 
siring and sorted from the beginning. 
There is no capability lor sorting on an 
interior field, or for sorting into descend- 
ing order. The sorting routine handles 
all ASCII characters, however. 

Optio-s 14 and 15 are used to modify 
existing databases h\ inserting or delet- 
ing individual records, while Option 16 
returns you to Basic If you choose to in- 
sert a record, you will be asked for the 
number of the entry after which you 
want to make the insertion. If you re- 



Color File 

The last of my review subjects. Radio 
Shack's Color File, is the most powerful 
in many ways. It is furnished in a ROM 
pack, leaving almost all of RAM free for 
data. About 15,000 characters can be 
stored in a I6K computer. Of course, 
this means that cassettes must be used 
for data storage, which does slow things 
down. Based on the amount of tape 
used, I would assume that the files are 
recorded in ASCII. Color File is written 
in relocatable machine code, so that I 
was able to copy my version onto disk. 
Of course, I still have to use cassettes for 
data, but at least I am no longer required 
to unplug the disk controller every time 
I want to use the database system. 

Color File has a fairly complete set of 
commands for re-ordering the records in 
a file, selecting records, and printing the 
results of the selection processes. On- 
screen prompts are always available and 
do a good job of keeping you informed 
of where you are in the menu hierarchy. 
As a final touch, the program comes 
with seven predefined file formats: Ad- 
dresses, Warranties, Home Inventory, 
Investments, Auto Maintenance, Medi- 
cal History, and Resume/Vita. You can 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Color File 
Type: Database manager 
System: 4-16K Color Computer 
Format: ROM pack 
language: Machine language 
Summary: Powerful, flexible, uses 

cassettes for data storage 
Price: $29.95 
Manufacturer: 

Radio Shack 

One Tandy Center 

Ft. Worth, TX 76102 



88 



define your own formats, too. 

When the program is fired up, it first 
asks if an old field is to be loaded. If you 
are starting afresh, you next get the 
menu of predefined formats. Let's work 
through the construction of an address 

f,le - 

The next prompt is for a filename. 

Since this is a cassette-oriented program, 
the filename is not strictly necessary. It 
does make it easier to locate the correct 
file on the tape, of course, and is to be 
recommended. After you supply the 
name, hitting ENTER twice brings up the 
file structure (seven fields, plus their 
names) and a command line at the bot- 
tom of the screen. 

At this point, the command line con- 
tains the master menu: 
ADD CHG DEL SEL ORD TAP PRT 

Taken in order, these allow you to add a 
record to the file, change the current en- 
try, delete it, select a group of entries for 
display, put the file in order, save the file 
to tape, and print selected entries. At 
this point, the ADD is highlighted, 
which indicates that it will be im- 
plemented if the ENTER key is pressed. 
In fact, that is the only option available 
for an empty file. 

When you press ENTER, a cursor ap- 
pears in the first position of the first 
field. At the same time, the command 
line changes to display the second-level 
menu. For the ADD command, this is: 

ADD NO! MOR 
with ADD highlighted again. Now it is 
time to enter data (name, address, city, 
etc.) for the first record, with the KNTF.R 
key generating a linefeed in the usual 
way. Only uppercase letters can be used 
for alphabetic entries, and at this point 
your editing capability is very limited. 
You can correct the current line by 
backspacing and overtyping, and that's 
all. When you reach the end of the first 
record, you can add it to the database by 
pressing in rr.R once again, or you can 
invoke one of the other options with its 
first letter. 

NO!, which also appears in several 
other second-level menus, cancels the 
current option and returns the main 
menu. MOR is used for general editing 
of a complete record before it is added to 
the file. Now the four arrow keys can be 
used by themselves to position the 
cursor, or in conjunction with the situ l 
key to perform editing functions such as 
insertion or deletion of spaces, or the 
deletion of a line. There is no auto- 
repeat function. 

After each record is added to the file, 
you return to the main menu and are 
prompted with another blank form. 
When you are finished, you can move on 
by pressing the up arrow. The display 
shifts to a kind of title page, giving the 

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Databases, continued... 

name of your file, the total number of 
entries, and the first fields of the first 
and last entries. New users are often sur- 
prised to find that the database has al- 
ready been sorted in ascending order 
according to the first field — machine 
language sorts can be very fast. 

As I shall describe later, you can re- 
arrange the order of records quite easily. 
You can review the database by using 
the arrow keys now. Press enter to 
leave the title page for the first record, 
then use the right and left arrows to 
move forward or backward through the 
file. The down arrow moves you to the 



Color File makes it 

fairly simple to carry 

out all of the standard 

operations on a 

complete file. 



final entry, and the up arrow returns the 
title page. 

Color File makes it fairly simple to 
carry out all of the standard operations 
on a complete file. Pressing enter when 
the last record is on display gets you 
back to the ADD function to add an- 
other file, for example. If you want to 
change something you see when review- 
ing one of the records, enter C for the 
CHG option. You get the appropriate 
second-level menu: CHG NO! MOR. 

CHG allows you to use the arrows 
and shi it key as before to perform 
editing. If you go all the way through a 
record and still want to do more editing, 
use the MOR option: you can't select 
CHG twice in a row for a given record. 
If you decide to delete a complete 
record, just select DEL. This has a sim- 
plified menu: DEL and NO!. 

The real advantages of Color File lie in 
its provision for sorting a database and 
selecting records from one. It is worth- 
while to describe these operations in 
some detail. 

The second-level menu for the Select 
operation is: 

SEL NO! FLD ALL = # < > 
At the right of the command line, in re- 
verse video (dark on light, for this pro- 
gram), is a box reading FLD= followed 
by a number. This is a reminder of 
which field currently provides the basis 
for the selection process. The default is» 
Field # 1 . The general procedure for set- 
ting up a selection operation is as follows 
(note that you can do this with any 
record on display, not just one which 
satisfies the selection criterion): 

I. Define the selection field by enter- 
ing F and responding to the prompt with 



the field number. Items could be selected 
by zip code from the address book exam- 
ple by specifying Field 6, for instance. 

2. The cursor moves to the first po- 
sition of the designated field. Now enter 
the value to be used in the selection (the 
key). If there is any additional material 
in the key field of the particular record 
on display, clear the rest of the line. 

3. Specify the selection criterion, using 
one of the last four options on the menu. 
You can designate "hits" as having a 
match with the key ( = ), as having a to- 
tal mismatch (#). or as having the des- 
ignated field greater than or less than the 
key ( > , < ). The selection criteria work 
with both numeric and alphabetic fields, 
with this ordering convention: Punctua- 
tion marks before numbers before let- 
ters. If you choose the = criterion for a 
numeric field, your hits will have to ex- 
hibit exact equality with the key. Alpha- 
betic fields use a criterion like the Basic 
instr. A hit is made if the key appears 
anywhere in the designated field. 

4. Use the Select option to perform 
the search. 

The machine language search routine 
is very fast. The selected records form a 
separate database which can be re- 
sorted, printed out, or used as the basis 
for further selections. This allows you to 
combine search criteria. For example, it 
would be possible to find everyone in the 
address book whose last name begins 
with N and who lives in Massachusetts. 

Using the selection routine does not 
cause any of the original data to be lost; 
you can get the whole database back by 
going to the second-level Select menu 
and choosing the ALL option. 

What about changing the order of a 
file? This employs the ORD selection on 
the main menu, and generates the sec- 
ond-level menu 

ORD NO! FLD ASC DES 
plus an FLD = reminder like the one in 
SEL- The new options, ASC and DES, 
are used to specify ascending or descend- 
ing order for the sort; the other options 
should be familiar by now. When you 
save a file, the last sorting criterion is 
saved along with the data. 

The final options on the main menu 
are used for saving a file on tape and for 
printing it. TAP gives you the option of 
making two copies of your database. 
Note that it doesn't let you record a 
separate database, using records selected 
from a larger file, you always wind up 
with the whole file on tape. This is prob- 
ably a reasonable safety feature. 

The way to beat it, assuming you have 
already made a safety copy of your 
whole file, is to set up a selection cri- 
terion which picks out the records you 
don't want, then delete them, one at a 
time. Now the ALL option will combine 
this empty subset with the records left 

90 



behind by the selection process, which 
were the ones you wanted in the first 
place. Recording this should give you 
the desired subset on tape. 

This has been pretty long-winded, but 
I think it demonstrates some of the real 
power that Color File has. The final 
touch is the ability to define your own 
record structure. You can specify up to 
seven fields, and will be asked for the nu- 
meric or alphabetic character of each. 
All of the Color File options are avail- 
able to user-defined files. 

Summing Up 

As I mentioned at the outset, this re- 
view has treated just those personal 
database management systems which I 
myself have used. One thing I have 
learned is that in software reviewing, as 
in everything else, personal quirks and 
preferences play a major role. 

I need the ability to select subsets of a 
database for examination and prefer not 
to be too constrained in data format. I 
am also a firm believer in the use of disk 
systems for maximum flexibility, al- 
though the Color Computer system has 



It is considered bad 

form in some quarters 

to admit that you like a 

Radio Shack product. 



enough foibles to make me question the 
wisdom of that. 

Putting it all together, I rate Trans 
Tek's C.C. File an absolute jewel of a 
best buy. Color Data Organizer is just 
too constrained in format for my taste, 
and I think it needlessly burdens the 
user with operating system details. E-Z 
File, in my opinion, still needs work; I 
hope that the vendor sees fit to produce 
some printed documentation and fixes 
some of the rough edges, because there is 
a useful program in there somewhere. 

And that brings me, kicking and 
screaming, to Color File. I like it. It is 
considered bad form in some quarters to 
admit that you like a Radio Shack prod- 
uct, rather like playing Mantovani 
records on a fine stereo system, but there 
you are. Color File is really quite power- 
ful, and the screen prompts are generally 
enough to keep you on track. If all else 
fails, you can always get out of trouble 
by hitting enter a few times. My big- 
gest reservation is the ROM pack/ 
cassette storage combination. I 
encourage Radio Shack to follow up on 
their work with Spectaculator and Color 
Scripsit, and issue a disk version of Color 
File; it's a good program. □ 

May 1983 « Creative Computing 




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RFD 40-S2 $889 00 

RFD 44-SI $679.00 

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CIRCLE 148 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ValForth 




Going Forth 



The finest testimony I can give to 
Valpar International's ValForth lan- 
guage is this: In 20 hours' time I went 
from complete ignorance in the Forth 
language to writing my first Pong game, 
complete with player/missile graphics 
and sound. I owe it all to Valpar's great 
documentation, a book they recom- 
mended, and of course, the fast and 
versatile Forth language. 

I have been programming on various 
micros for two years — all in Basic and 
assembly language. I had heard of Forth 
through a friend who worked in a simi- 
lar language. Stoic. Forth offered many 
advantages over the languages I was 
familiar with, but one look at a typical 
program listing scared me off. I remem- 
ber thinking that the program looked as 
if the programmer had been making up 
the language as he went along. And that 
turned out to be the secret of 
Forth — you make it up as you go along. 

Based on a set of more or less 
standardized commands, the pro- 
grammer constructs his own words to 
meet his needs. This process builds on 
itself until the whole program can be run 
by executing just a few words. For 
example the word SANDWICH might 
be made up of the words GET-HAM 
and GET-CHEESE. These would be 
further defined as smaller and smaller 
words. Think of each word as a sub- 
routine made up of ever-smaller 
subroutines. 

I picked Pong for my maiden project 
because it used many of the features 
needed for most games — player/missile 
graphics with collision detection, full 
control over the standard Atari graph- 
ics, game controller interface, and 
sound. The game runs well, with speed 

I nomas McNamee. 5055 Chesterfield Rd. #516. 
Arlington. VA 22206 



Thomas McNamee 



far better than Basic, but only about half 
as fast as assembly language. The speed 
loss is barely noticeable, however. 

The exciting thing is the composition 
time. Pong could easily have been writ- 
ten in an afternoon by someone who 
knew the language well. And the words 
I defined in Pong can be used in my next 
game if similar functions are needed. 
The Forth dictionary (really a library of 
commands) can be extended indefinitely. 

I bought three modules from Valpar: 
ValForth ($39.95), General Utilities and 
Video Editor ($34.95) and a disk 
containing Player/Missile Graphics, a 
Character Set Editor and a Sound Editor 
($39.95). The last two require ValForth 
to run, and are extensions of the 
dictionary. Time-critical routines are 
coded in assembly language for speed. 
The disks are unprotected, so backups 
for personal use are allowed, format 
and diskcopy commands are provided, 
as is a command to produce your own 
programs on auto-booting, protected 
disks. Valpar supports programmers 
wishing to write programs for publica- 
tion using ValForth, and requires only 
that credit be given them in the docu- 
mentation or on the media. 

ValForth 1.1 

The primary disk contains all the 
main routines, the interpreter and the 
operating system for Forth. It features a 
basic glossary of words and a figForth 
editor for creating your own source pro- 
grams. Graphics, color and sound com- 
mands are available on this disk as 
extensions to the dictionary. Many of 
the graphics words from Atari Basic 

94 



(drawto, plot, etc.) have been copied 
here so that learning to use this section 
is easy. 

As much as possible, Valpar has writ- 
ten this package so that what you 
already know about the Atari computer 
can be put to immediate use. The Atari 
operating system is supported with 
familiar words such as OPEN, CLOSE, 
put and get. There is a group of words 
used for debugging Forth code, and 
words for floating point arithmetic are 
provided. 

For applications in which time is criti- 
cal, this disk contains a powerful 6502 
assembler designed to be used with the 
Forth system. Macros, conditional 
branching, and conditional loops are 
supported, and access to the rest of the 
Forth language is easy. The assembler 
itself is worth the price of the disk. 

General Utilities and Video Editor 

The General Utilities and Video Edi- 
tor disk contains a fine selection of string 
utilities, array commands, and case 
statements, and a fascinating group of 

creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: ValForth 

Type: Language 

System: Atari 400/800, 24K 
minimum 

Format: Disk 

Summary: Excellent implementation 

of an interesting language. 
Price: $39.95 
Manufacturer: 

Valpar International 

3801 E. 34th St. 

Tucson, AZ 85713 

(800) 528-7070 



May 1 983 l Creative Computing 



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consuming job. And if your mailing list is generated 
from those records, or if you rely on them for billing 
information, you'd better make those changes quick. 

Relax, DB MASTER makes updating records quick 
and easy. All you've got to do is call up the name of 
the company or client on the view screen. It takes 
about three seconds. When the record appears, make 
the appropriate changes right then. It's over and done 
with. Immediately. No retyping of an entire record. No 
anxiety. And as soon as you've made the change, say 

vr°ACT£?! leen Patterson " to "Colleen Smith," DB 
MASTER refiles it under the new name in the proper 
sequence. It's all over in less time than it takes you to 
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And it's easy to correct, change or edit any part of a 
record. Imagine the time savings when you're 
constantly updating inventory or job records. 

We designed DB MASTER to make your life easier. 
Sure, there are other data base systems for your Apple 
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not getting all 
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DB MASTER provides it with 
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And there are three powerful accessory programs. 
UTILITY PAK #1, for example, allows you to access 
other standard Apple files (including VisiCalc), and 
even change the way you've structured your files. 
UTILITY PAK #2 allows you to edit or change up to 

c^^n 1 ^' in a singIe pass throu « h your files. And 
blAI PAK performs statistical analyses on data in 
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Stoneware backs up DB MASTER with a support 
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TELEX II 910-384- 2016 STONEWARE bBf L 
is a registered trademark of Apple Computer. VisiCalc is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. 

CIRCLE 277 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Val Forth, continued... 

words called High Resolution Text. 
Many Basic words appear in the string 
commands, such as leftS, rightS and 
instr. There are provisions for compari- 
son, sorting, and formatted output. The 
string commands are all very fast, since 
the address of the string is manipulated 
instead of the string itself. Time is not 
wasted in what Basic programmers call 
garbage collection. 

case structures are a powerful group 
of commands permitting decision 
making similar to on. . .gosub in Basic. 



The si.i structure allows the same- 
advantage for non-sequential numbers. 
The final word in this group is cond, 
which allows conditional execution 
based on true/false testing. 

High Resolution Text is a feature 
permitting text to be displayed in 
Graphics 8 mode. Words for superscript, 
subscript, and overstrike are supplied. 
Using a combination of backspacing, 
subscript and overstrike, underlining can 
be accomplished. Graphics can still be 
drawn in this mode, so displays of mixed 




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text and graphics are very easy. 

The ValForth video editor is a joy to 
use. Again, Valpar could have sold this 
all by itself and kept the price the same. 
It is used for entering Forth source code 
and has a powerful set of single-stroke 
commands for insertion, deletion, and 
buffer management. Each screen, of 
which there are 180 per disk, can be 
brought up and edited with ease. 

When the source code is finished, you 
LOAD the screens you want to run. As 
they load, each word is compiled into 
the dictionary. If an error occurs during 
compilation, the where command of 
the editor displays the screen on which 
the error occurred. The cursor is 
positioned over the word or character 
that caused the error. 

A visible buffer to or from which lines 
can be copied appears at the bottom of 



The ValForth video 
editor is a joy to use. 



CIRCLE 257 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



96 



the screen. The user can set the number 
of lines it holds. Seven single-stroke 
commands support line move, line copy, 
and buffer clear operations. In this way, 
sections of code can be moved or copied 
using the smove and copy commands. 
The whole editor design encourages the 
composition of easy-to-read source code. 

Player/Missile Graphics and Friends 

The Player/Missile Graphics disk 
contains an extremely useful set of com- 
mands that are a must for any game pro- 
grammer. Memory allocation, memory 
clearing, player/missile design, and 
movement are all reduced to single 
words. All modes are supported. Player 
size, multicolor players, and fifth player 
features are easy to implement. P/M 
graphics are not destroyed when switch- 
ing from one graphics mode to another. 
Movement is accomplished in two 
ways. You can either put the player at 
an absolute X,Y location, or you can 
move the player relative to its present 
spot any number of locations. 

Collision detection is also available in 
two ways: boundaries and the standard 
Atari collision registers. Boundaries can 
be set for any player or missile. The 
movement of that character will then be 
limited to that area. In addition, a vari- 
able can be checked to find out when a 
boundary has been reached and where it 
is. The direction of movement can then 
be changed. This is how I made the ball 
bounce in my Pong game. 

Missile-to-playfield, player-to-play- 
May 1 983 • Creative Computing 






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ValForth, continued... 

field, missile-to-player and player-to- 
player collision detection are supported, 
and there is a general collision flag that 
is set when anything bumps anything 
else. 

The character set editor allows for the 
creation of new character sets, as well as 
the words needed for switching and 
loading sets. These designs can easily be 
used in conjunction with player/missile 
graphics, since a command is available 
to change any player rapidly to another 
bit pattern. 

The sound editor is a useful "audio 
pallete" for creating single sounds on 
any of the four channels. Using joy- 
sticks, you adjust the frequency by 
moving horizontally, and change the 
distortion by moving vertically. A read- 
out at the bottom of the display shows 
the current values needed to re-create 
the sound. In addition, the AUDCTL 
register can be addressed to produce 
many interesting sound variations. 

Documentation and Support 

Each package comes with its own 
documentation, printed clearly on 8'/ 2 x 
11 paper and punched for a three-ring 
binder. All together, there are about 200 
pages of information, as well as the 
source code for each disk. The docu- 
mentation is excellent, and is very easy 



to use. It is not a tutorial of Forth, how- 
ever. The functions common to the lan- 
guage are listed, but the language itself is 
not explained. 

Valpar recommended Starling 
FORTH by Leo Brodie since I was a 
first time user, and it turned out to be 
great advice. I have read many technical 
works, but none as informative and 
enjoyable as Brodie's. I never met the 
man but I like him a great deal. 



All of the ValForth 
documentation is 

written in a 
participatory style. 



The ValForth 1.1 documentation of 
the main disk begins with simple loading 
instructions and then, very appro- 
priately, a good section on errors, recov- 
eries, and crashes. The next section is on 
formatting and copying disks. I recom- 
mend that anyone who buys ValForth be 
sure to have a box of clean disks on 
hand. Backups are encouraged and very 



useful. After you have loaded all the 
features you are likely to use, you can 
create your own system disk. Forth re- 
quires a special disk format, so you will 
want three or four blanks to work on. 
Sections on graphics, editing and sound 
complete this package. 

All of the ValForth documentation is 
written in a participatory style. You sit 
down and follow the instructions, and 
when the last page is turned, you know 
how it works. Technical jargon is kept to 
a minimum, but it is a good idea to keep 
Brodie's book nearby. 

Any command peculiar to the Atari, 
such as graphics and sound, is explained 
fully with examples. There are even 
example programs on the player/missile 
disk which are valuable references. Each 
package is accompanied by a stiff com- 
mand reference card for quick word 
look-up. 

Before buying this package, I spoke to 
Mike White at Valpar about support. He 
was knowledgeable and polite, and he 
assured me that I could write or call 
anytime with my problems, and I would 
get help. He was enthusiastic about 
ValForth, and seemed to represent a 
company that sells a good product and 
stands behind it. 

ValForth is an excellent implementa- 
tion of a fast, expandable language. D 



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CIRCLE 160 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Prism 




GPeative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Prism 

Type: Storydisk-puzzle 

System: 48K Apple II with disk drive 

and 3.3 DOS 
Format: Disk 

Summary: A poor children's story, but 
a great real-life treasure 
hunt. 

Price: $19.95 

Manufacturer: 

International Software Marketing 
Suite 421, University Building 
120 East Washington St. 
Syracuse, NY 13202 



If you think that $19.95 is a reasonable 
amount to invest in a chance to win a 
prize valued at $15,000, then Prism, a 
Storydisk released by International Mar- 
keting, is worth a look. If, on the other 
hand, you are looking for sheer entertain- 
ment for your children, then Prism is not 
for you. 

This new disk, created by a team of 
programmers and editors at ISM, 
attempts to fulfill two purposes. One, 
quite reasonably, is to make money by 
offering Apple owners the opportunity to 
decipher a puzzle that will lead to the 
discovery of three solid gold, gem- 
encrusted keys which ISM has hidden in 
three secret locations in the continental 
United States. The reasoning is that 
people will come to the conclusion that 



Brian J. Murphy. 1.1.1 Posl Road. Fairfield. CT 
064.10. 



Brian J. Murphy 



$19.95 is not much to wager against a 
chance of winning $15,000. 

The other purpose of the disk appears 
to be to tell a children's story, using text 
and hi-res pictures. The program tells a 
story, but it fails in the attempt to make it 
interesting or readable. 

The Storydisk is a new concept in 
software— a program that allows the user 




to remain almost completely passive. All 
the user need do is to hit the arrow key to 
turn the pages back or forwards. As you 
"leaf" through the story, the screen fills 
with either text or hi-res art. The pictures, 
which are the best part of the program, 
were created by Mike Sullivan. His pic- 
tures are detailed and elegantly drawn; 
some feature a limited amount of anima- 
tion. There are also some special effects 
thrown in which enhance the rather thin 
story line. 

The Story 

The story is about a little boy named 
Hubert who goes out one day to discover 

100 



the world being drained of color. A magi- 
cal figure appears and takes him to the 
place where the Prism is kept. The three 
keys of the Prism have been stolen, 
Hubert is told, and he has been given the 
task of going to Yolvsa, the land of mon- 
sters, to bring color back to the world. 

Hubert goes to Yolvsa and is captured 
in fairly short order by Grane, the head 
honcho of the monsters, whose dialogue 
is faintly reminiscent of Margaret 
Hamilton in The Wizard of Oz ("Resign 
yourself, whelp. Although you are an 
insignificant figure, you may yet furnish 
an interesting tidbit for my extremely 
large fangkat. Come my lovely..."). 

Hubert, who is carrying the Prism, uses 
its magic powers to snatch the keys away 
from Grane and to escape. At the last 
instant before departing Yolvsa, Hubert 
hurls the keys away to keep them safe 
from a threatening monster. Hubert soon 
arrives home, where it has been all a 
dream, and it remains for us to find the 
keys. 

The major problem with the disk is the 
thinness of the story line and the over- 
written quality of the text. It is a story 
which I doubt would appeal to children. 
The writing is unprofessional. Had the 
children's story been better written, in 
crisper, less cluttered style, the program 
would have had the valuable extra dimen- 
sion of literary merit. 

The Storydisk format has real potential 
which is, unfortunately, not realized in 
Prism. Used creatively, as a vehicle for 
good children's writing, the Storydisk 
could become a valuable and powerful 
tool for promoting literacy with the com- 
puter. Prism, with its poor writing and 
lack of user involvement, has no value as 
a story. It's a good thing that the disk 

May 1 983 « Creative Computing 



mmmamM 






■■■■■■M 



V3lr\Jn TH for Atari ' 400 800 \/A L PA R V 

Professional Software for the Hobbyist | |V| T F D IVI AT 1 f-1 |\J A|\ 

NrSl"^ '5-20 

rimes raster than BASIC, and can make use of every capability for your computer And its no lonoer the Drovinr* 
of the pro.ess,onal programmer- With valFORTH and the additional packages described below you, 
create programs ,n an afternoon that would previously have taken weeks of hard work' v. 

WHAT? YOU DON'T ALREADY KNOW FORTH? ' 

bSrJk ^anTonT^' T T^' ^ °" S ^'" 9 Forth by Le0 Brodie Wlde, y ^claimed as the best 
Dock available on the subject, this entertaining treatment of Forth will make you comfortable with this 

"onhe^lFORTH Usf ly a T,T S " y , Wh6n V0U ° rdef Staf1 ' ng F ° nh ' y ° U ** a " ee co ™ °< our Notes 
tor the valFORTH User, including references, by page, to Starting Forth 



These are the utilities developed by Valpar International s software 
specialists and used to create our commercial software products 



Coming Attractions 



* IAMCLI COMPII I H 

* 3D WORLD 



For more information last and a |<1TH ^f if HONK 



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Principal Software Authors Stephen Maguire and Evan Rosen 






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VISA and MASTERCARD accepted 
CIRCLE 292 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Hank: Here's the report you've been To all reps: Price changes on follow- 

waiting for Hope you put your system ing "ems effective immediately. 

on automatic and didn t wait up. 



Take that, bud ^And retaliate fast. 
I know phone rates are low now. 
but game's cutting into sack time.' 



w 



/ 




F" iimilliiiiji 11 Your computer's telephone. 

' >*"VW /// lllliif m % 11111"'""% 

Jk % /f-^Js 

ILIL V %iim0 U 



flllllllllllllh 
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Wouldn't it be great if. somehow, you lllh 
could connect your computer to your 
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Or to your favorite chess challenger, 
across country? ^^ 




With a telecomputing system by 
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Quickly. Easily. And for the price of 
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They allow you to communicate. 



over ordinary phone lines, all 
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But any modem will send and 
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Smartmodems also dial, answer 
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Either Smartmodem is a perfect 
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And if you have an IBM PC. Hayes 
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Smartcom II™ We spent a lot of time 
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prompts you in the simple steps required 
to create, send, receive, display, list, 
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And if you need it. there's always 
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assigned to IBM function keys, this 
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With Smartcom II. it is. The program 
remembers communication parameters 
for 26 different remote systems. Just 
punch a key. you're all set. 

You can treat dial-up and log-on 
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com II comes with codes already set up 
for four popular information services. 
COMPUSERVE®DIALOG'S KNOWLEDGE 
INDEX?" DOW JONES NEWS/RETRIEVAL® 
SERVICE, and THE SOURCE™ AMERICAS 
INFORMATION UTILITY 5 " Procedures 
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Special offers for Smartcom II 

ownersl Dow Jones 
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Service has a special 
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anytime after 6:01 p.m.. local time. 
You'll also be entitled to a valuable 



Special offers f 

Q) Hayes 



Welcome to TELEMAILI Your last access 
was Tuesday. Jan. 4. 1983 11:07 am. 
CHECK these bulletin boards: 
TELEMAIL . TELESOFT... 



■ 



subscription offer for THE SOURCE. 
Smartcom II owners who subscribe to 
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Like all our products. Smartcom II 
and both Hayes Smartmodems are 
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documentation and full support from 
us to your dealer. 

So see him today. Break out of 
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desktop computer. 

Hayes Microcomputer Products. Inc.. 
5923 Peachtree Industrial Blvd.. 
Norcross. GA 30092. 404/449-8791. 

Smartcom 11 is a trademark of Hayes Microcomputer 
Products. Inc. 

•TM American Telephone and Telegraph 
' 'IBM is a registered trademark ot International Business 
Machines. Corp 

I'M! Hayes Microcomputer Products Inc 
Sold only in the US A 

COMPUSERVE INFORMATION SERVICE is a registered 
trademark of CompuServe. Incorporated. jnHlK Block 
Company 

KNOWLEDGE INDEX is a service mark of DIALOG 
Information Services. Inc 

DOW JONES NEWSttETRJEVAL is a registered trademark of 
Dow Jones & Company. Inc 

THE SOURCE and AMERICA S INFORMATION UTILITY ate 
service marks of Source Telecomputing a subsidiary of The 
Readers Digest Association Inc 

CIRCLE 189 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Prism, continued... 

doesn't depend on the story, but on the 
puzzle. 

The Puzzle 

The idea for the puzzle comes from the 
British children's book, Masquerade by 
Kit Williams. For those who solved the 
riddles posed in his book there was the 
promise of finding a solid gold rabbit 
which Williams had buried "somewhere 
in Britain" (incidentally, the rabbit was 
found and the puzzle has been solved, 
leaving only Prism s golden prizes remain- 
ing to be found). 

Aside from borrowing this idea from 
Masquerade, Prism also borrows some of 
the form of the book, if not the content, 
framing the illustrations with inscriptions. 
These inscriptions are used in both works 
to further illustrate the story and to pro- 
vide clues to the big riddle. 



As works of art and 

collector's items the 

keys will be worth from 

$30,000 to $40,000. 



On to the clues! ISM says that the clues 
could be anywhere on the disk, in the 
text, the pictures, or the inscriptions. The 
inscriptions are found to have, at irregular 
intervals, certain letters drawn in different 
colors from the majority. For example, in 
the inscription framing picture number 
one, "Up north lines meet, down south 
fates greet," the letters I, M, P, S, R are in 
orange. Unjumbled, they spell Prism. 

Picture number ten is framed by the 
words, "Excavation excites extreme 
exhaustion." The letters I, V, X, X, X are 
colored orange. They don't appear to 
spell a word, but they could be combined 
to make two Roman numbers, XXXIV 
which is 34 and XXXVI which is 36. A 
clue? 

Some of the inscriptions seem to offer 
number puzzles, again along the lines of 
Williams's Masquerade. For example, in 
Masquerade, there was the riddle, "One 
of six to eight" in one of the inscriptions. 
It referred to one of Henry the Eighth s 
six wives. Get it? Now let's look at the 
inscription around Prism 's picture number 
five: "Two of one one of two colors red 
white and blue." What is the clue? 

How about the inscription around pic- 
ture number nine: "In at 7 out at 4 for- 
wards eight and slightly more." What does 
this mean? Then look at picture four's 
inscription: "Many are my pretty facets 1 
thru 3 of eight." What have we here? 

103 



In the pictures, what is the meaning of 
the trigrams and the hexagram from the 
Chinese book of prophecy and philoso- 
phy, the / Chingi In three locations we 
see the trigram Ken, which symbolizes an 
arch, a mountain, a path, little stones, or 
openings, depending on your interpreta- 
tion. In one picture there is the hexagram 
number 30, called by the / Ching "The 
Clinging Fire." The hexagram symbolizes 
resting on something the way plants rest 
on the soil. Is that a clue, or is the number 
of the hexagram, 30, more significant? 

There are some rather off-beat names 
in the text. For example, Hubert's dog 
is named Vanna. As in Savannah, Geor- 
gia? What about Grane, the monster 
king and Yolvsa, the land of monsters? 
Are these names anagrams? What does 
the inscription, framing picture eight, 
mean: "Not a roc, never hot, not fruit, 
never locked." 

If the storyline is thin, the puzzle is far 
from it. There are clues galore to follow. 
Some, I suspect, will lead you in the wrong 
direction. You may also find yourself 
mistaking parts of inscriptions, text and 
illustration for clues when they are, in 
fact, not riddles to be solved at all. That's 
the charm and challenge of this kind of 
puzzle, having to sort out the real clues 
from the superfluous information. 

I was unable to wrest any hints from 
ISM. Are the keys more than one hundred 
miles apart? Five hundred? No comment. 
Are the clues in the pictures only, in the 
pictures and inscriptions, or in the text, 
pictures and inscriptions? No comment. 
The only help I got, which I pass on to 
you, is that the keys are in the 48 con- 
tiguous states.. .somewhere. 

If you find them, they will be worth, at 
this writing, about SI 5,000 on the basis of 
their gold and gemstone content. ISM 
predicts that as works of art and col- 
lector's items the keys will be worth from 
$30,000 to $40,000 and that makes a 
puzzle worth solving. □ 




"We can 't use the computer right now— my 
dad splaying 'pay the bills'... " 








3 



The new TI 

Professional Computer* 

It makes you the one 

with the answers* 



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To help you come up with the 
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- SPECIFICATIONS - 



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16-bit. 8088 microprocessor 

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5-slot expansion bus 

Keyboard 

Specially designed low profile 

Popular typewriter layout 

97 keys, including 12 function keys 

Separate numenc keypad and cursor control 

clusters 
Tactile response, for quick positive entry 
Upper- and lower-case letters 
Display Units 
12-inch monochrome (green phosphor) or 

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High resolution, 720 x 300 pixels 
Mass Storage 

Built-in 320<byte diskette standard 
Additional internal storage of 320K byte 

diskette, or 5 or 10 Mbyte Winchester disks 

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m 



THE 
ANSWER. 




V\\ 



All the leading operating systems 
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Communications Options 

300 BPS or 300/1200 BPS internal modem 

TTY 3780 

3270 SNA stand-alone (Summer 1983) 

3270 BSC and SNA cluster (Fall 1983) 

Operating Systems 

MS "•-DOS. Digital Research ~ CP/M-86®. and 

Concurrent CP/M-86'". UCSD p-System™ 

Languages 

BASIC. COBOL. FORTRAN. Pascal 

Applications Software 

Over 100 programs available from the most 
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Printers (Available Spring 1983) 

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FOOTNOTES: MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft 
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is a trademark of the Regents of the University of 
California 



And for a clear "hard copy" print- 
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new 850 Series printers, made by Texas 
Instruments especially for the new TI 
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In short, the TI Professional Com- 
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With the performance and reliability 
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If you're on your way up, the new 
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For full information and a demon- 
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Instruments 

CIRCLE 293 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Copynfhl C 1983 Tcxat IratnMnenB 



29I427E 



Three New Apple Games 




Apple Adventure 
and Arcade Action 



One of the greatest fringe benefits of 
being a staff writer at Creative Comput- 
ing is that I get to see most of the new 
games as they are released. Even though 
it is my job to review programs, I also 
spend a great deal of my free time play- 
ing my favorite games. Of the new 
games I "had to" play this month, Aztec. 
Jawbreaker, and Spy's Demise are the 
ones that keep me at my Apple long 
after hours. 

Aztec 

To be honest, adventure games have 
never really appealed to me. Wandering 
helplessly through screens full of text is 
not my idea of fun. Therefore, I was less 
than enthusiastic when Aztec appeared 
on my desk for review. Reluctantly, I 
booted the program and prepared to be 




Owen Linzmayer 



bored. It wasn't long, however, before I 
realized that Aztec is like no other 
adventure game I have ever seen. I love 
it. 

What sets Aztec apart from most of 
the other adventures currently available 
for the Apple? It is a real-time game 
with hi-res animation which allows you 
to control an explorer using 21 com- 
mand keys. 

As the player, you represent a daring 
explorer who bears a striking resem- 
blance to Indiana Jones from the movie, 
Raiders of The Lost Ark. Your challenge 
is to delve into a tomb that is eight levels 
deep in an attempt to retrieve a priceless 
golden idol. The chambers and ante- 
rooms are literally crawling with death 
in the form of scorpions, cobras, spiders, 
and seven other lethal guardians of the 
idol. 

If you encounter a guardian, you may 
fight it or try to run away. When you en- 
ter the "fight mode," you must select the 
weapon you wish to use. The only weap- 
ons available are a machete and a pistol, 
both of which you must acquire in the 
tomb. Most guardians can be killed us- 

106 



ing only the machete, but some monsters 
can withstand multiple bullet wounds 
before they die. In general, the fighting 
controls are similar to those found in 
Swashbuckler, a program written by the 
same author, Paul Stephenson. 

In addition to the guardians, there is a 
wide variety of traps designed to stop 
you as you weave your way into the 
depths of the temple. If you aren't care- 
ful, you will quickly find yourself dead. 
Some of the more clever traps include 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Aztec 

Type: Animated adventure 

System: 48K Apple II/II+ 

Format: Disk 

Language: Assembly 

Summary: Action-packed, 
innovative game 

Price: $39.95 

Manufacturer: 

Datamost Inc. 
9748 Cozycroft Ave. 
Chatsworth, CA 91311 



May 1 983 c Creative Computing 



BASCt^JRT FISCAL- 

A NO-HOLDS-BARRED COMPARISON. 



Features 



Structured 
programs 

Separate 
compiled 
modules 



Arithmetic 
precision 


Usually 

6or7 

digits 


Indexed tiles 


No 


Maximum 
string size 


255 

characters 


| Loop statements 


1 


Datatypes 


Usually 
2or3 


CASE statement 


No 


Introduced 


1965 


Price 


??? 



EASE-OF-USE By divtding 
programs into modules, JRT Pascal 
makes even very complex programs — 
of nearly any size— a breeze to manage. 
Pascal code is self-documenting; 
program sections are identified by 
meaningful names, not line numbers. 
Error messages are verbal, not number 
codes. JRT offers 12 data types (to 
Basic's 2 or 3), and it has both regular 
and hex numbers. 

HHHHH For power— the ability to 
write better, clearer programs, faster — 
Pascal is the run-away winner. Example: 
JRT simplifies programming by 
accomplishing complicated operations 
(for Basic) with one command: 
Basic JRT Pascal 

IFA$= -V OR IFAIN[V..'Z]THEN... 

A$ - • W " OR 
A$ = X" OR 
AS = "Y" OR 
A$= "Z'THEN... 



JRT's wide variety of 
data types reduces programming restrictions 
And the data types are not all fixed in size. 
There are 3 looping statements (Basic has 1). With JRT, very large 
programs can be created and run, because program modules 
can be spread over many diskettes. Common modules can 
be used for several programs. Basic generally limits 
strings to 255 bytes; JRT strings go up to 64 K 



Whereas Basic relies on a static, 
inefficient memory map to allocate storage, JRTs 
dynamic storage fills every available main storage area; 
there's no waste. With Basic, sub-routine modules must 
be linked together; with JRT, they can be linked— 
but dont have to be. JRTs more powerful commands 
run faster; typically, you'll write Pascal programs 3 to 
10 times faster than in Basic. Exclusive: JRT lets you 
directly access the CP/M* operating system for better 
total system control. 



Consider our copy policy. (If you want to 
make copies, its OK with us — so long as they're not 
for re-sale.) Check our astounding price: $29.95!— 
and satisfaction is guaranteed — or your money back. 
Basic versus JRT Pascal: which comes out on top? 
Right! The coupon below is for your convenience. 
Or call. Today. 



mm&uD 



Here's the real shocker! 



JRT Pascal 



Structured 
procedures 
with 

auto-loading 
4 purging 

14 digits 



64.000 

characters 



12 



*» 



1960 
| $29.95! 



Full support for 
indexed tiles 

CRT screen 

formatting £ 
full cursor 
control 

Facilities tor 
formatting 
printed reports 

File variables 
& GET/PUT 

Dynamic arrays 

SEARCH 

procedures for fast 
table look-up 

Extended CASE 
statements 

Random files 
to 8 megabytes 



64K 

dynamic i 



Activity analyzer 
prints program 
use histogram 

14 digit BCD 
FLOATING POINT 
arithmetic 

True 

dynamic storage 

Advanced 
assembly interface 

Fast one-step 

compiler; 

no link needed 

Efficient 
compiler 
only 85K 
space 

Maximum program 
size: more than 
200,000 lines 

More than 
200 verbal 
error messages 





r t-k ^^ ■M«4l« » _4 

compilation or 
auto-loading 
external 
procedures 

No limits on 
procedure size, 
nesting or 
recursion 

175-page user 
manual with 3-ring 
protective 



t 5 V or 8 



Graphing 

procedure* Handy JRT Pascal 

Statistic *■«■»•» esrd 

procedures 



THE COMPLETE PASCAL FOR CP/M. 




Send JRT SYSTEMS 
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Heres my $29.95; please send me JRT Pascal. I understand that if I'm 
not completely satisfied, I can return it within 30 days— with the sealed 
diskettes unopened— for a full refund. (Allow 4-6 weeks for shipping.) 
I need the 5-1/4" diskettes for □ Apple CP/M; D Heath, Hard Sector; 

□ Heath, Soft Sector; □ Northstar; □ Osborne; □ Superbrain; 

□ Tetevideo; □ Xerox 820. I need □ 8" SSSD diskettes. 



City. 



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D Check a COD. a MasterCard □ VISA 

(CA iHMnili add salts lai Add S< tor shipping outside North America ) 



Card*. 



Exp.. 



Signature 

•CP/M is • Digital Research TM. A S6K CP/M system Is required 



CIRCLE 199 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple Games, continued... 

rooms that fill with water, ceilings that 
fall, and walls that slide together. The 
beauty of these traps is that they can be 
defeated with a little ingenuity. There is 
a sense of urgency as you play in real 
time because you must learn to act fast. 
Even on the easiest level, Aztec is ex- 
tremely difficult. Too many times you 
lose a life at the mercy of the program 
rather than as a result of your own mis- 
takes. This can lead to frustrating play. 
The main appeal of this adventure is 
that it is a real-time, highly animated ar- 



Aztec looks like a 

cross between Castle 

Wolfenstein and 

Swashbuckler. 



cade game that allows the player to ex- 
ercise an extensive range of options. The 
graphics are hi-res, but not too colorful. 
The animation is jumpy, as if the com- 
puter is flashing different images in se- 
quence to suggest movement. Aztec 
looks like a cross between Castle 
Wolfenstein and Swashbuckler. 

The thing that immediately turns off 
many prospective players is the large 
number of command keys. It took me 
about an hour of practice before I 
memorized the keys and "mastered" 
their use. I would wager that this game 
is nearly impossible to play if you aren't 
a touch typist. 

Although there are a few unpolished 
edges in the program, Aztec is a fine 
package. If you enjoyed Swashbuckler, 
but felt that it lacked depth, Aztec is just 
what you are looking for. Any adventure 
player who wants a real challenge will 
find it in this game. Due to its complex- 
ity, I do have reservations about 
recommending it to kids under 14 or to 
gameplayers who believe themselves to 
be hopelessly uncoordinated. 

Jawbreaker 

You may be asking yourself "Hey, 
why review Jawbreaker? That game has 
been on the market for close to a year 
now." Well, that's only partly true. The 
old Jawbreaker, the one that plays like 
Pac-Man, has undergone a total trans- 
formation, and the result is a cute new 
game that goes by the same name. 

The object of Jawbreaker is to eat the 
dots that line the maze. Unlike other 
mazes, this one is composed of five hori- 
zontal corridors laid on top of one an- 
other. The hallways are separated by 
walls that have sliding doors in them. As 
you play, the doors are constantly mov- 



ing along the hallways. When a door 
reaches one edge of the maze, it reverses 
direction. To pass from one horizontal 
corridor to an adjacent hallway, you 
must slip through the sliding door as it 
goes by. It sounds easy, but the timing is 
tricky. 

As you guide your jaws through the 
maze, you must avoid the rolling faces. 
These four guys are the only things 
keeping you from eating your way to 



ply avoid them. This makes for a very 
light-hearted atmosphere. 

The game can be played at one of ten 
selectable difficulty levels. The lower the 
level, the slower everything moves. The 
default level is fast-paced and provides a 
challenge to even experienced players. 
As the game progresses, the faces be- 
come more aggressive, and the energiz- 
ers do not last as long. 

This new version of Jawbreaker is 
written by Charles "Chuckles" Bueche, 
and it is nothing like the first version. If 
you are looking for a good variation on 
the maze game theme, Jawbreaker won't 
let you down. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Jawbreaker 
Type: Arcade 

System: 48K Apple II/II+ DOS 3.3 
48K Atari 400/800 

Format: Disk/cassette (Atari only) 

Language: Assembly 

Summary: Creative new maze game 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Sierra On-line Inc. 

36575 Mudge Ranch Rd. 

Coarsegold, CA 93614 



obesity. If you touch a face, you lose a 
set of teeth. To chomp on the faces, you 
must first eat one of the energizers that 
are located in the four corners of the 
maze. 

Jawbreaker can be played by using the 
keyboard, a joystick, or a joyport 
controller. If you choose to use the key- 
board, you are allowed to define the keys 
that you want to control the action. The 
joyport with a switch-type joystick is the 
most responsive and accurate type of 
controller for this style game in which 
precise, four-directional movement is 
required. 

The playscreen is depicted in colorful 
hi-res graphics. As the faces roam the 
hallways, they roll, giving the illusion of 
three dimensions. The best word to de- 
scribe this game is cute. It is simple to 
play, yet not easily mastered. You don't 
get the feeling that the faces are out to 
get you, but rather, that you must sim- 

108 



Spy's Demise 

As you sit in the lobby of the Bangkok 
Hilton, you overhear two Russian KGB 
agents discussing an encoded message 
which holds the key to very valuable 
computer data. Each component of the 
message is kept on a separate floor of the 
Russian embassy. There is only one se- 
cret agent who can infiltrate the heavily 



The mission is yours, 

whether you decide to 

accept it or not. 

Good luck. 



guarded Soviet embassy, and that spy 
just happens to be you. The mission is 
yours, whether you decide to accept it or 
not. Good luck. 

Spy's Demise, written by Alan Zeldin, 
is a new arcade action game from Pen- 
guin Software. You play the role of a 
trustworthy spy attempting to steal an 
encoded message out from under the 
noses of Russian embassy officials. 



— f i — — 

(J 

e 
* — 

JL _ _ 

I t 




You are portrayed in detailed hi-res 
graphics as a trenchcoat-clad figure who 
shuffles silently about. Scattered on the 
platforms are various spying tools which 
contain pieces of the encoded message. 
As you pass over them, you pick them 
up, but gain no points. 

May 1983 c Creative Computing 




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creative corapafcing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Spy's Demise 

Type: Arcade action 

System: 48K Apple II 

Format: Disk 

Language: Assembly 

Summary: Fast-paced, addictive game 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Penguin Software 

830 4th Ave. 

Geneva. IL 60134 



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Basically, Spy's Demise is a "chicken" 
game, much like the popular Activision 
VCS cartridge, Freeway. You must stay 
out of the predictable paths of the on- 
coming guard elevators. The thing that 
sets Spy's Demise apart from similar 
games is the challenge of solving the en- 
coded message. There is a strong in- 
centive to reach each successive embassy 
floor. 

Spy's Demise can be played by only 
one player at a time. You select what 
type of controls you prefer to use (pad- 
dles, keyboard, or Atari joystick). Mov- 
ing your man left and right are the only 
two commands in this game. The thing 
that makes Spy's Demise difficult is that 
there is no way to stop the movement of 
your spy, which increases your chances 
of making a mistake. 

There is very little happening in the 
sound effects department of the game. 
Each time a new man is introduced into 
the game, the computer plays a short 
musical tune. This is as complex as the 
sound routines get. The suspenseful 
game play more than makes up for this 
deficiency, however. 

To succeed in reaching the advanced 
floors, you must have an incredible 
amount of patience and good timing. As 
mentioned before, when you climb to the 
top of a floor, you are shown a portion 
of the overall message. Each line consists 
of 16 strange characters. Even if you 
were able to pass the ninth level, you 
must still decipher the code to "win" the 
game. So far, I have seen eight lines of 
code, but the puzzle remains a mystery 
to me. . 

Spy's Demise is full of excitement. It is 
not a simple action game that relies 
strictly on dexterity, but rather, a game 
that requires a blend of coordination and 
mental ability. From the close shaves 
with the guard elevators to the thrill of 
acquiring each piece of code, Spy's De- 
mise is a very addictive game. 

May 1983 c Creative Computing 



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747 Landing Simulation 




Landing A Jumbo Atari 



I thought the best way to test a pro- 
gram titled 747 Landing Simulator 
would be to have a real Jumbo Jet pilot 
grab hold of the joystick and compare 
the Atari 800 to the Boeing 747. Unable 
to coerce 747-qualified volunteers, I 
found two willing guinea pigs who 
agreed to give it a whirl. Both are experi- 
enced co-pilots for major commercial 
U.S. airlines, one in the right seat of a 
737, the other in a 727. Their reactions 
in a moment. 

The 747 Landing Simulator program, 
written by William Graham for the 
Atari 800, was one of the earliest offered 
through the Atari Program Exchange 
(APX), a valuable source for low cost 
Atari software. The program is written 
in Basic and is available either on 
cassette (24K RAM required) or disk 
(32K RAM). All controls are handled 
by a joystick and the row of numbers on 
the 800 keyboard. 

The object of the simulation is to 
make a safe landing approach to a run- 
way from 19 miles out at an altitude of 
5000 feet. You need to follow the glide 
path onto the runway while slowing air- 
speed and making minor course correc- 
tions caused, presumably, by cross 
winds. 

The view is out the cockpit window, 
with your instrument panel in the lower 
quarter of the screen. The ground is 
black, and the sky a bluish color, giving 
you the impression you are landing a 
little after sundown. 

From the blackness of the ground 
flash runway lights — at first very small 
in the distance, ultimately filling out the 
whole area on final approach. The 
"flashing" of the runway lights is a 
clever way to allow the computer to 
update the runway display smoothly 
even though it does so in Basic, instead 
of much faster machine language. 
While players may be tempted to 

Danny Goodman. 275-B Island View Lane. Barring- 
ton. IL 60010. 

May 1 983 • Creative Computing 



Danny Goodman 



watch the runway lights, attention 
should really be focused on the 
instrument panel. Pilots are provided the 
following information: altitude in feet, 
range in feet to midway point of the 
10,000 foot long runway, bearing 
deviation in degrees left or right, air- 
speed m feet per second, elapsed flight 
time in seconds, fuel units remaining, 
bearing and glide slope correction 
needed, and landing gear up/down. If 
you wander from the correct course, the 
letters for the affected instrument (e.g. 
range) turn from yellow to white. 

If you think that's too much to keep 
an eye on, you're right. Actually, you 
can forget about the time, fuel and land- 
ing gear indicators for most of the flight. 
But that still leaves an awful lot going 
on. 

Controlling the plane is no picnic 
either. It takes a great deal of practice to 
learn the combinations of joystick direc- 
tion and red button pressing to make the 
plane react as you want. You have the 
flexibility to climb and dive at both 50 
and 3 feet per second, make turns, 
climb/dive during turns, drop/raise 
landing gear, activate autopilot, and 
abort landing. 

Airspeed is controlled by the key- 
board numbers, each representing air- 
speed in hundreds of feet per second. 
This is the easiest factor to control 
during landing because there are guide- 
lines to follow in gradually slowing the 
plane from the starting 900 feet to zero 
on the runway. 

If you don't follow the glide path cor- 
rectly, several things may happen. The 
most common is the mid-air collision as 
your errant path crosses that of a nearby 
plane. You must be alert to the warning 
sound of impending danger, then 

113 



immediately determine corrective action 
and take it. Otherwise, it's good-bye, 
Ace. As (if?) you begin the final 
approach at the foot of the runway (your 
instrument panel politely indicates when 
this is), the sweaty palm part really 
begins. If you don't have enough fuel, or 
if you descend too quickly, you'll drop 
to the runway like a stone. 

You can't dawdle, either, because you 
can overshoot the runway before the 
plane comes to a halt. If, at an earlier 
stage of the approach, you abort the 
landing, you see the runway pass below 
you as you veer away for another try. 

A complete landing sequence takes 
between five and ten minutes, and the 
closer you get, the more you want to 
make sure you don't blow it. Successful 
landings or aborted landings earn scores, 
based on the difficulty level 
(instruments, IFR, or visual, VFR), 
amount of fuel and time used, and 
whether you invoked the autopilot. The 
program documentation provides the 
formula executed in figuring your score. 

It took me perhaps 30 attempts before 
I made my first successful landing — and 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: 747 Landing Simulator 

Type: Entertainment 

System: Atari 800 24K (cassette) 

or 32K (disk), Basic language 

cartridge, joystick. 

Format: Cassette or disk 
Language: Basic 
Summary: Tougher than the 

real thing 
Price: $17.95 either version 
Manufacturer: 

The Atari Program Exchange 

P.O. Box 427 

155 Moffett Park Dr.. B-l 

Sunnyvale, CA 94086 



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Landing Simulator, continued... 

that was with the help of the autopilot 
and the easy-to-follow strategy sug- 
gested for novice pilots in the docu- 
mentation. Soon after, I graduated to the 
instrument landing without autopilot, 
but, again, it took many attempts. A 
successful visual landing has so far 
eluded me. 

Upon making the first landing, I was 
rather disappointed. I suppose after 
working so long to accomplish it, I 
expected something more dramatic in 
the cockpit view than just grinding to a 
halt on the runway. Anything more 
elaborate, however, would probably 
have enlarged the program beyond the 
capacity of the 24K cassette version (a 
beast of a long program to load as it is). 
Also, it seems that any safe landing is 




hailed on the screen as a perfect 
landing, even though some are 
definitely better than others. There is 
room, I believe, for a pilot rating system, 
which would be a more concrete way of 
tracking your progress and skill. At least 
it would lead me to try more often to 
reach higher rating levels and refine my 
technique. 

But, as I learned from my pilot 
friends, it ain't like the real thing. We 
surmised that the association with the 
747 was an intelligent way of disguising 
the slowness of the Basic program. 
Apparently, the hydraulic system of a 
747 is slower to react to cockpit controls 
than those of smaller jets. 

The instrument configurations of the 
simulator were not what the pilots 
expected, especially the bearing and 
glide slope indicators. The computer 
version was more difficult for them to 
interpret. Thus, the pilots will probably 
not like this program, but those who 
don't know any better will find it a men- 
tal challenge. 

As it turned out, neither professional 
made it to the runway, after a combined 
effort of about 20 approaches. Prac- 
tically all ended as mid-air collisions. 
One pilot turned in his computerized 
wings saying that if flying real jets was 
as difficult as this, he would never have 
become a pilot. And, after seeing these 
pros demolish plane after plane, next 
time I'm taking the train. 

May 1 983 « Creative Computing 



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Logo Ideas 



Robert Lawler 



Re-solving Problems 

Some problems you want to put behind you— like having to 
do what you don't want to do, and not being able to do what 
you do want. Such problems should be resolved. Other kinds of 
problems have a friendlier face, and certain of them are worth 
solving and re-solving. Think about making a circle. Doing so 
ts a classic Logo problem for beginners. Novice learners are 
typically asked to "do-it-yourself," to walk through the prob- 
em by simulating the turtle. Their typical explanation of what 
they are doing as they walk in a circle is that they go forward- a 
httle and turn a little and do it again. This explanation trans- 
lates directly into the Logo circle: 
TO CIRCLE 
FORWARD 1 
RIGHT 1 
CIRCLE 
END 

The Logo circle is very easy to make with a Logo computer 
but it would be difficult to make such a circle by drawing on a 
piece of paper. The Logo circle is very perimeter-focussed 
because the turtle knows nothing at all about "centers." (This 
leads to some interesting bugs and problems in turtle geometry 
procedures.) The Logo circle is natural in the sense that it is the 
path of an activity as familiar as walking is. 

In plane geometry if you ask, "What's a circle?" the object 
the locus of all points in a plane equidistant from another 
point, ' is easy to construct with a compass and not even hard 
to construct without one. The Euclidean circle is as "natural" 
as the Logo circle in the following sense: imagine a person sit- 
ting; the figure traced by the farthest reach of his arms is as cir- 
cular as the path followed by any person imitating the Logo 
turtle. The Euclidean circle is center-focussed, and the circle is 
the boundary of the center's territory. 

Can you get a computer to draw a Euclidean circle? There 
are several ways. If your computer speaks "polar," you can 
specify the definition of a circle with the simplest of equations 
radius = constant. Descriptions of circles in polar coordinates 
are simple, but they get complicated quickly if located away 
from the coordinate system origin. 



While the description of a circle in polar coordinates still 
keeps in mind the relation of the circle to its center, and to 
process a person could use unaided to make a circle the 
description of a circle in a system of Cartesian coordinates be- 
comes remote from the process of generating a circle- 
X 2 + Y* = C 2 

This algebraic equation for an origin-centered circle (of ra- 
dius C) specifies that the circle is the set of all point pairs (X Y) 
in a Cartesian coordinate system which satisfy the equation 
The primary relationship between the circle and "someth.ne 
else is here between the circle and the Cartesian reference 
frame. This contrasts with the Logo circle (where the primary 
relation was between the circle and its process of creation) and 
he Euclidean circle (where the primary relation was between 
the circle and its center). The Cartesian description of the circle 
and other curved lines, although central to the development of 
modern mathematics and science, seems relatively unnatural as 
compared to the Logo and Euclidean circles because of the 
the^rc? * ,hC PerS °" ' S removed from the description of 

Summary 

Scientists have recommended re-solving problems through 
the ages. Descartes recommends that whenever you encounter 
a new idea, you bring it into comparison with all the other ideas 
you hold as valuable and try to appreciate their interrelations 
heynman, a famous physicist of our time, relates that his prac- 
tice as a student was typically one of solving a problem what- 
ever way he could, then, with a worked out solution to guide 
him, to re-solve that same problem in as many different other 
formalisms or frames of reference as he could. 



Robert Uwler. Centre Mondial Informartque Et Resources Humaines, Paris, France. 

May 1 983 o Creative Computing -, , 9 



Sometimes You Need Another Idea 

One of the most famous problems in the history of ideas puz- 
zled the mathematicians of ancient Greece. They knew how to 
count very well (even though they used letters of their alphabet 
o represent numbers). They even knew about fractions, and 
this is where the puzzle came up. They knew about numbers 
like 1, and % and '/«, but they wondered if there were any 
numbers that couldn't be represented by whole numbers or 
fractions made from whole numbers. The puzzle became a hot 
issue for them after the discovery of the Pythagorean theorem 
They could prove that the areas of two squares constructed on 
the edges of a right triangle was equal to the area of a square 



constructed on the longer line (the hypotenuse), through the 
use of a technique such as shown below: 



Hypotenuse Square 

70 



Two Side Squares 





rotating 

pieces 

around 

their 

corners 



This proof helped make the problem more critical °«* us f 
raised a specific question. If you start with a square one urn 
ong on the side, and make a triangle by drawing the diagonal 
of the square, the sum of the areas of the two squares con- 
structed^ the side will be two units of area; bu how _long 
must be the hypotenuse, H, of the triangle made from _ half a 
unit square? H must be greater than 1 and less than 2. It must 
be more than Vk and less than %. 

Greek mathematicians suspected no fraction o whole num- 
bers would result in the number 2 when multiplied by itself 
and they began the attempt to prove there was no fraction o\ 
whole numbers equal to H. They tried to represent the number 
H as a fraction of two whole numbers, T (the top number) and 
B (the bottom number). They knew that H times H had to 
equal 2 and developed these equations: 

first, H x H = 2 

then, 1x1 = 2 
B B 

or,l!=2 
B 2 

finally, T 2 = 2B 2 



Having reduced their relation of the possible : whok .numbers 

number) if the roots are prime or some multiple of two it tne 
roots are not prime, as in the example below: 

,, -w 64 100 

KVactors 5 2 x5 ( 2x3)x(2x3)(2x2x2)x(2x2x2)(5x2)x 4 (5x2) 

Count of Factors 2 4 

Any number is either a prime number or can ^decomposed 
into prime factors. Therefore every square must have an even 
number of factors. But think back about the equation: 
T 2 =lB 2 . Doesn't that imply there is at leas, one square T 2 
ihich must have an odd number of factors? \™*>*Z*Z* 
therefore it must be wrong. Consequently, » h « m "* «"J 
numbers like the square root of 2, which can not be expressed 
asThVrl'tio of two whole numbers. That is, irrational numbers 

"This mathematical proof was a difficult one for mento dis- 
cover Then someone realized that a new idea was needed a 
new way of looking at the problem. Once a second way of 
bribing the problem was brought to bear its solution was 
Ser y g stra,g P htforward. almost obvious. When you > have a 
verv difficult problem, maybe you ought to think about 
Wiethe some o'ther description of the problem could he p .you 
with it. Finding the right description isn't always easy; it may, 
however, be necessary. 



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■— 


- ■ 



A User's View 
Of Prestel 




Prestel is viewdata. The British based 
electronic information utility now 
known as Prestel was originally named 
Viewdata (with a capital V). But 
viewdata quickly became a generic term 
used to refer to any interactive videotex 
service, and the premier viewdata service 
was renamed Prestel. 

Prestel is run by the British post of- 
fice, known as British Telecom, which 
also runs the telephone system in the 
O.K. Over 900 organizations contribute 
information to the 230,000-page Prestel 
database. Subscribing to Prestel is like 

Erie Somen, Department of Communication. Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin/Stevens Point, Stevens Point Wl 
54481. 



Eric Somers 



taking 900 magazines and getting a high 
speed international mail service thrown 
in for good measure. 

I even sent an electronic greeting card 
to Prince Charles and Princess Diana 
congratulating them on the birth of their 
son. I received a reply, too. Through sev- 
eral newsletters published on Prestel I 
keep track of new developments in the 
videotex industry. Since I am planning a 
trip to Australia, I used the Prestel ad- 
vertiser reply service to request travel 
brochures. The Australian Tourist 
Commission sent me a packet an inch 



thick. There is such a wide range of 
information on Prestel, you might find it 
hard to think of a topic about which 
some information provider has not put 
up pages. Looking for a ferret? You can 
find information about these unusual 
pets on Prestel. 

I have been a Prestel subscriber for 
over six months now, but I am still sur- 
prised at the volume and variety of 
information available. That's the excite- 
ment. Nearly every time I sign on, I dis- 
cover a gem of information I did not 
expect. And some of the information 
would be hard to obtain elsewhere. 

Although many computer users in the 
U.S. are familiar with electronic 



Prestel welcome page. 



Prestel main index page. 



Typical page of textual information. 




May 1983 " Creative Computing 



___ 



Prestel, continued. 




Picture utilizing Prestel's low resolution 
graphics capability. 



information utilities like The Source and 
CompuServe, Prestel differs markedly 
from these services in display format, 
indexing structure, and database 
content. 

Standardized Page Display 

All information on Prestel is designed 
to be read in pages, or screens, consisting 
of 24 lines of 40 characters. Both upper- 
and lowercase alphanumeric characters 
are supported, as well as two special 
graphics sets of 64 characters each. All 
characters can be displayed in any one of 
seven colors against any one of seven 
background colors, and can also be dis- 
played in double height or flashing 
mode. 

To use Prestel, you must purchase a 
special terminal that supports the dis- 
play protocols, or buy hardware or soft- 
ware products to adapt a personal 
computer to Prestel. Currently, the Ap- 
ple II and TRS-80 Model III can be 
adapted for black and white display sim- 
ply by running special software. 
Combination software/hardware pack- 
ages exist for color adaptation of Apple 
II, IBM, and S-100 bus personal 
computers. 

Use of a standard display means that 
there are never awkward line wrap- 
around problems, and important 
information never scrolls off the top of 
the screen. All information on Prestel is 
transmitted as one or more complete 
pages that are written on the screen from 
top to bottom. 

Although color may not seem im- 
portant for textual information, many 
Prestel information providers make ex- 
cellent use of contrasting colors for 
emphasis or to lead the eye. And the 
combination of color, lowercase charac- 
ters, interesting page layouts, and graph- 
ics makes Prestel a true communications 
medium, not simply a database. 



"Superstat "page showing current level of 
utilization. As of June 30, 1982 Prestel 
had 17,743 subscriber terminals in use. 
Page also shows number of IPs and Sub- 
IPs, total number of pages in use, and a 
McDonald's hamburger total of individual 
page accesses since beginning of service. 

As a former advertising agency cre- 
ative director, I may be especially sen- 
sitive to the visual design capabilities of 
Prestel, but when I give demonstrations 
of both The Source and Prestel to my 
university classes, the students 



Many Prestel 

information providers 

make excellent use of 

contrasting colors for 

emphasis. 



overwhelmingly favor the visually more 
exciting Prestel display. To a generation 
brought up on mass media and video 
games, it is not enough that computers 
provide information, the method of 
presentation must be as design oriented 
as a new arcade fad, a slick publication, 
or a pair of bluejeans. 

GrapK showing number of new sub- 
scribers each month over past year and a 
half. Growth has been slow, but steady, 
with an average 500 new subscriptions 
each month. 



Menu Driven Access Structure 

The model for Prestel information re- 
trieval is print. It is a library of regularly 
updated periodical information. Indexes 
are used to find specific information. By 
keying numbers next to index entries, 
you can quickly move through more and 
more specific index layers to the 
information you seek. Numerical label- 
ing of menu choices allows Prestel to be 
accessed with a simple numeric keypad. 
This speeds up menu selection and al- 
lows one to sit back in an easy chair with 
a keypad smaller than most TV remote 
controls. 

If menus seem like a slow way to re- 
trieve information, remember that 
Prestel is designed to be received at 1200 
bits per second (bps) and that an ex- 
tremely efficient operating system as- 
sures a consistent response time of less 
than two seconds from the time a key is 
pressed until the page begins to appear. 
The response is so instantaneous that 
some people who have used my terminal 
can hardly believe they are online to a 
computer in the U.K. 

Since all Prestel pages are numbered, 
once you have used an index to locate 
specific information, you can repeatedly 
go back to selected pages with a direct 
call to the individual page numbers. This 
ability to jump from any part of the 
Prestel database to any other part in less 
than two seconds is an invaluable time 
saver. Though competitors sometimes 
criticize Prestel for a lack of keyword 
search capability (a time-consuming 
disk-intensive feature), using indexed 
and numbered pages is far more natural 
and convenient for most people. 

The most general indexes on Prestel 
are alphabetic indexes by subject matter 
and by name of information provider. 
To locate gold prices using the subject 
index, for example, you first call up a 
page that simply lists all of the letters in 
the alphabet. Then you key the number 
next to the letter G. The next screen dis- 



Graph showing growth of total sub- 
scription since beginning of regular 
Prestel service following two years of field 
tests. 




124 



May 1983 « Creative Computing 






■ 



■ 



■ 




XI 






IHBK 



wmmmmB 



NOBODY EVER PLAYS 
JUST ONE HAND OF STRIP POKER. 



There's no such thing as a quick 
game of Strip Poker. With two 
captivating female opponents, this 
fast-paced program features graphics 
and game play so realistic that players 
tend to lose track of time. Decorum 
forbids that we actually show you what 
happens on the screen. Suffice it to say 
that our sophisticated software gives you 
ample incentive to stretch your poker 
skills to the limit! 

Just to sweeten the pot, we've 
added two new data disks . . . one with 
two new female opponents, the other 
with two males. The action is intense 
and the stakes are high. 



If you have a keen competitive 
instinct and don't mind occasionally 
losing your shirt, see your local computer 
store or call us for Strip Poker today. 

Atari (4()K) and Apple II (48K) computers, $34.95 Diskette. Additional 
Data Disks (specify male or female] 124 95ea 
Look for these and other Artworx programs at your local computer 
store. Fora free catalog, write or call 800-828-6573. Artworx Software 
Co., Inc., ISO North Mam St., Fairport. NY 14450(716)425 :'«.'« 







" r q 

So you can play. 



Prestel, continued... 




Example of Prestel response page, in this 
case used by Holiday Inn for taking reser- 
vations. 



plays subsets of character strings start- 
ing with G (e.g., Gab-Gam, Gar-Ger, 
etc.). Keying the number adjacent to Go 
produces a new menu page showing a se- 
ries of words starting with Go . . . Key- 
ing the number for Gold accesses a 
menu listing all of the information 
providers presenting information about 
gold. Another keystroke takes you di- 
rectly to the commodity quotation 
pages. 

Although this process usually takes a 
little over a minute, the number of menu 
layers can be cut almost in half by using 
the more specialized Business Informa- 
tion Index to find gold prices. An even 
more direct Commodities Index can 
shorten the search time to under 30 sec- 
onds. And Prestel has 17 specialist in- 
dexes covering such diverse categories as 
agriculture, auto industry, medicine, 
microcomputing, shipping, travel in- 
dustry, and viewdata industry. Since 
each electronic "publication" on Prestel 
has its own mini-index of current stories 
or data; once you have located these in- 
dividual publications you can go directly 
to those pages without having to use any 
of the general indexes. 

Up through January 1982, an exten- 
sive printed directory of the Prestel 
database was available on a quarterly ba- 
sis from the Financial Times (London). 
They recently discontinued this service, 
but there are indications from Logica, 
the U.S. sales representatives for Prestel, 
that another such publication may soon 
become available. 

The paged structure of Prestel points 
up its primary mission to be a mass 
information medium rather than a com- 
puter timesharing utility. Prestel is not 
designed for word processing, managing 
home finances, or calculating mortgage 
payments. Some of the information 
providers have skillfully indexed their 
material to simulate a timesharing util- 



ity. For example, there is a multiple- 
choice quiz you can take to find out 
what kind of dog would be the best pet 
for you. At the end you are presented 
with a list of suitable breeds. The list 
may appear to have been computer pre- 
pared on the basis of a real time analysis 
of your answers. In fact, each question 
with its numbered answers is simply a 
menu that helps guide you to one of a se- 
ries of prepared "answer"sheets. 

Some time-share utilities will become 
available on Prestel as information 
providers gradually make use of newly 
developed gateway software that allows 



Prestel is not designed 

for word processing, 

managing home 

finances, or calculating 
mortgage payments. 



information stored in computers outside 
the Prestel network to be formatted, in 
real time, for Prestel display. This will 
permit bank-at-home services (now be- 
ing tested) and other utilities requiring 
processing beyond ordinary page 
retrieval. 

Prestel supports no bulletin boards or 
user-entered classified ads. This may be 



perceived as a defect by some, but it does 
keep the service from being cluttered 
with the kind of trivia that has charac- 
terized some U.S. electronic bulletin 
boards. Prestel users can order products 
using special response pages with mul- 
tiple choice selection of items to permit 
ordering with a numeric-only keypad. 
Users with full alphanumeric keyboards 
can also send electronic mail to other 
Prestel subscribers. Since Prestel is cur- 
rently being accessed in 25 countries, 
this benefit should not be underrated. 

A Publisher's Clearinghouse 

An information service is no better 
than the information it provides. The ul- 
timate benefit of Prestel is its range and 
quantity of information. This is the re- 
sult of a two-tiered information provider 
(IP) structure that makes it attractive 
for publishers both large and small to 
use Prestel. Major publishing organiza- 
tions — either electronic publishing en- 
trepreneurs or traditional publishers 
seeking new channels — can become full- 
fledged IPs by paying a yearly $10,000 
membership fee and agreeing to rent at 
least 100 pages. But many of these larger 
providers broker their pages in smaller 
lots to Sub-IPs who may only put up a 
dozen or so pages. 

As of this writing there are 169 major 
IPs and 801 Sub- IPs— a total of 970 
publishing organizations in all. When 
you consider that each of the 970 
databases consists of information de- 



Advertising pages often utilize color and graphics. Ford Escort graphic shows use of 
separated graphics font in which each element within each graphic character is 
isolated and surrounded by the background color. 





Hofrday 

|^JrWVHDT.EL5 






126 



May 1 983 i Creative Computing 



4* 






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CIRCLE 136 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Prestel, continued... 

signed specifically for videotex display 
using color and graphics, the uniqueness 
of Prestel becomes apparent. 

U.S. computer information utilities 
(The Source, CompuServe, and Dow 
Jones) lack the range of publishers and 
topics, not to mention the display 
capabilities, of Prestel. Competing 
viewdata systems having even greater 
graphics capability — Canada's Telidon 
and France's Antiope, for example — 
have yet to put up any kind of substan- 
tial database, much less offer their ser- 
vices in the U.S. Lest the Prestel user 
fear the low -resolution character graph- 
ics of Prestel are too limiting for sophis- 
ticated "office of the future" 
applications, it should be noted that 
Prestel plans to offer a series of tiered 
graphics enhancements in the future, 
including full photographic image 
transmission. 



My enthusiasm for the 
Prestel service is 

tempered by one grim 
reality: the cost. 



Priced for Business 

My enthusiasm for the Prestel service 
is tempered by one grim reality: the cost. 
Prestel is being marketed as a business 
information service. It was not always 
so. When Prestel was field tested in the 
U.K. (starting in 1977), it was intended 
to be an electronic newspaper for the 
masses. The 24 x 40 display was selected 
because it was the maximum resolution 
that could be displayed on a home TV 
receiver using a modulated RF output 
from the terminal. But when Prestel was 
offered to the British public, at a price 
much lower than that now charged in 
the U.S., most citizens still deemed it too 
expensive to replace (or augment) the 
family newspaper. 

Although one can still find some 
games and recreational information on 
Prestel, 87 percent of the present Prestel 
users are businesses. All U.S. marketing 
efforts, which began in January 1982, 
have positioned the service as a business 
utility carrying a business price tag. 

There are three types of charges on 
Prestel. The first is a $5P per month 
membership fee. This is not a minimum 
use charge, but a flat fee added to all 
time and page charges. Second, there is a 
charge for connect time: 30 cents a 
minute if you don't use Telenet (you 
must call a Boston area number) or 45 
cents a minute if you access Prestel 
through Telenet. This rate applies any 



Sources Of Prestel Related Products 

Logica. Inc. Sales agents for Prestel in the U.S. Distributors of 

666 Third Ave. Owl Computer Applctel software products and color 

New York, NY 10017 board for the Apple II, terminal software of their own 
(212) 599-0828 design for the TRS-80 Model III, and Sony terminals. 



Ericsson Programatic 
301 Route 17 North 
Rutherford, NJ 07070 
(201)933-2111 

Metrotech Dynabyte 
Waterloo Rd. 
Uxbridge, Middlesex 
UB8-2YW England 

Modular 

Computer Systems 
P.O. Box 6099 
1650 West McNab Rd. 
Fort Lauderdale, 
FL 33310 
(305)974-1380 

Radofin Electronics 

(USA) Ltd. 
887 Oak Grove Ave. 
Menlo Park, CA 94025 
(415) 326-9715 

Wolfdata 
P.O. Box 31 
Ithaca, NY 14850 
(607) 273-8666 

Zenith Radio Corp. 
1000 Milwaukee Ave. 
Glenview, IL 60025 
(312)391-8181 



Makers of CCITT V.23 standard modems FCC 
certified for use on U.S. phone lines, and Prestel 
adapter boards for the Apple II. 

Makers of Prestel compatible display boards for 
S-100 computers. 



Distributors of Bishopsgate terminals in the U.S. 



Makers of Radofin terminals (with built-in 
V.23 modem) and accessories. 



Makers of stand-alone Prestel terminals and Prestel 
adapters for the IBM Personal Computer. 



Makers of stand-alone terminals for Prestel. 



time of day or night, 300 or 1 200 bps. 
Still a third charge is the frame charge. 
Some information providers charge you 
to read their pages. If you access these 
pages from a menu page, you will be told 
the charges before you call up a page. 
These charges can run from '/ 2 p. to 50p. 
per page British currency (about one 
cent to one dollar, U.S.). The average 
charge is usually in the 5p. to lOp. (10- 
20 cent) range. The vast majority of 
pages on Prestel are free, however, and 
in my own experience I find that frame 
charges are a negligible part of my other- 
wise substantial quarterly bill. 

Prestel Terminals 

Prestel can be accessed in the U.S. us- 
ing any one of three data modem stan- 
dards: Bell 212 (or equivalent). Bell 103, 
and CCITT V.23. 

The Bell 212 standard is the most 
common U.S. 1200 bps standard, but 

128 



modems for it arc expensive. Also, most 
systems for adapting Prestel to personal 
computers at 1200 bps require hardware 
additions (beside the modem), and are 
therefore quite expensive. 

Currently, the Apple II, IBM Per- 
sonal Computer, and most S-100 bus 
computers can be adapted to access 
Prestel with a 212 modem. Stand-alone 
terminals from Zenith, Bishopsgate, 
Sony and Wolfdata arc also available in 
the U.S. for connection to modems using 
this full duplex 1200 bps standard. Bell 
212 users can reach Prestel directly via a 
Boston area concentrator, or via Telenet. 

Bell 103 service, the widely used 300 
bps standard, is available for Prestel via 
Telenet only. Software programs that 
make the Apple II (with D.C. Hayes 
Mieromodem) and Radio Shack TRS-80 
Model III a Prestel terminal use this 
standard. Though I find 300 bps a te- 
dious data rate, the low cost of these 

May 1 983 « Creative Computing 



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The H-100 is easy to build - the step-by-step Heathkit 
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And what better way to learn state-of-the-art computing 
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THEM AS FAST AS 



At the rate we're going, 
we'll have these pages 
filled by 2083. And by 
2084, people will be 
clamoring for the next 
Infocom creation. 

We hate to disappoint our 
public. So we keep you waiting. 
Because while the software facto- 
ries are cranking out arcade game 
after arcade game, pulpy adven- 
ture after trite fantasy, we're 
writing and rewriting, honing and 
perfecting. Before a single person 
enters one of Infocom's worlds, 
it must be crafted into a living, 
riveting, definitive experience. 



WE CAN! 

Judging from the public's reac- 
tion, it's worth the wait. For 
instance, Creative Computing 
welcomed DEADLINE" as 
"thoroughly engrossing and real- 
istic," while a So/talk readers' 
poll recently voted ZORK™ I and 
ZORK II the most popular adven- 
tures of 1981. 

And now, for the moment, your 
wait is over. ZORK HI, your final 



step in the underground 
trilogy, and STARCROSS,™ 
an exploration of a new 
dimension in science fiction, 
are ready for you. 

Look at them up there, 
the little worlds of Infocom. As 
our universe expands, compan- 
ions will come to help fill that vast 
expanse of white space. Till 
then, they'll continue to stand 
alone as the best of all possible 
worlds. 

inFocom 

55 Wheeler Street. Cambridge, MA 02138 



Infocom's worlds are available for Apple,' Atari," IBM, TRS-80," Commodore, NEC, Osborne, CP/M," and DEC." 

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C P M is a registered trademark of Diuilal Research. Inc. DEC Is a trademark tif Dlitltal Equipment Corporation 



Prestel, continued... 

programs, $85 and $50 respectively, may 
make them attractive for some users. 

In Europe, Prestel communication 
uses the CCITT V.23 format, an 
asymmetrical system in which the pages 
are transmitted to the user at 1200 bps, 
but typed responses from the user are re- 
ceived at only 75 bps (still a fast typing 
speed). This standard is available for 
Prestel in the U.S. by direct dialing the 
U.S. data concentrator ports. Telenet 
does not currently support V.23 
modems. 

Although I began using Prestel with 
the Appletel software for my Apple II, I 
quickly switched to a very low cost 
terminal from Radofln Electronics. This 
remarkable device includes a built-in 
V.23 modem and memory autodialing. 
It produces a modulated RF video out- 
put, so it can be connected to any color 
TV set. 

The color saturation and character 
sharpness are superior to that produced 
by any other video RF system I have 
seen. All color photographs of Prestel 
screens accompanying this article were 
made using the Radofin connected to a 
Sony TV set. 

The Radofin terminal has a cassette 
port for permanent storage of pages. Op- 
tions include a low cost printer and an 
alphanumeric keyboard. The list price of 



the basic Radofln (without options) is 
around $500 (the firm seems indefinite 
about exact single unit pricing). It is ru- 
mored that another low cost Prestel 
adapter (terminal plus internal V.23 
modem) may soon be available in the 
U.S. and carry a $2O0-$3O0 price tag. 
This competition may ultimately bring 
down the cost of the Radofln. 



It is rumored that 

another low cost 

Prestel adapter may 

soon be available in 

the U.S. 



Here Today 

Most industry analysts agree that nei- 
ther Prestel, nor any other viewdata ser- 
vice, is about to take the world by storm 
in the immediate future. But many new 
communications technologies have had 
to endure a slow acceptance before 
realizing sudden growth. Cable tele- 
vision, FM radio, and color television 
come to mind. All took over a decade, in 
some cases over two decades, to become 



popular. Although an impressive service, 
Prestel is not yet the comprehensive of- 
fice-of-the-future information/ 
communication system envisioned by fu- 
turists. By future standards, I am sure it 
will appear crude, just as early telephone 
service seems crude compared to today's 
multi-function phone systems. 

But Prestel is the most comprehensive 
videotex information service presently 
available in the United States (or any- 
where else). Its display standards can be 
implemented at low cost and are prob- 
ably satisfactory for many business 
applications. The recent announcement 
by IBM of their own videotex system 
supporting a Prestel compatible display 
format may well mean that we will soon 
see many other Prestel-like services com- 
ing on the scene. A de facto standard 
based on Prestel may emerge before 
AT&T manages to develop a service 
based on its much publicized, and 
expensive to implement, presentation 
level protocols. And since Prestel al- 
ready has the lead in quality of service 
and range of information available from 
any electronic publishing service, it just 
might be that with continued research 
and development supported by the Brit- 
ish government, the enhanced informa- 
tion system of the future might also be 
called Prestel. □ 




Business 

Games 

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CIRCLE 113 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

May 1983 c Creative Computing 




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CIRCLE 231 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



YOUR HOME COMPUTER IS 
JUST THE BEGINNING. 

You've got your home finances 
organized, learned a little French, 
played a lot of Zork. You have all 
the software you want. 

Yet, something is missing. 

Introducing Delphi™. The 
information, communications and 
entertainment system that takes you 
far beyond the limitations of disks 
and cartridges. The system that's 
so friendly the whole family can 
use and enjoy it. 
Delphi is 
what the 
home 
computer 
was 
really 
meant 
for. 






HERE'S WHAT DELPHI GIVES 
YOU NOW 

With a simple telephon 
call, you can look up any- 
thing in a vast research 
library which includes 
a 20,000-entry 
encyclopedia. You can 
do your banking. Get the news, 
weather and sports stories you 
want from several wire services. 
Check airline schedules and make 
reservations. Shop from an electronic 
catalog. Tap into the Comp-U-Store* 
discount shopping service. Keep 
track of your appointments. Play 
games. Get in touch with other peo- 
ple through the electronic 
bulletin board, mail and "talk" 
services. Seek advice from other 
members and volunteer your 
own expertise. Collaborate on A 
the Delphi novels. Take part (( 
in or run a subscriber poll. V* 

That's just the beginning. ^ 



Whatt 
home 
omputen 
m really 
meant 
for. 



THE PRICE IS 
FRIENDLY, TOO. 




You Can be part of the 

DESIGN COMMITTEE. 

We're continually adding new 
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What's coming, 
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You can be part of the 
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on Delphi. 

SO FRIENDLY, YOU DON'T 
EVEN NEED OUR HANDBOOK. 

Delphi is the easy-to-use, 
friendly information system. We 
C2i designed it for humans. You 
don't have to speak 
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our friendly 
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take you on a 
guided tour right 
on your screen. 



DELPHI 




It's just 14995 to establish 
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minutes (J5 per hour) on-line for 
i most services during home time . . . 
evenings, weekends and holidays. 
Office time, of course, is more. 

DELPHI IS COMPATIBLE 
WITH YOUR EQUIPMENT. 

No matter what home 
computer you have, you can use 
Delphi. Unlike other systems, Delphi 
is compatible with all makes and is 
easily adaptable to any screen size. 
And you can use just about any 
acoustic coupler or direct connect 
modem to connect Delphi to your 
telephone. 

WE PROTECT YOUR PRIVACY. 

We designed privacy into t 
Delphi from the start. Our 

password system 

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unauthorized 

access. We don't I 

even know your password, 

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request. The safeguards are spelled 
out in our policy statement and 
agreed to by our people. A copy is 
available. We are members of and 
subscribe to the policies of the 
Videotex Industry Association. 



SIGN UP, LOG 
BE IN TOUCH, 




To 



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CIRCLE 249 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



How To Solve It - With The Computer 



Electronic Geoboard 



Parti 



Donald T. Piele 



I saw a geoboard for the first time in 1968 as a graduate stu- 
dent in mathematics. The circumstances were a bit unusual. I 
had volunteered, through a program called SEED, (Special Ele- 
mentary Education for the Disadvantaged), to help a class of 
elementary school kids in San Diego discover modern 
mathematical ideas — "the new math." Project SEED was a 
statewide program that grew out of the work that William 
Johntz had begun in Berkeley, CA. Graduate students in 
mathematics volunteered for the project, which, in effect, was a 
substitute for their duties as college teaching assistants. 

Instead of helping college freshmen with their calculus, 
SEED volunteers went into elementary schools and investi- 
gated mathematical ideas using the "discovery" method. We 
were free to investigate any topic in mathematics, since our 
daily classes were intended to enrich rather than substitute for 
the regular elementary mathematics curriculum. It was in this 
setting that I first discovered the geoboard. 

All it takes to make a geoboard is a small square piece of 
wood, 25 nails, and a hammer. Draw five equally spaced verti- 
cal lines and five equally spaced horizontal lines. Hammer a 
nail at each of the 25 intersection points and, you have a 
geoboard. To use it, however, you need one other item — rubber 
bands. 

What For? 

You probably will not find geoboards in many elementary 
schools today. They are not an essential tool in everyday life, 
and I doubt that a movement will spring up to push for 
"geoboard literacy." But their use in an elementary school 
classroom has some similarities with the way computers are 
used today to encourage creative problem solving. 

Like a computer, a geoboard is an interactive tool. Students 
use rubber bands and stretch them around pegs to form poly- 
gons of different shapes and sizes. Like a computer, a geoboard 
does nothing on its own, and, without problems, it is a useless 
piece of hardware. We used it in our classroom investigations 
as a "visithink" device and posed "what if types of questions. 
Books such as Donald Cohen's Inquiry In Mathematics Via 
The Geo-Board, were helpful in suggesting many good prob- 
lems for investigation. 

This month, I would like to resurrect the geoboard and bring 
it back to life in an electronic form. The activities presented 
here for the electronic version will be different from typical 
geoboard activities. 

Our first problem will deal with creating an electronic 
geoboard and simulating simple operations. The programs will 

Donald T. Rcle. University of Wisconsin-I'arksidc. Box 2000. Kenosh.i. 
Wl 53141. 




be written in a structured format with names given to each 
procedure. This should make it possible for anyone to follow 
the logic of the programs without having to read code designed 
for a specific system or written in a specific language. Each 
procedure will also be worked out in Applesoft Basic. 
Constructing the programs for other microcomputers with 
graphics capabilities will be left to the reader. 

All of the problems presented in this article are designed for 
beginning and intermediate programmers and are presented for 
the purpose of developing computer problem solving skills. I 
hope that the problem solving spirit of the original geoboard 
activities will not suffer in the translation. 

Electronic Geoboard I 

Let's begin with the most basic problem: 
Write a program that will display a geoboard. 




Figure I. Electronic Geoboard I. 

A standard geoboard has 25 pegs arranged in five rows of 
five columns. It can be drawn graphically as follows: 



May 1 983 * Creative Computing 



137 






How To Solve It, continued.. 



Procedures 

1. Set graphics mode 

2. Set color blue 



3. Draw border 



Applesoft Program 

10 GR 

20 BLUE - 2 I 
COLOR » BLUE 



4. Draw pegs 



30 HLIN 0.38 AT 0> 
VLIN 0.38 AT 3B: 
HLIN 38.0 AT 38> 
VLIN 38.0 AT 

40 FOR 1=5 TO 35 STEP 7s 

FOR J-5 TO 35 STEP 7: 

PLOT J, II 
NEXT J: 
NEXT I 

The Applesoft program on the right is separated into individ- 
ual procedures which are given names and listed on the left. 
The Basic language is not naturally structured, but with a little 
planning we can at least simulate this quality. Doing so not 
only helps us read our own programs, it also helps other people 
translate our programs into a different language. 

In the solution to the Electronic Geoboard I, each procedure 
is carried out in sequential order. In more difficult problems, 
the same procedure may be needed over and over again. Using 
Basic, which is not designed to encourage programmers to 
name and recall procedures by name, we must rewrite the 
procedure every time we use it, or use confusing branching 
techniques with dangerous gotos. 

The only alternative is to construct subroutines. Let's see 
how the above program would look if we decided to build sub- 
routines first, and then use them to build the program. 

To simulate a procedure in Basic using a subroutine, we need 
to add a return statement to the end of each of the routines 



already constructed. For example, the procedure set color in 
the above program can be modified into an Applesoft sub- 
routine as follows: 

Procedure Applesoft Equivalent 

2. Set Color Blue 20 blue = 2: 

COLOR - BLUE: RETURN 

Thus, one way to build a structured solution to the Elec- 
tronic Geoboard I is as follows: 



Procedures 

1. Set Graphics mode 

2. Set color blue 

3. Draw border 



Applesoft Program 




1 GOTO 100 




10 GR: RETURN 




20 BLUE ■ 15« 
COLOR » BLUE 


: RETURN 


30 HLIN 0,38 AT 
VLIN 0,38 AT 
HLIN 38,0 AT 
VLIN 3B.0 AT 


0: 

38 > 

38: 

0: RETURN 



4. Draw pegs 



• Main Program « 

Set graphics mode 
Set color blue 

Draw border 

Draw pegs 
End 



40 FOR 1=5 TO 35 STEP 7: 

FOR J«5 TO 35 STEP 7: 

PLOT J. II 
NEXT J: 
NEXT I» RETURN 



100 REM *»* MAIN PROGRAM **» 

110 GOSUB 10. 
120 GOSUB 20 
130 GOSUB 30 
140 GOSUB 40 
200 END 





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CIRCLE 210 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



May 1 983 « Creative Computing 






Notice that the first statement in line 1 instructs the program 
to jump over the subroutines and begin the main program at 
line 100. It may appear to beginners that all we have done is 
take an easy problem and make it hard. Indeed, that is true if 
this is the only program about geoboards that one intends to 
write. But, by employing subroutines to define procedures, it is 
much easier for the reader to understand what was done. Let's 
see how this works with the next problem. 

Electronic Geoboard II 

Write a program that will choose pegs on a geoboard by allow- 
ing the user to input a row number and a column number and 
then change the corresponding peg to a different color. 



Since we have already constructed the board in the previous 
problem, we need only add the ability to identify the pegs 
Where are the pegs located on the low-resolution graphics 



Problem Solving Strategy 

Examine the procedure DRAW PEGS. Notice that in the 
top row the pegs are placed at the following positions: 



Row. Column 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 15 

Screen Position (Y,X) 5,5 5,12 5,19 5,26 5,33 



OOOOO 
O O • O O 
OOOOO 
OOOOO 
OOOOO 



Figure 2. Electronic Geoboard II. 



Look at the pattern of screen position numbers. How do they 
relate to the ROW and COLUMN numbers? Did you discover 
the following relationships? 

X = COLUMN * 7 - 2 
Y = ROW .7-2. 

It is a simple matter to extend the previous program to ask 
the user to identify a row and column from 1 to 5, plot each 
identified point white, and continue this process as long as the 
user enters a (ROW.COLUMN) between (1,1) and (5,5). As 
soon as a point is entered outside of this range, terminate the 
program. To implement this change, it is sufficient to create 
three additional procedures and attach them to the previous 
program. 



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CIRCLE 299 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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How To Solve It, continued. .. 

Electronic Geoboard II 
Procedures Applesoft Program 
1.-4 Same as in I 



5. Set color white 

6. Choose peg 
(range =1,1 to 5,5 
Point = row, column 
Read a point 

7. Check range 



50 WHITE ' 15» 

COLOR = WHITE : RETURN 



Electronic Geoboard III 

Write a program that asks the user to choose two pegs on the 

electronic geoboard and then shades in the rectangular region 

determined by these two pegs. For example, if 2. 1 and 5.4 are the 

two pees chosen, then the rectangle determined by these pegs is 

2,1. .2,4 



60 
61 

62 

63 
64 

70 
71 



PRINT "CHOOSE A PEG ON THE BOARD' 
PRINT "BY ENTERING A ROW, COLUMN" 
PRINT "BETWEEN 1,1 AND 5,5" 

INPUT ROW, COLUMN 

Y«ROW»7-2! 

X=C0LUMN«7-2 : RETURN 

INRANGE1 = 

IF ROW > AND ROW <6 AND 

COLUMN > AND COLUMN < 6 THEN 

THEN INRANGE1 « 1 

RETURN 

REM *«» MAIN PROGRAM «»» 

GOSUB 10 
GOSUB 20 
GOSUB 30 
GOSUB 40 
GOSUB 50 



5,1 . • 5,4. 
Notice that this same rectangle could also be identified by 
the two points 2,4 and 5,1. 



72 

• Main Program • 100 

Set graphics mode i io 

Set color blue 120 

Draw border 130 

Draw pegs 140 

Set color white iso 

While peg is in range 

Choose peg 160 

Check range i?o 

Plot peg ibo 

End 200 

Notice how much easier it is to read a program if procedures 
are named. 

Let's continue developing 
ing the ability to choose two 
region that they define. 



GOSUB 60 

GOSUB 70 

IF INRANGE1 THEN PLOT X.Y 

END 



the Electronic Geoboard by add- 
1 pegs and shade in the rectangular 




Figure 3. Electronic Geoboard III. Rectangle defined by 2.3 and 
5.4. 

Problem Solving Strategy 

The problem we must first solve is this: Given two pegs, how 
do we shade in the rectangular region determined by them? 
Let's begin by defining how to do this at the procedure level. 



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CIRCLE 258 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



May 1983 *> Creative Computing 



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How To Solve It, continued... 

Procedure 

Shade rectangle 

(Peg! = R1.C1 

Peg2 = R2.C2 

From row Rl to R2 

Draw horizontal line between columns CI and C2 
Next row) 

The SHADE RECTANGLE procedure tells us what to do 
but it does not tell us how to carry it out in a specific language. 
It is a blueprint that the architect has designed and left to the 
builder to create. Here are the critical problems that the builder 
must solve: 

• How do row and column numbers relate to screen 
positions X.Y'.' 

• How do you draw the horizontal lines? 

• How do you loop between row Rl and row R2 if Rl is 
larger that R2? 

The first problem was solved in the previous procedure 

X = COLUMN * 7 - 2 

Y = ROW * 7 - 2. 
The second problem can be solved in Applesoft Basic with 
one simple statement 

HLIN XI .12 AT V 

The third problem can be solved by adding a direction to the 
FOR/NEXT loop. If Rl < = R2, then we want to step forward 
by one row each time we draw a horizontal line. If Rl >R2, 
then we need to step backward one row each time. The 
expression (Rl <= R2)-(R1 > R2) does the trick. When Rl 
< = R2, then the logical expression (Rl < = R2) is true and 
hence set to I, while the second term (Rl > R2) is false and is 
set to 0. If the reverse is true and Rl > R2, then the values are 
switched, and we end up with an answer of -I. Thus, we can fill 



in the rectangular area as follows: 



(Rl 



R2> 



FOR V = VI TO V2 STEP (Rl 
(DRAW HORIZONTAL LINE) 
NEXT Y 

Now we are ready to collect our routines and add them to 
the previous program to solve the third problem. 



Procedures 

I. -7. Same as in II 
8. Shade Rectangle 
(Vside 1 
Vside 2 
Hside I 
Hside 2 

FromHSidel to HSide2 

Draw horizontal line 

between 
VSide 1 and VSide 2) 

* Main Program * 
Set graphics mode 
Set color blue 
Draw border 
Draw pegs 
Set color white 
Choose pegl until in range 



Plot pegl 
Choose peg2 until in range 



Electronic Geoboard HI 

Applesoft Program 



Plot peg2 

Shade rectangle 
End 



BO 


XI - CI * 


7 


~ 2s 








X2 - C2 * 


7 


- 2: 








Yl * Rl » 


7 


- 2: 








Y2 « R2 * 


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- 2 






at 


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> R2 


82 


Y-ROW * 


7 


- 2 






83 


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y 




84 


NEXT Y 










85 


RETURN 










100 


REM ««« MAIN 


PROGRAM 


«** 


110 


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120 


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130 


GOSUB 30 










140 


GOSUB 40 










130 


GOSUB 50 










160 


GOSUB 60 










170 


GOSUB 70 










171 


IF NOT INRANGE1 


THEN 


160 


172 


R1=R0W : 


Bli 


=C0LUMN 




173 


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174 


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175 


GOSUB 70 










176 


IF NOT INRANGE1 


THEN 


174 


177 


R2=R0W s 


cr= 


COLUMN 




178 


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1B0 


GOSUB 80 










200 


END 











A 



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How To Solve It, continued... 

Exercises 

One of the advantages of developing each program in a struc- 
tured format is the ease with which they can be changed. Below 
is a small list of problems for your investigation. They can all 
be solved by making minor changes or additions to the sub- 
routines in the programs displayed above. 

1. Write a program that will display a 36-peg Electronic 
Geoboard. 

2. Write a program that uses a game paddle to choose points 
on the Electronic Geoboard. This can be done by taking the 
output of the game paddle (an integer between and 255) and 
dividing it into 25 equally likely parts (try Q = INT (PDL 
(0)/10.5)). Each one of these integers represents a peg on the 

board. , . 

3. Write a program that allows the user to choose a color and 
two pegs and then shades the rectangle determined by these 
two points the color specified. Design the program so that it 
will allow the user to continue to shade rectangles with dif- 
ferent colors on the same screen. 

4. Modify the program in exercise 3 to allow the user to 
either shade the region determined by the two pegs or the 
complementary region (everything but the rectangle deter- 
mined by the pegs). 

5. Modify the program in exercise 4 to allow the user to 
shade several rectangles different colors and then fill in the 
background a final color. 



Conclusion 

A criticism often made of the Basic language is that it is not 
structured. As we have seen, imposing a structure is possible, 
but is not a straightforward task. I could more quickly have 
written each program independently, not bothering to define 



separate procedures. In fact, that is how I wrote them 

^fo" why did I bother to do things the hard way? Because pro- 
grammers of the future will need to know how to write struc- 
tured programs. Then why didn't I use a structured language. 
Because Basic comes with most machines; Logo and Pascal do 
not. Also, the Electronic Geoboard is easier to handle in a co- 
ordinate based graphics system as opposed to a turtle graphics 

system. 

Next month, we will continue our investigations of Elec- 
tronic Geoboard but move into high-resolution graphics. 




"When I press this button. 1 net the present temperature of every 
major city in the world. When I press this button. I get the day and 
date through the next ten thousand years. When I press this button. I 
get the time... I still haven t figured out the significance of that.'" 




FINGER PRINT makes it easy to use all your printer's 
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FINGER PRINT is a plug-in module that installs in 
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software, and interfaces. 

$59.95 WARRANTED FOR ONE FULL YEAR! 

Includes complete installation, operation instructions: control panel 
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Look for FINGER PRINT at your local computer dealer. For the 
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CIRCLE 307 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

144 



May 1 983 ' Creative Computing 




5 




That's why Apples and Ataris are saying: 

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ADD SPEECH TO YOUR PROGRAMS SAM tor the Apple II II- 

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Riding the crest of the current crime 
wave, the burglary rate is climbing even 
faster than the sales curve of personal 
computers. Throughout the country, in 
cities and suburbs and towns, hard- 
working burglars are jimmying locks, 
kicking in doors, peeling safes, and do- 
ing everything but sliding down the 
chimney. 

If you own a personal computer, you 
have something they want. 

Your computer makes you a target. It 
is a portable high-ticket item with a 
strong resale market. Furthermore, peo- 
ple who own computers are a presum- 
ably affluent lot, given to owning other 
articles worth a thief s attention. Small 
wonder, then, that gangs and individual 
burglars have begun to make a specialty 
of computer burglary. 

For several years now I have been 
writing mystery novels about Bernie 
Rhodenbarr, a Actional burglar who 
solves murders when he's not going out 
a window with somebody's coin collec- 
tion in tow. In the name of research I've 
learned as much as one can about bur- 
glary without getting arrested, and I'd 
like to share some of it with you. 

There are three basic ways in which 
you can program your computer against 
burglary. First, you can avoid attracting 
a burglar's attention. Second, you can 
make your dwelling difficult to enter. 
Finally, if the burglar does get in, you 

Lawrence Block, 791 Greenwich Street, New York, 
NY 10014. 



Lawrence Block 

can render his mission as unrewarding 
as possible. 

How do you stay off a computer bur- 
glar's hit list? What you don't do is 
advertise the fact that you have some- 
thing he'd be happy to steal. Don't be 
too quick to tell strangers about the 
remarkable piece of expensive hardware 
you've acquired. Avoid bumper stickers 
and similar items that tell the world you 
own a computer. 



Avoid bumper stickers 

and similar items that 

tell the world you own 

a computer. 



When you're away from home, don't 
let it show. Stop milk, mail and news- 
paper deliveries on all extended 
absences. Set electrical timers to turn 
lights on and off around the house. (But 
remember that the lone light burning 
day and night can draw burglars like 
moths. "How considerate of them," 
Bernie mused in one such instance, "to 
leave a light for the burglar." 

During short term absences, a glowing 
television screen in the living room sug- 

146 



gests that someone is home watching it. 
It may not ward off a burglar who al- 
ready has his eye on you, but it can help 
discourage a casual prowler. 

Don't let your answering service give 
the game away. An over-solicitous 
operator can tell a burglar more about 
your schedule than you want him to 
know. The same goes for those I'm-not- 
home-now messages on your answering 
machine. Don't make them too specific. 

More Trouble Than It's Worth 

These basic precautions won't guar- 
antee that a burglar won't turn up. 
That's why you must make your home 
as hard to get into as possible. 

You can't hope to make it absolutely 
burglar-proof. "A top thief could get 
into Fort Knox," former FBI chief 
Clarence M. Kelley has pointed out, and 
my friend Bernie Rhodenbarr agrees. 
"There's always a way in," he insists, 
"but sometimes it's more trouble than 
it's worth." 

You can make your residence too 
much trouble for most burglars, and it's 
worth the trouble it takes you to do so. 

The first step is lock the doors. 

Sound obvious? In last year's two mil- 
lion residential burglaries, 25 percent 
involved entry through unlocked doors. 
People leave doors unlocked because 
they are careless, or because they are 
only going to be out for a few minutes, 
or because it's the middle of the after- 
noon and they are home. Then one day 
they are grilling hamburgers in the back 

May 1983 • Creative Computing 












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Burglary, continued... 

yard while a thief is lugging their 
computer out the front door. 

While any lock is better than none, a 
sophisticated burglar can open some of 
them almost as quickly as if he had a 
key. The kind that locks automatically 
when you shut the door is child's play 
for any burglar worthy of the name. If 
you don't have to lock your lock with a 
key, he can open it with a plastic card or 
a screwdriver. Make sure you have 
sound deadbolt or drop-bolt locks on 
every outside door, and make sure you 
use them. 

Burglars have several ways of dealing 
with locks. They spread door frames 
with portable jacks. They pull the lock 
cylinder out with vise-grip pliers. They 
work a prybar between door and jamb 
and jimmy the lock. Here's where a 
consultation with an expert locksmith 
becomes worthwhile. Let him examine 
your locks. He may recommend replac- 
ing some, reinforcing others with 
escutcheon plates, and installing angle 
irons to prevent jimmying. A police 
lock, featuring a steel bar braced against 
or across the door, provides further 
protection against the brute-force 
burglar. 

Speaking of doors, make sure yours 
are equal to the task. All the locks in the 
world won't keep out a burglar if he can 
break a window pane and reach through 
to unlock them from within. Doors 
should be solid wood; the hollow-core 
type is too easy to kick in. 

Got an attached garage? The burglar 
can get into it effortlessly — so treat the 
door leading from the house to the 
garage as if it were an outside door. 
Make sure it can stand up, and provide 



it with adequate locks. 

Basement windows let in more bur- 
glars than sunshine. It's surprising how 
many homeowners overlook them, per- 
haps because they appear too small to 
admit a burglar. But human beings can 
wriggle through much smaller openings 
than you'd think. Steel mesh over those 
basement windows will let the light in 
while it keeps the burglar out. 

If locks and doors are your first line of 
defense against burglars, second is a 
good alarm system. Your dealer can sur- 
vey your premises and recommend the 
ideal system. You might choose a silent 
alarm, designed to ring either at police 
headquarters or at the offices of the 



It's tough to make a 

home computer look 

like an electric frying 

pan. 



security company, or the sort which 
makes a hellish racket to alert the neigh- 
bors and frighten off the burglar before 
he gets in. The silent alarm is more 
likely to lead to apprehension of the 
criminal, but I would think it less de- 
sirable if the burglar should pay his visit 
while you are at home and asleep. When 
that happens, you want something that 
will wake you up while it scares him off, 
not something to bring the police trot- 
ting along behind him. 

The creme de la creme of the house- 
breaking profession — a Bernie 



3 




"Hey buddy, can I interest you in some software?' 



148 



Rhodenbarr. say— can frequently outwit 
any burglar alarm. Just as there is no 
such thing as a pickproof lock cylinder, 
neither is there an utterly impregnable 
alarm system. But the vast majority of 
burglars will steer clear of a home once 
they determine that it is protected 
electronically. If they don't spot the 
device in advance, they'll skedaddle once 
it goes off. 

Some homeowners have provided 
themselves with the deterrent effect of a 
burglar alarm at a fraction of the cost by 
displaying a sticker announcing that the 
premises are protected by an alarm sys- 
tem. It's been argued, though, that a 
burglar with street smarts can spot a 
phony sticker fifty yards off. You pay 
your dollar and take your choice. 

Cut Your Losses 

Suppose a burglar gets into your home 
in spite of your best efforts to keep him 
out. How can you cut your losses? 

For a start, you can best protect your 
computer by participating in a program 
called Operation Identification. Your 
local police will provide you with an 
etching tool and show you how to mark 
valuable articles so that they can be 
instantly identified as your property. 
They'll also furnish you with a window 
sticker announcing that you participate 
in the program, and thus warning poten- 
tial burglars that they'll have a tough 
time reselling anything they steal from 
you. 

A burglar might overlook your Opera- 
tion Identification decal, and might be 
undeterred by your etching efforts. He 
can always keep your computer for his 
own use, or give it to his cousin for 
Christmas. So it's worth your while to 
make it just a little bit harder to steal. If 
you always keep it in a particular po- 
sition on a particular desk or table, why 
not bolt it in place so the thief can't 
carry it off? 

If that's not practical, it might be 
worthwhile to get in the habit of 
camouflaging your computer when 
you're away from home. There's a limit 
to what you can accomplish in this 
direction — it's tough to make a home 
computer look like an electric frying 
pan — but by throwing some sort of 
cover over it you keep a burglar from 
spotting it at a glance. Remember, bur- 
glars are in a hurry. They rarely have 
time to take a detailed inventory. If you 
can tuck your computer out of sight or 
screen it from view, you can increase the 
likelihood that a thief will overlook it 
entirely. 

By the same token, you can minimize 
your loss of cash and other valuables by 
hiding them where a burglar won't think 
to look. And most other valuables are a 
lot easier to hide than a computer. 

May 1 983 c Creative Computing 



Bear with us 



fa the most fun 

kids -and 
gjpvvn-ups- 

cannave 




on an 
Apple: 




i 



s Stickybear'" Just for kids? Or can grown- 
ups have a barrelful of fun. too. with the 
first animated character created exclu- 
sively for the Apple* personal computer? 

The answer is crystal clear when the whole 
family sits down to play Stickybear Bo p, the 
action game with better than arcade-quality 
graphics that the three-year-olds can enjoy 
with grown-ups. 



&_ Ml 






1 l 




Stickybear™ Is a 
registered trademark 
of Optimum 
Resource. Inc. 

Apple* Is a registered 
trademark of 
Apple Computer. Inc. 
AA/MS7CC 



It's so simple even little kids can rack up big 
scores at the Stickybear Bo p shooting galleries. 
And so exciting, the grown-ups will join right 
in on the thrills! 

And Stickybear Bo p is a complete program. 
Besides the disk, there's a full-size color poster, 
a bright, durable vinyl binder, a special stand- 
up game. Stickybear stickers and instructions. 
All for only $3995! 

Stickybear makes learning a joy! 

Besides Stickybear Bo p, there are two special 
programs to help three- to six-year-olds build 
important school skills. 

Stickybear ABC helps kids learn the alphabet 
...and Stickybear Numbers helps them learn to 
add and subtract. And they do it with animat- 
ed objects that move over color backgrounds 
without the need for special hardware. 



Both ABC and Numbers include the program 
disk, a 32-page hardcover book by noted chil- 
dren's author Richard Hefter, Stickybear stick- 
ers, a wipe-dean vinyl binder and a special 
full-color poster. Just $3995 each! 

Iook for the Stickybear programs in finer 
computer stores everywhere. Dealers are 
invited to inquire by calling toll-free 
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If there is no store 
near you. Visa and 
MasterCard hold- 
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calling toll-free 
1-800-852-5000. 
Or. send a check or 
money order for 
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program, plus 
$2.00 per program for shipping and handling 
(please add state sales tax) to Xerox Education 
Publications/Weekly Reader. Dept. 33-A. 
245 Long Hill Road. Middletown. 
CT 06457.. 




Apple II 
and 
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distributed by 

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CIRCLE 304 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE 175 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The FROB-26 



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lbursfree! 



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Burglary, continued... 

If you keep cash around the house, 
don't hide it in the refrigerator. That's 
where most people stash it, for some 
curious reason, and burglars know it. 
Don't use kitchen canisters, either, as a 
hiding place for cash or jewelry. Don't 
hide things in the top of the toilet tank, 
or in desk or dresser drawers, or on 
closet shelves. That's not as bad as leav- 
ing them in plain sight, but it's not much 
better. 

Instead, use your ingenuity and devise 
hiding places of your own. In Burglars 
Can't Be Choosers. Bernie's own apart- 
ment gets ransacked. But his cash re- 
mains untouched because he has hidden 
it a bill at a time between the pages of 
books in his library, even glueing pages 
together so that shaking a book won't 
send bills fluttering to the floor. You can 
use books in this fashion, or tape bills to 
the undersides of drawers, or — well, use 
your imagination. In The Burglar Who 
Studied Spinoza, a fence of Bernie's 
acquaintance keeps cash in an old tele- 
phone. You'd have to take it apart to 
find it, and what burglar would think to 
do that? 

If you're a fair amateur carpenter, you 
can build false bottoms into drawers and 
closet shelves. And a mail order house 
has lately taken to offering the cleverest 
wall safe I've ever seen. It looks for all 
the world like a standard baseboard elec- 
trical receptacle, indistinguishable from 
the sort you plug lamps and radios into. 
At the turn of a key it pulls out from the 
wall and reveals itself as a hiding place 
just large enough for a handful of jew- 
elry or a wad of cash. Now a burglar 
wouldn't need a key to open it, he could 
pop it from its moorings in a minute, but 
how would he know to do it? 

There's a danger, of course, in getting 
too clever for your own good. Just 
recently the papers carried a story about 
a young man in New Jersey who found a 
secret compartment in his mother's tea 
cart and stowed his coin collection there. 
He never told anybody, and one day she 
sold the thing for $25 in a yard sale. 
Away it went, along with $1500 worth 
of coins. If you do secret things around 
the house, a list of the articles and their 
hiding places belongs in your safe- 
deposit box, or with your attorney. 

If you come home while a burglary is 
in progress, slip silently away, use a 
neighbor's phone, and call the police. If 
anything makes you even slightly sus- 
picious, don't hesitate. Better to risk a 
false alarm than a confrontation. 

Bernie Rhodenbarr is unarmed and 
committed to non-violence. But his real 
life counterparts don't always share this 
commitment. So don't take chances. 
Your personal computer, however much 
you treasure it, can always be replaced. 
But you're the only you you've got. □ 

May 1 983 • Creative Computing 



CIRCLE 194 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



'he new COMPAQ Portable Computer. 
IBM compatibility to go. 



s 



I imple, isn't it? The COMPAQ" 
Portable Computer can do 
I what the IBM* Personal 
Computer does. To go. 

It runs all the popular pro- 
grams written for the IBM. It 
works with the same printers and 
other peripherals. It even accepts 
the same optional expansion elec- 
tronics that give it additional 
capabilities and functionality. 

There's really only one big dif- 
ference. The COMPAQ Computer 
is designed to travel. 

Carry the COMPAQ Comput- 
er from office to office. Carry it 
home on the weekend. Or take it 
on business trips. 

If you're a consultant, take it 
to your client's office. 

If you use a portable type- 
writer, you can use the 
COMPAQ Computer as a 
portable word processor 
instead. 

If your company 
already uses the 
IBM Personal 
Computer, add 
the COMPAQ 




Portable as a 
mobile unit that 
can use the same pro- 
grams, the same data disks, and 
even the same user manuals. 

There are more programs 
available for the COMPAQ Com- 
puter than for any other portable. 
More, in fact, than for most non- 
portables. You can buy them in 
hundreds of computer stores 
nationwide, and they run as is, 
right off the shelf. 

With most other portables 



you'd probably need to buy an 
additional display screen because 
the built-in screen is too small for 
certain tasks, like word process- 
ing. The COMPAQ Computer's 
display screen is nine inches diag- 
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it shows a full 80 characters across. 
And the built-in display offers 
high-resolution graphics and text 
characters on the same screen. 

The bottom line is this. The 
COMPAQ Computer is the first 
uncompromising portable 
computer. It delivers 
all the advantages 
of porta- 
bility 



without trad- 
ing off any com- 
puting power capability. 
And what do those advantages 
cost? 

Nothing. 

The COMPAQ Por- 
table sells for hundreds 
less than a compara- 
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APPLE* III. Standard 
features include 128K 
bytes of internal memory 
and a 320K-byte disk drive, 
both of which are extra-cost 
options on the IBM. Memory 
and additional disk drive up- 
grades are available options to 
double those capacities. 



In the standard configuration, 
the COMPAQ Computer has three 
open slots for functional expan- 
sion electronics as your needs 
and applications grow. It accepts 
standard network and commu- 
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ETHERNET'" and OMNINET™. 

If you're considering a per- 
sonal computer, there's a new 
question you need to ask your- 
self. Why buy a com- 



puter that 

isn't portable? 

For more 

information on 

the COMPAQ 

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and the location of the 

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Computer Corporation, 12330 

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C 19S3 COMPAQ Computer Corporation 

IBM* is a registered trademark of international Business 

i Corporation. 
ETHERNET 1 " is a trademark of Xerox Corporation. 
( )M\INKT " is a trademark of Corvus Systems. 
Apple* is a registered trademark of Apple Computer. Idc 
COMPAQ'" is a trademark of COMPAQ Computer 
Corporation 




comPAa 



The most computer you can carry. 

CIRCLE 139 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



f Portable Computer 









SAYS HAYDEN, 



Four Thousand Years of Challenge 

According to legend, GO was invented over 
four thousand years ago, by the great Chinese 
Emperor Shun. And it has defied being mas- 
tered ever since! With chess, you fight one battle 
at a time, while GO is more like a war: multiple 
battles take place on the 19 x 19 grid simultane- 
ously. Its rules are quite simple and easy to learn 
yet the number of possible combinations is 
almost limitless. In fact, one former World Chess 
Champion considers GO more challenging 
than chess! Play GO against the smartest per- 
son you know or against your own computer. 
Maybe in a thousand years or so you'll master it. 



A Classic Game of Strategy 

Reversal is another ancient game, with origins 
going back centuries. Simply trap your oppo- 
nent's piece between two of yours, and capture 
the piece for yourself. But the move that cap- 
tures the most pieces may not be the wisest. 
Reversal has a way of turning the tables on you! 
Hayden's Reversal has nine levels of play, with 
three strategy levels within each. It is a fascinat- 
ing game even for young children— the playing 
pieces change expression as the advantage 
shifts from win to tie to loss. Yet Reversal will 
test the most gifted adult. It is the winner of the 
First Man-Machine Othello* Tournament and, 
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* Othello e a registered trademark of Gatx*H Industries. Inc 



A CLASSIC CAME OF STRATEGY 



GO 

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Atari Tape $29.95 



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Atari Tape $29.95 



ee 



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Bulldog Pinball— Fast action pinball 
brought into the computer age. $29.95 




a*taB^3' -^fc 




Sargon II— The acknowledged computer 
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$24.94 ' 





And look for new games at your Hayden Software dealer's 



[CIRCLE 186 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



HAYDEN SOFTWARE. THE MIND-STRETCHERS 



From this page on, your computer is going to be more valuable _ _ _^. r\|>j 

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Choose from dozens of Hayden games and educational 
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,'i>^>M SOFTWARE 



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Available at your local dealer, or call toll free: 

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(In Massachusetts, 617-937-0200) 

CIRCLE 188 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




The TRS-80 Foils A Thief 




Computers 

Against 

Crime 



If you can't afford German shep- 
herds, accordion wire and guard tow- 
ers, here are some halfway measures. 



KelHess 



Recently my high school math depart- 
ment purchased four TRS-80 computers 
at a cost to the school board of approx- 
imately $3500. When they found out that 
their insurance was $1000 deductible, they 
decided to have an alarm system installed 
at a cost of another hundred dollars or 
more. 

When I discovered this. I thought, why 
not have the computers monitor them- 
selves to make certain that they don't get 
stolen? 

The first step was to check with the 
local Radio Shack manager to see if it 
would harm a computer to be left on 
overnight. A negative answer gave me 
the go-ahead, so I thought about what I 
would like the computer to do as it sat 
idle night after night. The first and most 
important function that came to mind 
was to "watch" the rooms to see if a door 
was open or a window open or broken. I 
realized that the computer would have to 
do something other than just make a loud 
noise if there were a break-in, so I tried to 
think of a way to make the machine call 
the police (or any other number) and play 
a pre-recorded message. 

The dialing was the easy part as I had 
previously worked on a program which 
would dial my home phone for me. The 
hard part was figuring out how to have 
the computer tell the police that there 
was a break-in occurring. The first thing I 
considered was to have the computer pick 

Kel Hess. 2111 Schubert Si.. Cuyahotta Falls. OH 
44221. 



up the phone and play the tape aloud, but 
that wouldn't work since the person 
breaking in would hear the recording and 
stop it from playing. After much thought, 
I came up with the following system. 

Monitoring the Doors and Windows 

This is the part of the alarm that took 
the most time to prepare for final oper- 
ation. First I had to wire all the doors and 
windows in the room with magnetic 
switches so that if a door or window were 
opened it would trip the alarm. Then, 
since I wanted to make certain that no 



The computer would 

have to do something 

other than just make a 

loud noise if there were 

a break-in. 



windows were broken, I had to run win- 
dow foil around all the windows. 

After installing all the switches, I had 
to wire them in series so that if anyone 
tried to break in, he would open a switch 
or break the foil on the windows, thereby 
tripping the activator hooked to the com- 
puter. See Figure 1 for a schematic of this 
activator. 

The computer sends an oscillating pulse 
to the amplifier which is then sent back 
into the computer. If the signal makes it 
back to the computer, then port 255 reads 

156 



191 which means that everything is okay. 
But if the curcuit is broken, the signal 
never makes it back to the computer, and 
port 255 changes to 63. So if port 255 is 
ever 63, it means a break-in is occurring. 

The Phone Dialer and Message Player 

When a person dials on the telephone 
all he really does is send a series of elec- 
tronic pulses over the line, ranging from 
one pulse (representing a 1) to ten pulses 
(representing a 0). Therefore, to make 
the computer dial the telephone, I wired 
the cassette remote control to not only 
start the tape player but also to pick up 
the phone and dial it. I wrote the program 
so that it would first pick up the phone by 
completing the circuit between the tele- 
phone line and an isolation transformer 
(see Figure 2). 

The remote plug connects the circuit 
long enough to get a dial tone, then dials 
the local police emergency number 911 
by pulsing out through connecting and 
disconnecting the circuit at the right inter- 
vals. At the rate the telephone equipment 
in my area can handle these pulses, I 
found that the computer can dial 911 in 
just a few seconds. (This will work on any 
type of phone line, either dial or touch 
tone service.) 

At the same time, the cassette control 
also starts the cassette tape player which 
repeats a pre-recorded message telling the 
police where the break-in is occurring. 

To keep the burglar from hearing the 
message, I hooked the ear plug of the 
tape recorder to the other side of the 
transformer (see Figure 2) which enabled 
the recording to go directly over the 
phone lines without being heard in the 
room. 

May 1983 • Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 158 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Crime, continued... 

The only problem was that if the emer- 
gency number was busy, the computer 
wouldn't know the difference, and would 
play a recording to a busy signal. 

To solve this problem I programmed 
the computer to play the message three 
times, hang up, wait a minute, then call 
the number again and replay the message. 
Just in case it was still busy, it would go 
through this cycle one more time. All 
told, the computer would contact the 
police and tell them of the break-in a 
total of three times. 

Another possibility was that the tele- 
phone might be ringing at the time of the 
break-in. The computer would still pick 
up the phone, dial, and start the record- 



ing. If a burglar knew the system he could 
conceivably call ahead and get the phone 
ringing; then the computer couldn't dial 
out. 

To combat this the program instructs 
the computer to pick up the phone before 
dialing (to answer any possible ringing), 
hang up again, then immediately pick up 
the phone again and dial the emergency 
phone number. 

The only aspect I haven't covered yet 
is how the teacher gets into the computer 
room in the morning without setting off 
the alarm. The answer to this is simple. 
All I did was connect two key switches 
that were wired in series, and wire the 
two in parallel with all the alarm switches 



(see Figure 1). I put two key switches in 
the circuit so that if one key was somehow 
duplicated, the door still could not be 
opened. It takes both keys to open a 
door, making it twice as hard to break in. 
When both of these switches are closed, 
the other switches are overridden so that 
when the door is opened, the circuit is 
still closed and the alarm does not go off. 
Also in the first line of the program 
there is a statement that reads POKE 
16396,23. This statement freezes the 
BREAK key which makes certain that 
even if the intruder knows to stop the 
computer by pressing the BREAK key, it 
won't work. The program continues to do 
its job whether that means monitoring 



Figure 1. 



6VDC 



2400 Q 



2400 a 



— AAAr 

1KQ 



VWV 

1KQ 



GRAY PLUG 



J> 






It 



N.O. DOOR 
SWITCH 



BLACK PLUG 



CC 



r* 



WINDOW FOIL 



GROUND 
OF 6VDC 



N.C. 

DOOR 

SWITCH 



i i 



OVERIDE SWITCHES 



.--J 



158 



May 1983 c Creative Computing 




MICROCOMPUTER 
EXPERIENCE 
FOR TODAY 

5TRf - ne same 

COfl( *te-of-the-art 

es were ahead , e . After 

all, any program that boasts c 
fa P h y sounds, joys 

extTa P s a 'iiffi h nd a ,u " «"nP<«nent of 
extras, like high score saving and 

o n f U tom F orr y ow OP,i0n ha9 * d °" n ' ,e t0uch 

KNO f f K A M U F T SSCENAR,0,SA ' ,EAL 

The object is to successfully 
defend a futuristic city from waves of 
attacking alien ships. 




ATARI SCREEN SHOT 

battle begins! Atari version features 
and sounds that YOU can change! 



And these crafty alien critters are 
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bonanza that includes meteor swarms 
pie attack waves, and even a free^ 
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damaged force field on the ATARI 
vers i 
GOOD NEWS 

t have to wait years for 
the spectacular — STRATOS is 
available now for the ATARI and TRS-80 
systems. 

■1ATOS. Entertainment of the 
future — today. 




— SCREEN SHOT 

The trs-80 version blows you sway with Its 
Arcade Action Graphlcs(tm)! 



dveniute 

NTERNATIONAL 



lVJN V V 




lea your local dealer. II he do. 

Published by ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

a subsidiary of Scott Adams, Inc 
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AVAILABLE 




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TRS-M 16K TAPE 010-0111 $24.95 

TRS-M 32K DISK . 012-0111 S24.I5 

<ANQE 



Crime, continued... 
the room or calling the emergency num- 
ber and alerting the police. 

Hardware 

The activator is an amplifier which 
amplifies the output of the computer 
(what is normally fed into the cassette 
from the computer) and after amplifi- 
cation sends it back into the input (what 
is normally sent into the computer from 
the cassette). If a door switch is opened, 
or a window is opened or broken, the 
circuit opens, and the computer no longer 
hears the signal that it is sending out. 
When someone comes in the room in the 
morning, after they close both key 
switches, the circuit is kept closed and 
the computer continues to hear itself. 

The telephone dialer and cassette start- 
er are two devices in one. Both devices 
are activated by the cassette-control re- 
mote plug. When the computer activates 
its relay, it in turn energizes either two 
SPST relays (as pictured) or one DPST 
relay. One set of terminals goes straight 
to the cassette player to start it; the other 
goes to a 1:1 ratio (isolation) transformer 
which is hooked to the telephone lines 
(see Figure 2). 



When the computer clicks out a digit, 
this relay pulses out the needed pulses to 
simulate a telephone being dialed. So that 
the person on the other end of the phone 
line can hear the recording without the 
person in the room hearing it. 1 used an 
isolation transformer which sends this 
recording directly over the telephone 
lines. 

To set the volume control to the correct 
level you first have the computer call a 
friend, then adjust the cassette player to 
the correct level. This isolation trans- 
former not only protects the cassette tape 
player from the telephone lines, but it 
also protects the telephone equipment 
from the cassette tape player. 

The Program 

Line freezes the BREAK key so that 
no one can stop the computer once it is 
started. The only way of stopping it is to 
either turn off the power or press the 
reset button. Both of these buttons can 
be protected by a small cover of some 
type. (What about pulling the 
plug?-Ed.) 

Line 10 dimensions the maximum 
length of the phone number to be dialed. 



I have it set for 15 digits (including pauses) 
but this length can easily be changed. 

Lines 40-50 keep a constant check on 
the cassette port (255) to see if there has 
been a break-in. Line 40 sends a signal to 
the amplifier, and line 50 checks to see if 
the computer is receiving the signal (191) 
or not (63). If the computer is receiving 
the signal, then it will just keep looping 
here, checking the amplified signal until 
it goes off. 

If there is a break-in, the computer gets 
ready to call the emergency number. Line 
1 10 contains the telephone number that 
is going to be dialed. In this case it is 91 1, 
but if the alarm is inside an office where 9 
must be dialed to get a dial tone, the 
computer must know to dial 9, then pause 
before dialing the emergency number. So 
wherever a pause is needed, insert a 
hyphen. For example, the emergency 
number programmed in the computer 
now would be stored as 9-911. Or if this 
does not provide enough time, you might 
need to store the telephone number as 

9-911. 

Lines 150-200 decipher the telephone 
number stored in A$. Line 170 checks to 
see if there are any pauses, and if so 



Figure 2. 



r 



\ 

FROM S - 

COMPUTER > 
REMOTE • _ 
PLUG • 



TO TAPE PLAYER 
REMOTE JACK 



TO TAPE PLAYER 
EAR JACK 

/ S 






1:1 



r" i 
i i 



% 



TO PHONE LINES • 



• CHECK WITH YOUR LOCAL TELEPHONE 

COMPANY FOR TARIFFS AND/OR REGULATIONS. 



160 



May 1983 c Creative Computing 



VOLUME 2 
notu available'. 



iw EXPRESS 

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CH ? M £ Out with CHAMP 

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NlB BLE EXPRESS VOLUME 2 
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and programs « ""den** y ^^ 



Quick andEasy 
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MICROTEK 



IF YOU HAVE 
PRINTER YOU 
GRAPHICS 



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The Dumpling-64 is the next logical extension 
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Irodemarks of Microtek, Inc APPLE and APPLE II 
are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. 
ATARI 400 & 800 are trademarks of Alar,, Inc 
CP/M .s a registered trademark of Digital 
Research, Inc IBM PC is a Irodemark of IBM 
VIC-20 is a irodemark of Commodore Business 
Machines VTSICALC is a Irademard of VisiCorp 
Z-80 is a trademark of Zilog, Inc c Microtek, 1983 

CIRCLE 220 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Crime, continued... 

converts them to 99's. If the digit called 
for is a zero, then to dial a zero the 
computer must send ten pulses over the 
phone lines; so line 180 changes all 0's to 
10's. AH of these digits are stored in B(l) 
to B(x), x being the total number of digits 
and pauses. For example a number being 
stored as A$."95550123" would be stored 
in B(l) through B(9) as 9,99,5,5,5,10,1,2,3. 
Lines 210-230 just have the computer 
pick up the phone for a second, hang up, 
and then pick it up again before it starts 
dialing. This cycle is in case the telephone 
is ringing at the time of the break-in. The 
computer would actually hang up on who- 
ever was calling and then proceed to call 
the emergency number. 

Lines 240-330 are the dialing routine. 
Line 250 checks to see if there is a pause 
needed. If so, the computer pauses, then 
continues with the next digit. Lines 270- 
300 disconnect and connect the circuit to 
cause the dialing. The computer goes 
through this cycle the number of times 
equivalent to the digit being dialed, then 
waits at line 320 for a second and then 
goes on the next digit. 

When all the digits have been dialed, 
the computer leaves time in line 340 for 
the pre-recorded message to be played; it 



then hangs up, waits a minute, and starts 
all over again. After a total of three times, 
or as indicated by line 140, the computer 
unfreezes the BREAK key, and waits for 
someone to arrive. 

As for the pre-recorded message being 
sent over the telephone lines, I suggest 
the Radio Shack 20-second endless-loop 
blank tape (stock number 43-401), which 
is used for answering machines. Make a 
20-second emergency message saying 
something like this... 

"This is an emergency call, there has 
been a break-in at 1234 Fifth Street, 
in room 67, on the 6th floor." 
Be sure to give all the information the 
police will need. Then adjust line 340 so 
that during each call the recording is 
placed two or three times. 

Some possible ways of changing this 
program would be to have the computer 
dial more than one person in case of a 
break-in. For instance, have the computer 
call the police, then the owner, then the 
programmer, then the police again. There 
are probably many different ways the 
program could be changed to better fit 
the needs of a specific business, but this 
program gives you the basics that you 
need. □ 



* WATCHES FOR A BREAK-IN 8] 



POLICE ARE" 

CALLED NOW" 

■ THIS IE THE Fhl N 

* IS A PAUSE NEEDED 1 A •-" IC. 

* CA PAUSE MIGhT , ou 
« MUST DIAL 9 TO GET AN OUTS: 

* THIS REPEATS EVERYTHING 3 TIMES 

* LINES ltyO-TK Of 

« THL Til f r-HDN, Ni.1E.EK. 



POKE 16396,2;-: • , FREEZES THE BREA 
10 CLS:CLEArV10C: DIME CIS) tGOS JB1C00 
20 PRINTCHRSC23) 
30 PRINTB531r"A R M E IV; 
10 OUT2E5.9 :OUT255.10 
50 IFINPC25ii) = l9lTHEN10: 
60 CLS 

70 PRINT CHR»C23> 
B0 PRINT 8381," THE 
90 PRINTB5i2.'B E T N G 
100 • 

1 I A*-"911" : ■ 
120 ' 

130 • 

110 FORERMT03: 

'>RT = 1T0lENCA*> 

- id»ca*.t.i > : 
i/o ife:*="-"thenb*="99" 

■ u"THEN<S»="10" 
190 BCT >=VAlCB»> 
200 NEXT 

210 PRINT8F',U*S :FORT=1T0300:OUT255.12:NEXT 
220 PRINT6P.D*; :F0RT=1 TO30 :0UT25Sr 1 i :next : 

230 pRiNTep.u*; :fort=itoioo:out2S5i12:next: 

210 FQRT-1TOLENCA*) 

250 TFf:CT>=99THENFORR=lTO750:NEXT:GPTn290: ' 

260 F0RR=1T0ECT> 

270 print8p,d»; :0ut2s5.11 
2ho fore=itois:next: • 

290 PRINTf»P.U*;:0UT25S.12: • 

300 fore=itoi5:nlxt : • 

310 NEXT 

320 FORE=1T0300:NEXT: ' 

Hi XTT 
310 PRINT»P.U»IJFORT.lT0260l 

0IC1TS ARE DIALED ' 

• ■' "IIPRINTI rO20B0IOUT23Srli:NI 

* COMPUTER HANGS UP, WAITS 
360 NEXT ER! ' 

" and starts again. 

370 cls:printchk»( . 

380 PRINTBUB.'T HERE HAS SEEN" 

390 PRINTB586."A E: R E A K - I N" 

395 pRiNTePrOt; : 

10 POKE 16396. 201! • * UN-FREEZES BREAK KEY 
110 GOTO 110 

10 00 D»=CHR»Cl88)*CHR»Cl10)*CHR*Cl10)*CHR«Cl10)*CHR*Cie8)*STRING*C1,CHR*C21))»CH 
RtC26)«STRING*C3.CHR*C I 

1010 U* = CHk»<l13>*CHk*Cl3l>+i:Hh'»Cl3l)*CHR»Cl3l).CHRVCl1j).STRING»C1,ChR*C21 
R*(26)*STRING*C3,CHR*C 191)) 
1015 P=856 
1020 RETURN 

163 



••.NSWCR A RINI, 
* CIF THERE IS ONE OCCURING) 

» CHECKS FOR I . 



» LINES 270-310 DIAL EACH 
* DIGIT BY CONNECTING AND 



« DISCONNECTING THE CIRCUIT 
* WAX'S A SECOND BEFORE NEXT DIC11 



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TO ORDER 

CALL US 



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SAVE —PRINTERS 

PROWRITER $375.00 

NEC 8023A $439.00 

SMITH CORONATP1 ..,$569.00 



THIRD PARTY SOFTWARE 



ONLINE 

WIZARD I PRINCESS $28 75 

FROGGER $26.75 

CROSSFIRE $34.75 

BRODERBUND 

CMOPLIFTER $26.75 

APPLE PANIC $22.75 

SERPENTINE $26.75 

STAR BLAZER $24.75 

CBS 

KRAZY SHOOT $3175 

K STAR PATROL $31 75 

KRAZY ANTICS $31 .75 

KRAZY KRITTERS $3175 

AUTOMAT. SIMULATION 

INVASION ORION $20.75 

TEMPLE OF ASPHAI $28.75 

STAR WARRIOR $28.75 

KING ARTHUR'S HEIR $23.75 

RESCUE AT RIGEL $23.75 

DATA SOFT 

PACIFIC HIGHWAY $24.75 

CANYON CLIMBER • $24.75 

CLOWNS AND BALLOONS . $24.75 

MICRO PAINTER $24.75 

SANDS OF EGYPT . . $24.75 

EASTERN HOUSE 

MONKEY WRENCH II $52.75 

ALIEN GROUP 

SAM $45.75 

VOICE BOX $119.75 



ADVENTURE INTER. 

PREPPIE $19.75 

STRATOS $24.75 

SEA DRAGON $24.75 

IDSI 

POOL 1.5 $25.75 

POOL 400 $29.75 

SPEEDWAY BLAST $29.75 

GAME STAR 

STARBOWL FOOTBALL $ CALL 

BAJA BUGGY $24.75 

ROKLAND 

WIZARD OF WAR $24.75 

GORF $29.75 

DELUX INVADER $28.75 

THORN EMI 

SUBMARINE COMMANDER .. $35.75 

JUMBO JET $35.75 

KICKBACK $35.75 

SOCCER $35.75 

SYNAPSE 

SHAMUS $24.75 

SLIME $24.75 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE 

LETTER PERFECT $115.75 

LETTER PERFECT (ROM) $159.75 

DATA PERFECT $75.75 

TEXT WIZARD $79.75 

SPELL WIZARD $64.75 

FILE MANAGER 800 • $69.75 

BIG 5 

MINER 2049ER $35.75 



OKIDATA82A $419.00 

OKIDATA83A $639 00 

OKIDATA 84 $1029 00 

OKIDATA TRACTOR $63.00 

STARWRITER $1 475.00 

PRINTMASTER $1675.00 

PRINTER CABLES 

for Atari 

CITOH $35.00 

EPSON $35.00 

NEC $35.00 

OKIDATA $35.00 

SMITH CORONA $35.00 

JOYSTICKS 

Lo Stick $32.75 

Atar, * 925 

POINTMASTER $12.75 

WICO 

WICO COMMAND CONTROL . . . $22.75 

WICO RED BALL $26.75 

WICO TRACK BALL $52.75 

EX TENSION CORD $8 75 

COMPUTER 
COVERS 

800 $6.99 

810 $6.99 

4O0 $6.99 

410 $6.99 

COMPUTER 
FURNITURE 

GUSDORF $59.75 

BUSH CTA120 $69.75 

add-on T V ihalt $1 7.95 

INHOME 

400 KEY BOARD $99.75 



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TO ORDER 

CALL US 



TOLL FREE 800-233-8760 



In PA 1-717-398-4079 



CIRCLE 207 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




DUST COVER 
with Purchase of 

ATARI 800 48K .... $489.00 
ATARI 400 64K .... $349.00 

81 DISK DRIVE $41 9 .00 

ATAR1 1 200 64K RAM ... $ call $ 




ATARI 



A Avnat Cof rf, i" , tc*'0"r Company 



ATARI HARDWARE 

81 DISK DRIVE S41 9.00 

410 RECORDER $75.00 

1010 RECORDER $75 00 

850 INTERFACE SI 64.00 

PACKAGES 

CX482 EDUCATOR $11 9.00 

CX 483 PROGRAMMER $54.00 

CX488 COMMUNICATOR $21 9.00 

CX419BOOKEEPER $189.00 

KX7104 ENTERTAINER $69.00 



SOFTWARE 

CXL401 2 MISSILE COMMAND. $28.75 

CXL401 3 ASTEROID $28.75 

CXL4020 CENTIPEDE $32.75 

CXL4022 PACMAN $32.75 

CXL4011 STAR RAIOER $34.75 

CXL4004 BASKETBALL $26.75 

CXL4006 SUPER BREAKOUT ....$28.75 

CXL4008 SPACE INVADER $28.75 

CX81 30 CAVERNS OF MARS $31.75 

CX4108 HANGMAN $12.75 

CX4102 KINGDOM $12.75 

CX41 12 STATES* 

CAPITALS $1 2.75 

CX41 14 EUROPEAN 

COUNTRIES $1 2.75 

CX4109 GRAPHIT $16.75 

CX41 21 ENERGY CZAR $12.75 

CX41 23 SCRAM $19.75 

CX4101 PROGRAMMING I $19.75 

CX4106 PROGRAMMING II $22.75 

CX4117 PROGRAMMING III $22.75 

CXL401 5 TELELINK $21.75 

CX41 19 FRENCH $39.75 

CX41 1 8 GERMAN $39.75 

CX41 20 SPANISH $39.75 

CXL4007 MUSIC COMPOSER ... $33.75 

CXL40O2 ATARI BASIC $45.75 

CX8126 MICROSOFT 

BASIC $65.75 

CXL4003 ASSEMBLER 

EDITOR $45. 75 

CX81 26 MACRO 

ASSEMBLER $69.75 

CXL4018 PILOT HOME $65.75 

CX405 PILOT EDUCATOR $99.75 

CX41S HOME FILING 

MANAGER $41 .75 

CX414 BOOKKEEPER $119.75 



MONITORS 



NEC JB1260 $125.00 

NEC JB1 201 $1 55.00 

NECTC1201 $315.00 

AMDEK 300G $159.00 

AMOEK COLOR I $329.00 



MODEMS 

ANCHOR MARK I $79.00 

ANCHOR MARK II $79.00 

HAVES SMART $239.00 

HAVES MICRO II $309.00 

CAT $'44.00 

J-CAT $CALL$ 



PERCOM DISK DRIVES 

SINGLE DRIVE AT88 $389. 00 

ADD ON $289 00 

SINGLE DRIVE 40S1 $529,00 

ADD ON $329 00 

DUAL DRIVE 40S2 $845.00 

DUALHEADSINGLE DRIVE 44S1 ...$649.00 
DUAL HEAD DUAL DRIVE 44S2 .... $789.00 



THIRD PARTY 

48K RAM $99 00 

64K RAM $149.00 

EASTERN FRONT 1 941 $25.50 

OUTLAW/HOWITZER $1 5.50 

WIZARO of WAR $31 .00 

MY FIRST ALPHABET $25.50 

NEW RELEASES 

400 KEYBOARD $99.00 

MINER 2049.r $32.75 

FROGGER $25. 75 

PREPPIE $19.75 

SEA DRAGON $24.75 

STRATOS $24.75 

DISKV $39 95 

MONKEY WRENCH 2 $52.75 









DISKETTES : 

BASF 


In Stock 




ELEPHANT 






MAXELL MDI. . 




..$34 00 


MAXELL MDII 




$44 00 







BUSINESS SOFTWARE 

VISICALC $159.75 

LETTER PERFECT %: 1 5.75 

LETTER PERFECT ...ROM.. $159.75 

DATA PERFECT $75.75 

TEXT WIZZARD $79.75 

SPELL WIZZARD $64.75 

FILE MANAGER 800- $69.75 

ATARI WORD PRO $109.75 



££ POLICY 

^^^ DURING APRIL 

I In-Stock items shipped within 24 hours ol order Personal 
I checks require four weeks clear.nc. before shipping. No 
I d.potit for COD orders. PA residents add sales tax All products 
Isubiect to availability and price change. Advertised prices 
I show 4% discount offered for cash. Add 4% for Mastercard and 



TO ORDER 
CALL TOLL FREE 

800-233-8760 

| In PA 1-717 398-4079 
or Mnd order to 
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P.O. Box 5088 
I Jer$ey Shore. PA 1 7 740| 



The Secret Code Machine 



Millions of dollars are spent every 
year by governments, east and west, on 
computers to make and break secret 
codes. Using a century-old technique on 
a modern microcomputer, the user of 
the program described in this article can 
encipher and decipher secret messages 
and may also get a taste of the fascinat- 
ing history of cryptanalysis. 

The Playfair Cipher 

The ideal cipher should be very simple 
to construct but impossible to break. 
One of the simplest, and most effective 
(though by no means unbreakable with 
modern methods) is the Playfair Cipher. 
Invented more than 125 years ago, this 
cipher retains its utility for casual use 
today, having made its mark on history 
in helping save the life of a future presi- 
dent of the United States. 

The inventor was a British genius, 
Charles Wheatstone. Wheatstone had 
many and varied interests. Among other 
accomplishments, he invented that 
charming musical instrument, the con- 
certina. He produced some of the earli- 
est stereoscopic or three-dimensional 
drawings, and he published numerous 
papers on the science of acoustics. He 
also improved the electric dynamo and 
gave his name to a method, still in use 
today, for the very accurate measure- 
ment of electrical resistance. 

For his many achievements, Wheat- 
stone was knighted by Queen Victoria. 
He was elected to the Royal Society, and 
named professor of experimental philos- 
ophy at King's College, London, despite 

Gordon Ritchie, 22K6 Bowman Rd.. 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Kill 6V6. 



Gordon Ritchie 



the fact that this remarkable man was so 
shy he almost never appeared in person 
to give a lecture. 

At the center of his interests lay teleg- 
raphy. He constructed an electric tele- 
graph well before Samuel Morse 
succeeded, and made a contribution to 
the study of underwater telegraphy. 
Finally, and most important for this 
article, he devised an entirely new 
method for encoding secret messages to 
be sent by telegraph. 

The cipher was ultimately named 
after Wheatstone's friend, Lyon Playfair, 
first Baron Playfair of St. Andrews. He 
first demonstrated what he described as 
"Wheatstone's newly-discovered 
symmetrical cypher" at a very private 
dinner in London in January 1854. The 
select company that night included 
Queen Victoria's husband, Prince 
Albert, and the Home Secretary (and 
late distinguished Prime Minister), Lord 
Palmerston. The demonstration was 
received with great interest. Indeed, 
several days later, while Playfair was 
visiting Dublin, he received letters from 
several of that night's guests, encoded, 
naturally, in the new cipher which had 
proved so easy to master. 

The event marked the introduction of 
a method of enciphering letters in pairs 
such that the result depended upon the 
interaction of both elements. Today, this 
is recognized as the first "literal, di- 
graphic" cipher in history. 

The Playfair cipher begins with a 5 X 

166 



5 grid. Each block of the grid holds one 
of 25 letters of the alphabet (the j is 
dropped, to be replaced as needed by an 
i throughout). 

The initial letters of this array, in the 
usual order (left to right along each row 
from top to bottom) are taken from a 
keyword known to both sender and 
receiver. This can be any word or phrase 
whatsoever. Its letters are arrayed in 
order of the first appearance. Thus, the 
key word "playfair" would be read as "p 
I a y f i r." The remaining letters of the 
alphabet follow, in alphabetical order, to 
make up the codesquare. Thus, using the 
keyword "playfair," the codesquare is: 
P L A Y F 
I R B C D 
E G H K M 
N O Q S T 
U V W X Z 
The secret message is processed 
through this codesquare, in pairs of 
letters. First, all j's are replaced with is. 
Then the message is broken down into 
pairs. If both letters in any pair are 
identical, a dummy (an x) is inserted. A 
dummy is also used to round off the 
message to an even number of letters. 
Thus, the short message, "a good cipher 
is the playfair" becomes: 

AG / OX / OD / CI / PH / ER / IS 
TH / EP / LA / YF / AI / RX 
The rules for encoding a message are 
simplicity itself. Each letter in a pair is 
found in the codesquare. It is replaced 
by the letter on the same row but in the 
column of the other letter of the pair. 
Thus, AG becomes LH, OX becomes 
SV, etc. There are two special cases: 

• If both letters are on the same row 
(e.g., YF), each is replaced by the letter 

May 1 983 ' Creative Computing 



TIMEX MAKES THE 

COMPUTER, 

BUT WE MAKE IT TICK. 




If you own a TS-1000 or ZX-81 computer and want to bring out the power within it, you'll want Memotech. From easier input to high 
quality output and greater memory, Memotech makes the add-ons you demand. Every Memotech peripheral ^—M 

comes in a black anodized aluminum case and is designed to fit together in "piggy back fashion enabling yon .^^^t^^SmWm 

to continue to add on and still keep an integrated system look. 

MEMOPAK RAM All Memopak RAMs are directly addressable, user transparent, are neither switched nor 
paged and no additional power supply is required. You can also choose the Memopak RAM which is just 
right for your needs. From economy to power. 16K RAM The Memopak 16K RAM is the most 
economical way to add memory to your TS-1000. It is fully compatible with the Timex or Memotech 16K 
KAMs to provide you with up to 32K of RAM. The I6K RAM also offers additional add-on capabilities 
through its "piggy back" connection. 32K RAM The 322K Memopak enables you to execute 
sophisticated programs and store large data bases and like the I6K RAM is fully compatible with Timex s or 
Memotech's 16K RAMs to give you a full 48K of RAM. 64K RAM The (wK Memopak is powerful 
enough to turn your TS-1000 into a computer with capabilities suitable for business and educational use. It 
accepts such BASIC commands as 10 DIM A (9000). MEMOCALC Memocalc, our spreadsheet analysis 
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Quick revisions can be achieved by entering new data to your formula. 
MEMOTECH KEYBOARD For ease of operation, the Memotech keyboard is a high quality 
standard typewriter keyboard, with TS-1000 legends. The keyboard is cable connected to a buffered 
interface which is housed in a standard Memopak case and plugs directly into the back of the 

TS-1000 or other Memopaks. MEMOPAK HRG The Memopak High Resolution (iraphics, with 
up to 192 by 248 pixel resolution, enables display of high resolution "arcade game style graphics 
through its resident 2K EPROM, programmed with a full range of graphics subroutines 
CENTRONICS PARALLEL AND RS232 INTERFACES 
Memotech's Interfaces enable your TS-1000 to use a wide range of 
compatible printers. The resident software in the units gives the 
complete ASCII set of characters. Both Memopak Interfaces provide lower case character capabilities and 
up to 80 column printing. The RS232 Interface is also compatible with modems and terminals. 
SEIKOSHA GP 10OA PRINTER The Seikosha GP 100A uses a 5x7 dot matrix printing format with 
ASCII standard upper and lower case character set. Printing speed is 30 characters/second with a 






maximum width of 80 characters. The printer uses standard fanfold paper up to 
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ORDER AT NO RISK. All Memotech 
products carry our 10 day money back 
guarantee. If you're not completely 
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month warranty. Should anything be 
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TS-NOO m a regbieretl trademark of Tlmea Corp 

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7550 West Yale Avenue. Denver. Colorado 80227, 303/986-1516, TWX 910-320 2917 



Mail To: Mmmtech (xirpuntiuii 755» »<M ul. W .> 



~l 




| It* KAM 
| ilk HUM 



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' Shippuu; in,! Mantling 
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Code Machine, continued... 

to the right, scrolling around to the 
beginning of the row as required (i.e., 
YF becomes FP). 

• If both letters are in the same col- 
umn (e.g., EP), each is replaced by the 
letter below, scrolling to the top of the 
column (i.e., EP becomes NI). 

Our sample message, using the 
keyword "playfair" thus becomes: 
LHSVTR DRAEGI CNQMNI 
AYFPPB CV. (The grouping of letters is 
purely arbitrary, to mislead prying eyes.) 
The reader may wish to double check — 
it is really rather easy once you under- 
stand the method. 

The power of the cipher can be seen in 
the way that O is enciphered S in one 
place and T another, while A in the 
ciphertext stands for P in one case and L 
in the other. The result is that the sim- 
plest method of attack on secret ciphers, 
frequency analysis, is made much more 
difficult. 

The two most frequent letters in 
English are e and t which together ac- 
count for more than 20 percent of all 
normal usage. By contrast, the two most 
common digraphs, th and he are found 
less than 6 percent of the time. This 
method of enciphering in pairs can be 
broken by modern methods, to be sure, 
but not without some skill. 

The proof of this came in the rescue of 
an American sailor who later became 
president of the United States of Amer- 
ica. When PT 109 was rammed and 
sunk in August 1943, the coastwatchers 
were on the alert. A member of the 
Australian naval volunteer reserve hid- 
den in the Solomon Islands saw the 
explosion. 

That morning, he received a message 
in Playfair cipher using the keyword 
"Royal New Zealand Navy" which said, 
"PT boat one owe nine lost in action in 
Blackett Strait two miles SW Meresu 
Cove X Crew of twelve X Request any 
information X." He reported his 
sightings and over the next few days he 
and his brave comrades on different 
islands exchanged a stream of messages 
about the probable whereabouts of the 
survivors. 

Five days later, he learned that two 
natives had, indeed, found the sailors, 
and he fired off a message, using a 
Playfair cipher with the keyword "phys- 
ical examination" to report eleven survi- 
vors and call for a rescue. In the heart of 
Japanese-controlled territory, with the 
radio waves continuously monitored, the 
use of a simple Playfair cipher kept the 
proceedings secret until the rescue could 
be effected. 

The Playfair Program 

You don't need to be on a South Sea 
island surrounded by enemy forces to 



use and enjoy the Playfair cipher. The 
following program was written for Boy 
Scout Martin Ritchie of Ottawa, 
Canada, as part of his requirement for a 
green star. The user simply inputs an 
appropriate key word and the computer 
does the rest of the work, enciphering or 
deciphering the secret message. 



The program was originally written 
on the 6502 system of a SuperPet with 
disk drives and a CBM printer. It can be 
easily adapted to other Commodore 
machines or, with a little effort, other 
6502-based systems using disk or tape. 
(A neighbor is running a version on a 
tape-supported CBM 2032.) 



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?EM * 
JEM • PHERTEXT 

• HARDWARE REQUIRED - 
JEM ♦ CBM 

510 REM ♦ CBM PRINTER C c RICTI0N OK ■ ZET» 

500 R| .... ...««*.+,.<««.««.................»«.»«.* 

ITCHR*<142) t£M ♦ SELECT GRAPH] 
550 PRINTCHR*<14?) PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT 
555 PRINTTABa0>"aPLA<rFAIR CODE ■ 

560 PRINTTAB' 10 ♦♦♦♦♦•♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦' 
PRINT PRII 
RINT"WELC0ME TO THE SFLhVFhIP CODE MACHINE!." 
- \»1 
540 pc [NT "h PROGRAM WRITTEN BV GORDON PIT 
•50 PRINT-HIS SON MARTIN, B0V SCOUT, IN 
rARIO. CANADA." 

REM • PAGE TURNER 
580 DIM MS*" 3,5>, M Ef ■ '■• 

- INTCHR*' 14" • 
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RINTTABU0) "***•***« 
PRINT PC I 
749 PRINT "THE FIRST STEP I- TO DEFINE H »£i - • 

RINT 
760 PRINT"IT IS THIS 5» EV WORM ThhT mh' E HE DIFFERENT • 

RINT'FROM ANV OTHER, AND ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE TO B*EI 

1 HOOSE IT VERY CAREFULLV. IT SHOULD I 
f I'.T 
■ RINTTAB' 5)"* m SINGLE 
904 PRINT 
310 PRINTTAB<5V* EASV TO REMEMBER" 

• NOT TOO LONG ■ i - 15 LETT-.- 

350 PRINTTABC5)"* NOT too 0BV1 I 'ME; 

360 PC INT 

RINT"PLEASE ENTER TOUR » EV MURDI BELOW " 
'PUT KE* 
[F LEN' » El ■ THEN PRINT" 

300 IF ! 

910 FOP N - 1 TO LEN • £r REM * 

N, I 
IF IM - PR1 ICES PLEH:.! 

IF ASC' TTr • ■ 
.-50 NE 

10 REM ♦ CALL INE 

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.♦♦♦.♦.,♦♦♦♦" 

■ [NT 
1050 PP INT" THE SUPERPET I i NOW M 

II PRINTTAB' K" "jriH EB" 

1090 ■ 

1110 PRINT'THAT PROJECT I :-• NOW COMPLETED." 

! 1 30 

I U0 G0SU1 -EN ♦ P£: ; ! INE 



168 



May 1 983 ■ Creative Computing 



Timex/Sinclair 1000 



SEE DATA-ASSETTE BOOTH #101 

NEW YORK COMPUTER SHOW (L.I.) 

APRIL 14 THRU 17. 1983 



Sinclair ZX-81 



Super-Market 




16 RAM PACK $39.95 




Dynamic memory Very attractive price, lull warrantee Order now lor immediate 
delivery From England 

32 + K RAM PACK $99.95 

Unique design allows user to piggyback 16K on to 32+ giving 48K 

16K+ "NEW CONCEPT" — 
RAM PACKS $55.00 

Gives user upgrade to 32K by adding 16K module to first unit Buy 16K now tor 
$55 00 Add 16K later tor only $44.00. 



INVENTORY/CONTROL 
(16 TO 64K) $19.95 

Automatically expands memory based on the RAM PACK size Features include 
control ot units and costs, separate routines tor receipts, sales sh.ps and 
returns Select sort ad|ust an on-line to dies 125 to 500 items 

BUDGET ANALYSIS/CASH 
FLOW (16K) $19.95 

Home or office brand new utility Menu drive manages income and fixed 
variable expenses line of credit 



64K RAM ASSIGNABLE $150.00 S?£ ERTY MANAGER < 1 6K) 



Ideal for serious user Allows move of memory, gives space tor add-ons Works 
well with ZX-99 and ZX-98 Printer interface and tape drive control 

PRINTER INTERFACE $99.95 

Parallel and Serial on the same board Allows soft select and provides output 
connector for both Now NETWORKS are available Many user functions in on- 
board ROM Full ASCII LLIST. LCOPY. LPRINT operate HEX exam RAM. far too 
many features to list 

New low price now only $99.95 

Tape Drive Control and Printer Interface ZX-99 gives user control of 4 tape 
decks, with several user features, auto tape copy, tape block skip. ETL. ETC.. a 
program list via RS232 output port 

TAPE LOAD INTERFACE $30.00 

Monitor Cassette Output and set tor good loading every time Includes Test 
Tape and 60 page instruction book Valid for any cassette based system 

POWER SUPPLY 650 mAmps 
$19.95 

No .fade, no flicker 

Order Now — Call Toll Free 1 -800-523-2909 

In Pennsylvania 1-215-932-4807 



Mail Orders To Data-assette 

56 South 3rd Street 

Oxford, Pennsylvania 19365 
In Europe To Data-assette 

44 Shroton Street 

London NWI, England 
CC-1 

CIRCLE 161 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

1^ 



TAX OEOUCTABLE! Business/personal 10 units in two buildings or five with 2 
each, full 12 months Tracking, works with ZX-99 and gives unlimited scope 

ZX/TS. DOT. MAN. GOBBLES 
AND CRUNCHES $19.95 

Fantastic recreation of famous arcade game Fast movng. requires skill 

FANTASTIC 1K GAME SETS 
$9.95 

"ORDER TWO FOR $17 00 

- CHALLENGE ONE 4 different games ot speed 

- CHALLENGE TWO ARCADE ACTION 3 tests of skill 
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#2 GREAT WESTERN. Try your luck - Go-West Young Man Can You 
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#3 DALLAS. The real thing Be an Oil King. Drill Explore. Borrow Steal J R 
would be proud of this one " 

We have over 50 items in our software 
catalogue and more in our hardware range. 
Write for furthur details. 
Dealer Inquiries welcome. 



cJata~ar/ette 



Authors/Designers 
Please submit your 
products for review. 



Retail Price? 

WE NEVER HEARD 
OF IT! 

This Months SPECIALS 
for Apple and Atari 400/800 



WHY SHOULD YOU BUY FROM US? 

by Joseph Segor. Pres. 

Each source of computer software "positions 
itself Here's our position: 

We offer a huge selection of programs, 
whether business, education. 01 games, Every 

. these programs is youis at a discount 
well below retail price. Every one is guaranteed 
to be brand new and to run perfectly, or we 11 
refund your money. 

We want you as an ongoing, permanent 
customer, and once you're on our mailing list 
you 11 see opportunities no other software 
company can offer you. That > my pledge- 
take me up on it' /^jL^L, 

APPLE PROGRAMS 

fNTERTAlNMENT 



Code Machine, continued. 









rreurclO 



. 



DcKlll! 

.-(Sn-Techl 
BUSINESS 

.'isicorpl 

Muhiplan (Microsoft) 

. .iCoepl 
-r II (On.Lme) 

m (AptJled Software TeitinoMYl 
HOME 

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•ung) 

ATARI 4O0/6OO Disc 

ENTERTAINMENT 



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: 

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> 23.93 
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For fast action, order by toll-free phone 

800-334-0854 

(Ask for Extension «53) 



THEN 

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■- ■ 



The Brightest Name in Software 

SUNSHINE SOFTWARE 

CIRCLE 285 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



UM If --> 

s 

-« . -. - 

ea 

••••• 

1 TO lE 

- [Nl 

If! N - I 

I 

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♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦*♦* 

pf?INT"HErtDQUfiRTEF 

Zvn'W vou wish ■ 

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ss% ■ 

.k3..:.. 

CET RR* [P RR* " T . 

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10140 PRINT 
'.Mas >0SUB llWe REM • 

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- a ' 



May 1983 « Creative Computing 



lust a few of our widely acclaimed products for the TS1000/ZX81 




lUl I II I 



CREATIONS INC 



Z-99 COMPILER 035201 5/9T95 

An indispensible program for those who wish to use 
machine code but don 't understand it. It automatically 
translates a large subset of BASIC into machine code 
which is then stored in a REM statement for use as a 
subroutine in any program you write. It operates on 35 
of the most valuable Sinclair BASIC commands in- 
cluding PRINT, IF THEN, GOTO, POKE GOTO 
COSUB, FOR LOOPS etc. 

ACCOUNTS 

Accounts is i 

gram for the IbK 2X81. The mam feature of the pro- 
gram is a 200 record transaction file which can be sear- 
ched, printed on displayed. The program has been 
thoroughly tested and used in the authors household 
tor 10 months and this long gestation period has 
resulted in many refinements not usually found in pro- 
grams of this type. 



03-1022 $19.95 

a simple to use, extremely versatile pro- 



WORDFIX 03-1046 579.95 

Effectevely a mini word processor. It allows you to in- 
put unformatted text and to process it into any format 
you like. The results can then either he printed out or 
stored. (23 pages of text can be stored if required). 
GRAFIX 03-6005 $14.95 

The only way to produce complex images. Superbly 
easy to use. When your design is < omplete it c an easily 
be incorporated into other programs it desired. Images 
can be stored & recalled at any time, reflet ted lie a 
mirror image), or mixed together. You can change the 
'color' & produce inverse at the touc h of a key Simply 
the most flexible image processor available. 
COMPOSER 03-3012 5/9 95 

Actually write your own tunes in standard notation 
and your ZX8 1 /TS 1 000 plays them! You specify tempo 
rhythm, note duration and pitch (within a range of six 
octaves). The computer plays it back through the TV 
speaker, an AM radio, or your cassette recorder 



GRAND PRIX 03-4033 $14.95 

Drive a race car around a twisting road course. Speed, 
gearbox and breaking are under your control but the 
patches of oil and other hazzards are not. 



MAZE DRAG RACE 03-4201 $14.95 

Your racing c ar is in a giant maze, only one ninth of 
whit h is displayed on the s( reen. Very fast and lots of 
tun. 

NIGHTMARE PARK 03-4031 $14.95 

Few who enter ever return. Can you outwit the 
demons and sorcerers who haunt the dreaded 
Nightmare Park? 



PONTOON 03-4030 $14.95 

Play Blac k lac k against the computer. You begin with 
$2(K) and with nerve, luc k and good judgement you 
c ould walk away a winner. 

PUCKMAN 03-4027 $14.95 

Try our fast-moving version of the famous arcade 

game. 



SPACE DEFENDER 0i-4037 $14.95 

A stratagy game with graphic star-map. Defend your 
space Station against enemy missies. 



STARTREKKER 03-4034 $14.95 

You are in command of the S.S. Enterprise and at war 
with the evil Klingons. Your five-year mission: To seek 
out and destroy the enemy! 

STOCKS AND SHARES 03-2019 $15.95 

I fere's your < ham e to take on Wall Street Prices are 
atlec ted by trade slumps, take over bids, recessions, 
etc An exiting and challanging game for one or two 
players. 

TAILGUNNER 03-4030 $14.95 

You control the tail-gun of a rebel cruiser as the Im- 
perial fleet pursues 

TOWERING INFERNO 03-4036 $14^95 

Disaster has struck a giant skyscraper and you must 
rescue th e occupants before they (all to their deaths. 

ALIEN 03-4035 $14.95 

A deadly alien is loose on board your space craft. You 
must choose the right weapon and kill it before it kills 
you. 

BREAKOUT 03-4028 $14.95 

An excellent version of the classic arcade game. 



QSAVE™ 

A hardware/software pac kage that allows you to load 
and save a 16K file in 2b sec onds instead of 7 minutes! 
( Jeans up and strenthens the digital signal. Increases 
baud rate from 250 to over 4000 ops. Comes complete 
with connecting cables. A must tor all ZX8I/TSI0O0 
owners. 04-1000 $39.95 



TOUCH-A-MATIC 



Kopak 's "Tout h-A-Matic " vinyl keyboard overlay gives 
you the power to type more accurately and much 
taster. It recjuires no wires, no soldering, and comes 
with complete instructions, lust remove the adhesive 
hacking, press into position, and you're ready for 
touch-typing with ease. 01-(XX)7 $9 95 



Call 201-864-4410 to place an order with your Visa, MasterCard, or American Express. ^flOO^ 

Or add shipping charges and send order with payment to: nLjltlfl 



■ocktng » thlpptog 
uplo $9 99loS14 99 add \1 00 
IromHSOOIolISM add 92 SO 
from S20 00 lo S24 99 add t i 8S 



Irom S2S 00 to S29 M add $3 4S 

lrom»30 00 lo S39 99 add S3 10 

Irom 140 00 lo $49 99 add S3 95 

o.arSSOOO addS4 2S 



CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Dealer ir 





( reations Inc 

1 19 Peter St. no.9 

Union City, Nl 07087 



Code Machine, continued... 

Unlike the Waterloo Basic of the 6809 
chip, which the SuperPet also supports. 
Commodore's Basic 4.0 is not struc- 
tured, nor does it permit "pretty print- 
ing." The program has, however, been 
written in modular format, with exten- 
sive use of subroutines and a prolifera- 
tion of REMs to make it easily readable 
by the novice programmer. Pseudo 
pretty printing has been used as well. 

All this adds to the intelligibility, but 
also the memory requirement of the pro- 
gram. Users faced with limited memory 
capacity may wish to shorten the 
message array (dim in line 680) as a first 
step. If the program is to be compressed, 
care should be taken with branching to 
kim statements. 

The program is relatively foolproof. It 
also uses input time to do the main 
processing so that it appears to do the 
encipherment instantly (a useful tech- 
nique known as "parallel processing"). 

Program Organization 

Lines 10 to 310 provide a synopsis of 
the program using rem statements. 

Lines 500 to 680 introduce the pro- 
gram to the screen and establish dim, 
character sets, etc. 

Lines 700 to 1000 accept the keyword 
input, strip it of j's and repeats and set 
up the magic square while waiting. 

Lines 1020 to 1200 display the magic 
codesquare for the user. 

Lines 1210 to 1350 accept the input of 
the secret message to be enciphered/ 
deciphered and do the job while waiting. 

Lines 1360 to 1500 print to the screen 
both the original message and the 
enciphered/deciphered version. 

Lines 2000 to 2 1 50 close the operation 
with a set of printout options to the 
CBM printer. 

The remaining lines comprise sub- 
routines for everything from turning the 
page to enciphering the secret message, 
all clearly marked with rems. The basic 
algorithm for enciphering the letter pairs 
is in the 15000 block, calling subroutines 
for special cases in the 20000 block. 

Further Information 

Readers whose appetite has been 
whetted to learn more of the fascinating 
history of cryptanalysis are encouraged 
to get The Codebreakers by David Kahn 
or Secret and Urgent by Fletcher Pratt. 
Both provide thrilling accounts of crypt- 
analysis in action and a good technical 
guide to many of the basic techniques. 

Readers who prefer not to type in the 
following listing may obtain a copy of 
the Playfair program — either version: 
80-character plus instructions on disk; 
or 40-character on disk or tape. Just 
send $5 with your name and address to 
me at the address printed at the begin- 
ning of the article. 



! 1100 

into 
11120 

UNO 
! 1 1 50 
11160 
I 1 1 70 



12100 
1 4020 

! 4050 
1 4060 

14070 

14110 
14120 

14140 
14150 

: 1160 

1 4 1 70 
14100 

14130 
'.4200 

I 4210 
14220 

1 4240 
14245 

14270 
! 4230 

14290 

90 

14310 

14530 
14 335 
14 340 
1 4 350 

1 4 370 



r ♦ Ef 

. 

cop ;: = i T 
. i . - l ' 

WHL» ' 

1 TO 5 
PRINT 

NEXT 

ppIMT PRINT 

kTmcmIb « i • ••«**•****•»•**»*» 

PRINTCHR*' 147' PRINT PS 
PRINTTAB' 10>"S6ECRET MESSAGES" 
PRINTTAB' 1 -t ■"♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

pRl!£..pTEASE TVPE 1 * r ' fR ™° LETTER" 

PRINT"TVPE IX TO END 

♦ LETTERS ONLV - 



. i [LL Bf WRITTEN I 



» IF BOTH LETTERS ! • A PAIR - 

BETWEEN THEM (THUS 'SP ' ; " 



PRINTTAB' 5 • 

PRINT 

PRINTTAB<5> 

PRINTTAB' 5 
PRINTTAB 

PP I I ^!T^«♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦•♦*♦♦♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦*♦♦♦♦♦*♦♦♦♦♦*♦♦♦♦**♦• , *** 

cop m = i TO ! 
PRINT' 

INPUT ME*' M • 
IF LEFT* NET ■•' 

PRINT PRINT"PLEAS£ r -*T " ■ ME r ' 

W.n REM ♦ RESI "INE 

now 
prini 

1F^™.M^ V ^THEN PRINT"*™ LETTER, ONLV PLEASES" 

FOR M ■ 1 1 

Plif = MIDI' ME*' M ' ■'■ _ .... , , , 

IF DD* ■ " " THEN PRINT'SHO EBJ " '-• , -' T '-' '''-^ 

IF ASC<DD*X65 OR ASC<M>*»90 THEN PRINT" SLETTERS ONLV PLEASE*' 






LETTER :. « 

GOTO 14 



141 



141 



- RIGHT*' ME*<M>, 1 ' THE • ■ 
REM * CALLS EHCVPHERMENT S0BR0U 






IF LEFT*<ME*' 
00SUB 150 
PRINT 

PRINT"MESSAGE COMPLETED. " 
GOSUB 6000 REM • PA0E TURNER 

R^M^ME^VPHERMEI ,...♦..♦....♦.♦♦«♦♦♦.♦•♦»♦♦♦♦♦ 

1 ' 
RIGHTr<ME*<M 

- 1 TO 5 
FOP ■ 1 I 

IF Gl I 

IF 

r ■ 



• QUARE 
15110 






THEN V2 



1 



H1J " 






15130 

15130 
15250 

! 6030 

! 6050 
16060 

1 6 1 00 
16110 

It" 120 



SAME COLUMN 

SAME ROW 

■ V2 THEN '100 



H2* ■ 

PEM ♦ 

R£M 

PEM ♦ 
IF VI 
PEM 

■ = Hit + 
•i PEM ♦ PET; | 
PEM ♦ MESSAGE PRINT ROUTINE 
PRINTCHR*' 147 ■ PRINT P* 
PRINTTAB<10>"SCODED ME: ■ 

PPT NT 

PRINT"HERE IS VOUR SECRET MESSAGE I MDE 

PRINT 

- 1 TO LE 
PRINT 

NEXT M 

PRINT". • THE END)" 

PRINT PRINT 

PRINT"PRESS ANV KEV TO CONTINUE." 






172 



May 1 983 e Creative Computing 



■i 




Scippkz [A ATARI 



APPLE" COMPATIBLE COMPUTER 
AN ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE 

SYSCOM 2 
__ $699 



800(48K) mm 

NEW 64K ATAR1 1200 CALL 



DISK DRIVES 

RAMA 

$369 Elite I (w.cont) 
$«5 Elite II (w/coni) 
*555 Elite III, w/cont) 
FOURTH Super <w/cont| 



MICHOSCI 
A2 | w/cont) 
A40<w/cont) 
A 70 (w/cont) 



ARTsc. APPLE SOFTWARE 

Magic Window $65 

Magic Window 1 1 $99 

Magic Words 14s 
AVANT oaroe 

ZeroGrav Pinball $20 

HiResGolt J20 

Hi Res Secrets u; 
BEAGLE BROS. 

Dos Boss $17 

Alpha Plot $28 

Utility City $57 

Tip Disk #1 $15 

Apple Mechanic $21 

Pronto Dos ... «?i 

Hex Text $J, 

Frame Up $?, 

Typefaces 114 

BRODERBUND 

Choplilter J23 

Star Blazer $22 

Davids Midnight $23 

Apple Panic $20 

Alien Rain .... $17 

Arcade Machine 141 

CONTINENTAL 

Home Accountant $52 

1st Class Mail $53 

DATAMOST 

Snack Attack $2, 

Swashbuckler $23 

E"SV*' Re - in fgsasar 

Rendevous $27 £ orn P"!?' Baseball 

Prisoner II J23 

HAVDEN SOFTWARE 

Sargon II j 2 5 

Piewfiler «QA 

INFOCOM 

Zork I. II or III j 2 ? 

Starcross $27 

Deadline «-ia 

INSOFT 

Graforthll $50 

Electric Duet *20 

LOTUS . 

Exec BrietSys $126 r ii ,'0 * 27 

MICROSOFT u^Aod 9 LmeEd M4 

Basiccompiier $270 S? m RP ^ 



$399 

$539 
$679 
$385 



BIT 3 -80 COL. BOARD 
BOOKKEEPER KIT 

810 DISK ORIVE 
410 RECORDER 
8M INTERFACE 
«00 COMPUTER 

Entertainer 
Communicator 



$419 
$74 

$164 

$219 
$66 

S298 



32K RAM (Mosaic) 
32K RAM (Intec) 
64K (lntec/400) 
48K (lntec/400) 
Educator 
Programmer 




IBM P/C COMPATIBLES - CALL 
IBM ACCESSORIES 



AMDEK. 

^?'°' IU CALL 

3 Drives tuq 

V310GRN Jt|| 

NEC 

Color RGB IJC1203) 

3550 Printer 



fPEBOQMl 



ONLINE 

Screenwriter .... $89 

Wiz & Princess $22 

Mystery House $17 

Time Zone $65 

Maurauder . $24 

Frogger $23 

Cannonball Bin* $23 

Screenwriter Prof $135 

QUALITY 

Bagof Tricks $27 

All Baba & 40 Thieves $22 

SENSIBLE SOFTWARE 

Sensible Speller $85 

Super Disk Copy III $21 

Multi Disk Catalog $18 

SIRTECH 

Wizardry $35 

Knight of Dia $24 

SOFTWARE PUBLISH 

£ F f H <>P°" $65 

HrS Filing $07 

PFS Graph $07 
SPINNAKER 

Snooper Troops » $29 

Snooper Troops »2 $29 

Story Machine $23 

Face Maker $23 
STONEWARE 

DB Master $ 158 

DB Master Uliiei $70 
$46 

$27 

Cytron Masters $27 

Guadalcanal $42 

Galactic Gladiators K7 

Battle olShiloh $27 

Tigers In Snow $27 

Cosmic Balance $27 

Computer Ortrback $27 
SUBLOGIC 

Flight Simulator $25 

Space Viking $34 

Saturn Navigator $24 
SYNERGISTIC 



Single Density Master 

Single Density Dual 

Double Density Master !?£ 

Double Density Dual I«f 

Dbl Sided Dbl Density Master 

Dbl Sided Dbl Density Dual 

ADVENTURE INTL 
Rear Guard (Dl $17 

Adv 1 t2each(C) $i 8 

P'eppieiC/Di $20 

Djskey,D, 



$399 



$659 
$949 



MICROTEK 
64K W/Panty 
128K W/Panty 
I92K W/Panty 
256K W/Panty 



$689 
$1829 



$235 
$345 
$449 
$559 



MICROSOFT 

64K RAM $«* 

256KRAM $629 

64K RAM Chip Set $135 

PERCOM 

SS/DD External Drv $3)9 

DS/DD External Drv $379 

5M Hard Disk $,549 

I0M Hard Disk % 2 2b0 

IBM Joystick (TG) $44 

IBM Joystick (Kraltl $4 8 



Mulhplan iViX ;';',., , * 7 * 

Olympic Decathaion *ifg M&^NEOUS $1 ' 5 

Robot War $ 27 Sf" d i' s cl «3 

gSift* """'*" So S^e gj 



PENGUIN 



Graphic Maoican $42 gSS (w/D% S ' eP 

%™/,%?r' c * s >* * 49 SSL. 

JSpecial Effects $29 Zoom Graphics 



PRINTERS 

Prownter $379 

Prownter II $649 

Starwnfer $1379 

Printmaster $1599 

GEMIN1 10 



NEC 

8023 AC $465 

»1° $13" 

£2? .„ *'595 



GEMIN1 15 



$319 
S485 



NEC 

I2'GRN(JB1260) 
12"GRN(JB1201M) 
12 * Color Composite 
12 "Color RGB 
USI (Amber) 



3550IIBM) 
7710/7730 
SMITH CORONA 

AXIOM GP 100 

MONITORS 

AMDEK 
V300 

V310(GRNIBM| 
V310 A (Amber IBM) 



$115 
$155 
$329 
$689 



COLOR I 
COLOR II 



$169 

MODEMS 

NOVATION 
Apple Cat II 
212 Apple Cat 
D-Cat 
ANCHOR AUTOMATION Signalman I or II $79 

ACCESSORIES 

Wlco '-'°y' $23 WicolTBall) 



HAYES 

Micromodem 11 
Stack Smartmodem 
Smartmodem 1200 



$269 
$215 
$519 




Eastern Front (C/D) $23 
Fam Cash Flow (D) $17 

Fig 1 Forth (C) $30 

Galaxian $32 

Defender $32 

ET $3^ 

Microsoft Basic (D) $65 
Macro Ass & Edit (Dl $65 
Assembler Editor (R) $45 

Basic Cartridge (R) $45 

PacMan(R) |j| 

Centipede (R) $32 

Caverns of Mars (D| $28 
Missile Command (R) $27 

Star Raiders (R) $32 

Conv Lang Ea (C) $44 

music Composer (R| $31 

Super Breakout (R) $27 
My First Alphabet (Dl $26 

Proofs 3(eaxC) $21 

Word Processor (D) $107 

Pilot (Educ) $98 

Touch Typing (C) $19 

Home File Mngr(D) $37 
AUTOMATED SIMUL. 

Monster Maze (R) $27 

Invasion Orion (C/D) $18 

Temple of Aps (C/D) $28 

Star Warrior (C/D) $28 

Dragons Eye (D) $20 

Crush Crumble (C/D) $20 
AVALON HILL 

Empire of Over (D) $23 

B 1 Nuc Bomber (C) $12 
BRODERBUND 

Apple Panic (C/D) $20 

Star Blazer $22 

Choplilter if) $23 

DATA SOFT * 

Text Wizard II (D) $65 

Graphics Gen ID) $17 

Basic Compiler (D) $65 

Zaxxon(C/Di $28 
EDU WARE 

Compu Read ID) . $21 

Compu Math Fr (D) $28 

li FOCOM a ' h ° eC ,D ' * 28 

Zork I. II or III (D) $27 

Starcross $27 

Deadline (D) $34 
JV SOFTWARE 

Action Quest (C/D) $20 

Ghost Encount (C/D) $20 



KBYTE 

Krazy(each) $34 

Letter Perfect (D) $104 

Daia Perfect (D) $74 
ONLINE 

Wiz* Princess (D) $22 

Crossfire (C/Dl $20 

Frogger (C/D) $23 

Jawbreaker (C/D) $21 

Crossfire (Hi $28 
OPTIMIZED SYSTEMS 

Max 65(D) $58 

Basic A » (Dl $5a 
ROKLAN 

GorfiDl $27 

Gorf(R) |^ 

Wizard of Wor(D) $27 

Wizard ofWor.R, $ M 

Space Eggs (D) $20 

Sneakers (D) $20 

Way Out (D) $J? 

Bandits (D) $23 

Fast Eddy |R| $ 27 
SPINNAKER 

Snooper Troops #1 (D) $30 

Snooper Troops »2 (D) $30 

Storm Machine (D) $23 

Face Maker |D) $23 

STRATEGIC SIM. *" 

Shattered Alliance (D) $28 

Tigers In Snow (C/D) $28 

Battle of Shiloh (C/D) $28 

Battle of Norm (C/D) $27 

Galactic Gladiator (Dl $27 

Cytron Masters (D) $27 
SYNAPSE SOFTWARF 



Visifile 



IBM SOFTWARE 

Visicalc(256K| $t69 

Easywriter II $209 

Home Accl Plus $95 

1st Class Mail $85 

Wordstar $299 

Mail Merge $159 

Spellstar $,25 

Supercaic $1/9 

Exec Acct Sys $489 

Tax Manager $159 

TIM,,, 9 /■£» 

Money Decisions $132 

Desktop Plan I $199 

Lotus 1.2.3 $299 



Data Reporter $,59 I 

Visitrend/Plot $i« 

V.sidex fjjjg 



$199 



Visischedule $199 

Peachtree4 CALL 

Zork I. M. ,,| $27 

Starcross $27 1 

Deadline $34 I 

Templeof Apshai $27 I 

Frogger $23 

Snooper Troop I ... $29 

Snooper Troop II $29 

Multipian " $17S»J 



Qz commodore 



VIC 64 

VIC 20 

1541 DISK DRIVE 

1525 PRINTER 



• • CALL 

$149 1530 RECORDER $64 

CALL 1600 MODEM $92 

CALL 16K RAM S 88 



c,£L PSE s O"WARE 

File Mngr 800+ $65 

Protector II $23 

Shamus(C/D) $23 

Nautilus(C/Di $23 

Claim Jump (C/D) $23 

THORN EMI * 

Jumbo Jet (R) $34 

Submarine Comm (R) $34 
MISCELLANEOUS 

All Baba (D) $22 

Miner 2049er,R) $35 

Kid Grid (C/D) $20 

Pool' 5(D) $23 

Raster Blaster (D| $20 

Sam(D) $4^ 

Galactic Chase (C| $17 

Warlocks Revenge ID) $24 

Visicalc(D) $,69 

3D Supergraph (C/Dl $29 

SlarbaseHyp(D) $17 

PogoMan(C/D( $27 

Airstrike(C/D) $28 

Sammy Sea Serp (C| $13 

Pinball (D) $20 



802 



COMPUTERS 

TELEVIDEO 

$2595 802H $4445 

NEC 

PC-8001 Computer $7nQ 

PC-8012 I/O Unit ZVZZ 

PC-8031 (Dual Drive) ....ZZZZZZZ $709 

NORTH STAR 

Advantage $2595 

Advantage (5M Byte H.D.) $3799 

TRS-80 

ll(2Drvs,48K) ... 



$1649 




64K RAM 

780 KB Disk Storage 

Word Processor 

Ultracalc CP/M 

C-Basic Software 



EAGLE II 




$2329 



EAGLE IVdOM Byte Hard Disk) $4299 



COSMIC 
COMPUTERS 

UNLIMITED 

THE ABOVE PRICES ARE FOR PREPAID OROERS 
ORDER LINES OPEN MON-SAT 8 am - 8 pm 

(714) 861-1265 

228 N. PROSPECTORS RO 
DIAMOND BAR. CA 91765 

Art2 \{ ™ IT'" 9 "*' so,twa,e order anywhere mUS 
Add S5 00 Shippmg pe, software for non u S orders 

el r«°; r ?T. Ca " "" C0S " <" Hafdwa ' e sntppTns 

Monev nl, S , 'I 6/ ' % Sal6S ,a " CaSh,ers C ^ or 
Money Orders tilled same day Personal checks require 4 

X s ! c *' *T' Card ,nd Vi " 0K •• «-^«» 

%1\% 3% l ,urc ^'^•■ delude card no . expiralion 
date and signature Prices sut>,ect to change 

APPlf IS A TRADEMARK OF APPU C0MPUIER llur 

ATARI IS A TRADEMARK OF ATARI ,NC 

IBM IS A TRADEMARK OF 

iNTIRHATIONAl BUSINESS MACHINES CORP 

_mjO ISA TRADE M-- HACK 

CIRCLE 156 ON READER SERVICE CARD* 




Code Machine, continued... 



d Base II $425 
1 Supercalc$187 
>Multiplan $199 

Wordstar $319 

VAST SELECTION 
OF SOFTWARE FOR 

• APPLE* IBM*CPM 

• TRS-80* ATARI VCS 
• ATARI 400/800 

• NEC* VIC 20 

• COMMODORE 64 

• OSBORNE* TI-99 
• MANY OTHERS 

Send $1 for 55 page catalog 
WELL BEAT ANY ADVERTISED 

RETAIL PRICE 
CALL: (800)492-0182 
except ca (21 3) 450-7330 



] 

I 
I 



%r ZcDrca 

^ l.OMWHIH PRODUCTS In. 
1024 Pico Bl . Sanla Monica, CA 90405 
PLEASE SEND ME O d Base II $425 
OSupercalc$187 n Visicalc $1 77 
a Wordstar $319 D $1 Catalog 



|D Visa 
Card No, 
Signalur 
Name 



D MasterCard 
Exp. 




uomuuiei • — 

WVr acceot deck COD l$l 50 eil'Jl w "W«V »*' c ?i'°"" J 

* J100 CiMflaWOO oitoitoetgncouniHtsJiorjO) 

Circle 298 on reader service card 



• 

5 «1 1 as 8 : 8 *- ! 

IP v4 1 THEM V4 - V4 ♦ 5 
| F v5 > 3 THEM V4 = V4 - 5 
HI* " 

§;...!... «»outi* 

J if X3 , 5 THEN " 5 

i -a - 2 * CD _ 

; - , 4 , THEM 4 ■ X4 + 5 

1 IP 4 > 1 THE- - = 

, HI* - MS*<V1 

ilHCU, 

_„-.* = "N" then OS - 

| |p RR* - "V" THEM H* - "V" 

':, if RR« • "N" THEM I* ■ 

» PRINT ,_,, „ DOIK.T ,-i, it THE " CD« " e ~"' 

. c , = »N" THEN J* - N 
^ ^ RCTIVRTE PRINTER - DE*I0HED FOR CBH PRINT) 

90 OPEN 4,4 

^T p RI NTCHR«<l>"«rHE SECRET CODE MACHINE P* 

jil PRINT»THE *EVW ■ - 

THEM 009 
270 IF II ■ "N 1 THEM GOT 
-r^ PRINT-THE ORIGINAL MESSAGE 

. THEN GOT 

" "forVS i"To L i. 

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358 PRINT 

gV., rO INT<LE - 3e.INT<L. 

'^•iiS ME 
;4W PRINT 

«J2 w'S - -N" THEM .WTO 2261« 
^4» PRINT-THE -;CW;" HESSflGE I 

£& ifTe » the 

INFORM = 1 TO IN 
"■470 FOR N - I 

PRIMT MC*<N ♦ M - 

• € :t h 

2500 PRINT 

SS STm"- 1 TO INT<Li j- 38*IN1 
.~s;, 3 PRINTMC*<N * .-•'.'♦!MT' U 

'2540 NEXT N 
>2€0C PPIHT 

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^RETURN REM. T021» ♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦.♦♦♦♦♦.♦♦♦ 

, 299e REM ♦♦♦♦** ,,,HI -' 1 ' -: : M L F n . 
IF *fl«5H SlXIflPEB I- 

23029 PRINT 

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RINT 

• PI MT 



. it ROUTINE 



174 



May 1983 c Creative Computing 



ISN'T IT NICE TO GET THE 
BEST PRICE 

WE WOULDN'T WANT IT ANY OTHER WAY! 



SPECIALS 

DB Master 154.95 Dark Crystal 25.95 Aztec Adventure 25.95 

Verbatim Disks (ss/dd) 25.95 Wico Track Ball 59.95 Home Accountant 49.95 

Verbatim Head Cleaning Kit . 9.95 Half Height (add on drive) 299.95 Zaxxon 24.95 



GAMES 



Retail 
Price 



Your 
Price 



Adventure International 

Eliminator 

SAGA #3. Mission Impossible 

Automated Simulation*: 

Crush. Crumble & Chomp 

Oil Barons 

Temple o( Apshai 

Broderbund: 

Chophfter 

AE 

Arcade Machine 

Apple Panic 

Serpentine 

Sea Fox 

BudgeCo: 

Raster Blaster 

Pinball Construction Set 

Data Most: 

Snack Attack 

Tubeaway II 

OataSolt: 

Canyon Climber 

Tumble Bugs 

Moon Shuttle 

EduWare: 

Terrorist 

Rendezvous 

Prisoner II 

Network 

Empire II: Interstellar Sharks 

Intocom 

Zork I 

Zork II 

Zork III 

Deadline 

Starcross 

Mute: 

Best of Muse 

Frazzle 

Castle Wollenstein 

Robot War 

Caverns of Fnetag 

Penguin Software: 

Pie Man 

Transylvania 

Spy s Demise 

Thunder Bombs 

Crime Wave 

Quality Software 

All Baba & The 40 Thieves 

Meteoroids in Space 

Beaneath Apple Manor 

Sentient Software: 

Congo 

Gold Rush 

Cyborg 

Oo-Topos 



2995 
39 95 


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34 95 
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2450 
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4195 
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29.95 
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3995 
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1995 
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2995 

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20 95 
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2350 
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4995 


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2795 

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2350 
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2450 
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23 50 



Sierra Online: 

Frogqef 

Ultima II 

Lunar Leeper 

Cannonball Blitz 

Pest Patrol 

Jawbreaker 

Sirius: 

Beer Run 

Bandits 

Dark Forest 

Wavy Navy 

Wav Out 

Flip Out 

Free Fall 

SkTech 

Wizardry: Proving Grounds 

Wizardry Knights of Diamonds 

Wizardry Legacy of Llylgamyn 

Star Maze 

Galatic Attack 

Strategic Simulations: 

The Cartels & Cutthroats 

Computer Quarterback 

Tiger in the Snow 

Shoot'em Up in Space 

Ultra Soft: 

Mask of the Sun 
Star ot the Serpent 



BUSINESS 



Artsci: 

Magic Window 

Magic Window II 

Magic Mailer 

Magic Word 

Magicalc 

AstonTate 

dBase II 

Broderbund: 

Payroll 

General Ledger/Payable 

Accounts Receivable 

Bank Street Writer 

MicroPro: 

Wordstar 

Mailmerge 

Spell Star 

Infostar 

Calc Star 

Mum: 

Super Text Professionals 

Form Letter Module 

Sierra On Line 

Screenwrite II 

The Dictionary 

Screenwriter Professional 

The General Manager II 



Retail 
Price 

34 95 
59 95 
29 95 
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2995 
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2995 
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2995 
2995 

4995 
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2995 

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3995 
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99 95 
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14995 



394 95 

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59 95 

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•194 9', 
144 95 

99 00 
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129 95 

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229 95 



Your 
Price 

2450 
38 50 
2095 
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2795 
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27 95 
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69 95 
104 95 
48 95 
48 95 
104 95 



699 95 489 95 



276 50 

346 50 

276 50 

4195 

346 50 
174 95 
174 95 
346 50 
10195 

69 95 
6995 

9097 
6995 
13995 
160 95 



Software Publishing Corporation 

PFS Report 

PFS File 

PFS Graph 

Sorcim 

Super calc 

Soellguard 

Stoneware: 

DB Master Utility Pak I 

DB Master Utility Pak II 

DB Master Stat Pak 

Vrstcorp: 

Visitrend/Visipiot 

Visischeduie 

Visifile 

Visidex 

Visicaic 

UTILITIES 

Beagle Brothers 
Apple Mechanic 
DOS Boss 
Utility City 
Tip Disk #1 
Pronto Dos 

Penguin Software: 

Complete Graphics System II 

The Graphics Magician 

Special Effects 

Phoenix Software: 

Zoom Grafix 

Sensible Software: 

Back it Up II 

Disk Recovery 

Pascal Lower Case 

Southwestern Data Systems: 

ACSII Express 

ASCII Express Pro 

Munch-A-Bug 

Merlin 

Speed Star 

HARDWARE 

Advanced Logic Systems: 
ZCard 

Smarterm II 
Synergizer 

Kensington Microwave: 
System Saver 

RGB: 

16K RamCard 
Disk Drive (Add-On) 

TG Products: 

Joystick . 

Paddta 
Select A Port 
Track Ball 



Retail 
Price 

125 00 
14000 
140 00 

294 95 
194 95 

98 95 
9895 
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299 95 

249 95 
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29 95 
23 95 
29.95 
1995 
29 95 



69 95 
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3995 



59 95 
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7997 
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134 95 



169 95 
179 95 
749 95 

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339 95 



59 95 
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87 50 
9800 
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206 50 
136 50 

69 50 
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224 95 
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20 95 
1950 
20.95 
1595 
20 95 

4895 
4195 
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2795 

4195 
2095 
1995 

55 95 
104 95 
34 95 
4550 
94 50 



142 95 
15195 
594 95 



6995 
27995 

4195 
27 95 
4195 
4550 



tor mail orders 

With your selectionist, please include name, address and phone number along 
Please include $300 for shipping and handling (foreign orders/hardware extra) 
California residents add 6'/)% sales tax 



with your check, money order, or credit card number and expiration date. 



800-942-2058 

outside California 



(415)237-4406 

inside California/foreign order 



NONAGON SOFTWARE 



• P.O. BOX 1486 • 

CIRCLE 308 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



EL CERRITO.CA 94530 



■a^Ba^BH 



MEMORVBOARSS 



64K STATIC RAM - Jade 

Uses new ?K » 8 static RAMs. fully supports IE El 696 24 til 
extended addressing 200ns RAMs lower 32K or enure 
board phantomable 2716 EPROMs may be subbed lor 
RAMs. any 2K segment ot upper 8K may be disabled low 
power typically less than bOOma 

$4S.9S 

$99 95 

$199 95 

I2M.M 



MEM-99152B Bare board 
MEM 991S2K Mr less RAM 
MEM-32152K 32K k,t 
MEM-56152K srik kit 
MEM-64152K 64K tut 
Assembled 4 Tested 



$2*995 



>dd tSO 00 



2S6 RAMDISK - SD Systems 

EnpandoRAM III expandable Irom 64K to 256K using 64K ■ I 
RAM chips, compatible with CP M MP M Oasis. 
6 most other 2 60 based systems, functions as ultra-high 
speed disk drive when used with optional RAMDISK 
software 

MEM-6S064A64K A 4 7 $474 95 

MEM-65128A I28K A 6 7 $574.95 

MEM-6S192A 192K A 4 7 $474.95 

MEM-65256A 256K A 4 7 $774.95 

SFC-55009000F RAMDISK sllwr CP M 2 2 $44.95 

SFC-S50O9O00F RAMDISK with EXRAM III $24 95 

64K RAM BOARD - CCS. 

IEEE S-100, supports front panels, bank select, fail-sale 
refresh 4MHi. extended addressing, list price $575 00 less 
than halt price'" 
MEM -64S65A $199.95 



L JJTI, E ,TY PRINTERS 



LETTER QUALITY PRINTER - COMREX 

Uses standard daisy wheels and ribbon cartridges. 16 CPS 
bi-directional printing, semi-automatic paper loader I single 
sheet or fan told). 10 12 15 pitch, up to 16" paper, built-in 
noise suppression cover 

PRD-1 1001 Centronics parallel $899 95 

PRD-1 1002 RS-232C serial model $969 95 

PRA-11000 Tractor Option $119.95 

380Z by Data Terminals & Communications 

Based on (he same quality mechanism as the Comrex printer 
the 380Z contains electronic enhancements that allow it to 
print at speeds up to 32 CPS Other features include a 48K 
buffer, proportional spacing, and Diablo 1640/1650/630 
compatible protocol Comes with pnntwheei ribbon and 
users manual Serial, parallel, and IEEE 486 interfaces 
standard 

PRD-11300 3802 printer $1295.00 

PRA-11000 Tractor option $169.95 

32K PROM/RAM BOARD 

The 32K S100 PROM/RAM board can hold ua> to 16 each 
2716 style EPROMs. 6116 style RAMs. or 8 each style 
EPROMs This board was designed to fit into older S100 
systems as well as the newer IEEE-696 machines Uses 5 volt 
only EPROM RAMs. allows operation as a 2K to 32K board, 
meets IEEE-696 S100 proposed standard, addressable as 
two 16K blocks on any 64K page, supports Cromemco as 
well as Nonhstar bank select, perfect for MP/M systems 

MEM-991538 Sere board 6 manual $49.95 

MEM-99153K Kit with No RAM $99.95 

MEM-99153A A 4 T with No RAM $139.95 

MEM-161 33K Kit with 16K RAM $129.9$ 

MEM-161S3A A 4 7 with 16K RAM $179.9$ 

MEM-32153K Kit with 32K RAM $179.95 

MEM-32153A A 4 7 with 32K RAM $229.95 



Call Us lor Lowest Prices on EPROMs ■ 2732s 



54 90 



H i lUnlllUiH .. 




liiilli 

tmaWBmK^,w\\\\\^Baww% 

S-100 

i/n BOARDS__ 



THE BUS PROBE - Jade 

inexpensive S-100 Diagnostic Anmtyier 
So your computi And you don t have an 

oscilloscope And you don't have a front panel You re not 
alone most computers have their occasional bad days But 
without diagnostic equipment such as an oscilloscope 
{expensive 1 ) or a front panel (expensive 1 ) it can be very 
itt to pinpoint the problem Even it you have an 
extender board with a super fast logic probe, you cant see 
more than one signal at a time You re stuck, right? 
Not anymore Jade is proud to offer our cost effective 
solution to the problems mentioned above THE BUS 
PROBE 

Whether you re a hobbyist with a cantankerous kluge or a 
field technician with an anxious computer owner breathing 
down your neck you it find THE BUS PROBE speeds your 
repair time remarkably Just plug m THE BUS PROtu 
you'll be able to see all the IEEE S- lOOsignals m action THE 
BUS PROBE allows you to see inputs, outputs, memory 
reads and writes, instruction fetches, DMA channels 
vectored interrupts. 8 or 16 bit wide data transfers, plus the 
three bus supply voltages 

TSX-200B B$Y» t>oard — $59.95 

TSX-200K Kit 12995 

TSX-200A A & T $15995 



DUAL DISK 
ciir.SYSTEMS 

Disk Sub-Systems - Jade 

Handsome metal cabinet with proportionally balanced l. 
flow system rugged dual drive power supply, power cable] 
kit. power switch, line coard. fuse holder, cooling tan. never I 
mar rubber leet. all necessary hardware to mount 2-8 diskl 
drives, power supply, and Ian. does not include signal cable I 

Dual 8 Sub-Assembly Cabinet 

ENO-000420 Bare cabinet **S.I 

END 000421 Cabinet kit $199.1 

END-000431 A 4 7 ***••' 

8 Sub-Systems - Single Sided. OouWe Density 

END -000423 Kit w 2 FDIOO-SDs $650. 

$695 C 

$999.1 

S1195.C 



1/0-4 - SSM Microcomputer 

2 serial 10 ports plus 2 parallel I O ports 

IOI-1010B Bare board w manual 

IOI-1010K Kif with Manual 

IOI-1010A A 4 7 



$3595 
$179.95 
$24995 



l/O-S - SSM Microcomputer 

Two aerial a 3 parallel ports. 110-19 2K Baud 
IOI-1015A A 4 7 $289 95 

INTERFACER 4 - CompuPro 

3 serial. 1 parallel. 1 Centronics parallel 

IOI-1S40A A 4 7 $314.95 

IOI-1830C CSC MUSS 



S-100 

C nonM BOARDS 



PB-1 - SSM Microcomputer 

2708. 2716 EPROM board with onboard programmer 



MEM-99510K Kit with manual _ 
MEM-99S10A A 4 7 with manual 



$154.95 
$219.95 



PROM-100 - SD Systems 

2708 2716. 2732 EPROM programmer with soltrware 

MEM-99520K Kir with software $189.95 

MEM-99520A A 4 7 wilh software $249.95 



PLACE ORDERS TOLL FREE 



END 000424 A 4 7 w 2 FDIOO 80s 
END 000433 Kit w 2 SA-B01Rs 
END-000434 A 4 7 w 2 SA SOIHs 



S" Sub-Systems - Double-Sided Double Density 
END-00042S Kit w .2 DT 8s $1224.1 

END 000427 A 4 7 w 2 D 8s $1424.9 

END 000436 Kit w 2 SABbIRs $1274.1 

END-O0O437 A 4 7 w 2 SA 851«s 

8" SLIMLINE 
cim-SySTEMS. 



Dual Slimline Sub-systems - Jade 

Handsome vertical cabinet with scratch resistant baked! 
enamel finish, proportionally balanced air liowsyslem. guiett 
cooling Ian. rugged dual drive power supply, power cables, r 
power switch, line cord, fuse holder, cooling Ian. all! 
necessary hardware to mount 2-8 slimline disk drives, does | 
not include signal cable 

Duel » Slimline Cabinet 

END 000820 Bare cabinet $59,951 

END 000622 A 4 7 w o drives $179.95 



Dual 8 Slimline Sub-Systems 

END 000623 Kit w/2 SS DO 

END 000824 A 4 7 w/2 SS DO 

END 000833 Kir w 2 OS DO 

ENO-000634 A 6 7 w/2 DS DO 



$919 95 
$949 95 

$1149 95 
$1179 95 



S-100 

noil ROARDS_ 



SBC-200 - SD Systems 

4 MHi Z-80A CPU with seriel 4 parallel I O. IK RAM. 8K| 

ROM space, monitor PROM included 

CPC-30200A A 4 7 $329 96 1 

THE BIG Z - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz switachable 2 80 CPU board with serial I/O, I 
accommodates 2708. 2716. or 2732 EPROM. baud rates from\ 
75 to 9800 

CPU 30201 B flare board w manual $35.00 I 

CPU-30201K Kit with Manual $169.96 I 

$1SS.SS 



CPU-30201A A 4 7 with Manual 

2810 Z-80 CPU - CCS. 
2 or 4 MHi Z-80 CPU with serial 10 port 4 on board monitor | 
PROM, front panel compatible 
CPU-3O400A A 4 7 with PROM $289.95 | 



CPU-Z CompuPro 



2 or 4 MHi ZBOA CPU 24 bit addressing 
CPU-30S00A 2 4 MHi A 4 7 
CPU 30500C 3 6 MHI CSC _ 



$279.95 I 
$374.95 I 



8085/8088 - CompuPro 

Both 8 4 16 Oil CPUs standard 8 bit S 100 bus up 10 8 MHi 

16 Megabytes ot memory 

CPU-20510A 6 MHi A 4 7 $396 95 

CPU-20510C 6 8 MHi CSC $497 95 | 



Continental U.S. 
800-421-5500 



Inside California 
800-262-1710 



For Technical Inquires 
or Customer Service call: 

213-973-7707 



We accept cash, checks, credit cards, or Purchase Orders from qualified firms and institutions. 
Minimum prepaid order $15.00 Cslifornia residents add 6V,% tax Export customers outside the US or Canada please 
add 10% to all prices Prices end a»alllblllty aubfsct to change without notice. Shipping snd handling charges 
via UPS Ground SOC/lb UPS Air $1 00/ lb minimum charge $3.00 



5 1/4 DISK DRIVES 



Tandon TM1Q0-1 .mgie-sided a . 48 TPI 

4SM551001 $21995.. $19995 ea 

Shugari SA400L 

I4SM 104000 $234 9>>., . I $224 95 ea 

Shugari SA45S • tall sue double-sided 48 TPI 

HSM 104S50 $34995. I $329 95 ea 

Shugari SA465 . s.rfed 96 TPi 

4SM-1046S0 (399 $379 95 ea 

Tandon TM100-2 tbH -.ided double-density 48 TPt 
4SM-SS1002 $294 95. $269 95 ea 

Shugari SA450 double sided double di 

ASM 104500 $349 95 ea 2 tol $329 95 ea 

Tandon TM100-3 .mgie sided double density 96 TPi 
*SM 551003 1294 W $26995 ea 

Tandon TM100-4 double sided double density 96 TPI 
HSM-551004 S394 95 e,l 2 lor $374 95 ea 

HP/ B-S1 ^mgie-sided double density 4. 

4SM-15S100 $23495.i r $224 95 M 

HPI B-S2 double sided double density 40 track 
|MSM 155200 $344 95 ea 2 lo. $334 95 ea 

5', Cabinet* with Power Supply 

lEND-000216 SrnpAeCABII powei supply S69.95 

IeND-000226 . $94 95 



\S-100 ^_ 

| MOTHERBOARD^ 



ISO-BUS - Jade 

Silent simple and on sale a belter motherboard 
6 Slot (8% m w &%") 



MBS 061 K K,t 


$39 95 


MBS 061 A A & T 


$6995 


13SH»I»>. «r. / 
MBS- 1218 Bete board 


$34 95 


MBS 121K Kit 


$69.95 


MBS 121* A & T 

11 Slot (W, ■ MS . 
MBS 181B Bare board 


$109 95 
$54 95 


MBS 181K Kit 


$99 95 


MBS-181A A 8 T 


$149 95 


*» niSK DRIVES_ 





I Siemens FDD 100-8 single sided double density 

MSF 201120 $27495 ea ? loi $249 95 ea 

Shugari SA801R single-sided double-density 

| MSF- 10801 R $394 95ea 2 for $389.95 ea 

I Shugari SA8S1R double-sided double density 

IMSF-10851R $554 9Sea 2 lot $529 95 ea 

Qume DT-8 double- sided double density 

MSF-750080 $524 95 ea 2 lot $498 95 ea 



K 



r J 



MODEMS 

SMART BUY in MOOEMS ■ Signalman 

1200 and or 300 baud, direct connect, automatic answer 
or originate selection, auto-answer auto-dial on deluxe 
models 9* battery allows total portability lull one 

year warranty 

IOM S600A 300 baud direct connect $89 95 

IOM-5610A 300 baud Deluxe $149.95 

IOM 5620A 1200 300 baud valuta $369 95 

IOM 5650 A 100 baud loi Osborne $119.95 

SMARTMOOEM - Hayes 

Sophisticated direct-connecr auto-answer autodial 
modem, touch-tone or pulse dialing RS-232C interlace 
programmable 

IOM-5400A Smartmodem 
IOK-1500A Hayes Chronograph 
IOM-1100A Micromodem 100 



$22495 

$21895 
$368 95 



1200 BAUD SMARTMODEM - Hayes 

1200 and 300 baud all the leatuies ol •• 

■ ? compatible lull i 

ICM-S500A Smartmodem 1200 $599.95 

1200 BAUD SMART CAT - Novation 

103 212 Smait Cat* 103 Smart Cat 1200 8,300: 
dialer auto re dia> ' unect. direct 

: digital loop- 
ne phones 
IOM 5241 A 300 baud 103 Smar $229 95 

IOMS2S1A 1200 baud 212 103 Sm. $549 95 



J-CAT - MODEM - Novation 

• " S'/e ol ordinary modems. Ball 103. manual or 

automatic answer originate, direct conect 

i rest, two LED s and audio "beeps" provide 

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Basic 
Cryptography: 

SBOEPN 
DJQIFST 



The personal computer is a powerful 
tool for cryptography. With a bit of sim- 
ple programming you can encipher se- 
cret messages to your friends so securely 
that it would take the efforts of a 
mathematical cryptographer to unravel 
the system. But with the proper keyword 
a friend can use his computer to de- 
cipher and read your message. 

There have been several programs for 
simple cryptography published in the 
major computer magazines. Some of 
these programs, unfortunately, have 
used very weak systems for enciphering 
the messages. Anyone with a little 
knowledge of cryptanalytic techniques 
could break the system and read the 
messages without knowing the keyword. 

This article explains the principles of 
computer cryptography and dem- 
onstrates the use of the Basic random 
number function for enciphering mes- 
sages. Versions of the program are in- 
cluded for the Apple II, the TRS-80 
Models I and III, IBM PC, and the 
Atari 400 and 800. 

Cryptography by Addition 

Letters are represented in computers 
as numbers. This makes it easy to use 
the arithmetic operations of Basic to 
transform the letters. The simplest sys- 
tem is just to add a constant number to 
the character code for each letter. If the 
result is too large, subtract the number 
of characters being used so that the re- 
sult is again a valid character code. Sup- 
pose, for instance, that you want to use 
three as the constant and that your mes- 
sages consist of only capital letters. Then 



Daniel D Wheeler and Elisheva Peeri. 585 Wirham 
Place, Cincinnati. OH 45220. 



Daniel D. Wheeler 

and 

Elisheva Perri 

each letter in the message will come out 
as the letter three letters further on in 
the alphabet. The letter A (ASCII code 
65) will appear as D (ASCII code 68), B 
(66) becomes E (69), and so forth. At the 
end of the alphabet, X (88) becomes the 
ASCII code 91. But 90 is Z and 91 is be- 
yond the end of the alphabet. So 26 (the 
number of characters we are using) is 
subtracted from 91 to produce 65. Thus 
X wraps around to the beginning of the 
alphabet and becomes A. 

The Basic statements necessary to do 
this are quite simple. If the letter to be 
transformed is stored in the string A$, 
you can do it with: 
100 X = ASC(A$) 
1 10 X = X + 3 

120 IF X > 90 THEN X = X - 26 
130 A$ = CHR$(X) 
The ASC(A$) function converts the 
character to a numeric variable so that 
the arithmetic can be done in the next 
two statements. The CHR$(X) function 
converts the numeric result back into a 
string. 

To decipher the message, change lines 
110 and 120 to: 
110 X = X - 3 

120 IF X< 65 THENX = X + 26 
This system is called a Caesar cipher 
because Julius Caesar is said to have 
used it. It may have fooled the Gauls, 
but now any bright elementary school 
student (maybe with a hint) can break 
the system. Part of the title of this article 
is in the Caesar cipher, but not with an 
offset of three. 

178 



Better Systems 

The weakness of the system comes 
from the use of the constant. There are 
only 25 possible constants to try and 
once you figure it out it is easy to de- 
cipher the whole message. You can im- 
prove the system by changing the offset 
for each character. You might try add- 
ing one to the offset each time you en- 
cipher a character and then subtracting 
26 from the constant whenever it gets 
too large. This will produce a cipher that 
is much more difficult to break. 

There are many possible schemes for 
changing the offset. Any scheme will 
work to make the cipher more difficult 
to break. But if the scheme is simple 
(like adding one) and repeats at fairly 
short, regular intervals, then it is not 
very difficult to figure out the pattern 
and break the cipher. A smart high 
school student could do it. 

What you need is an irregular pattern 
that doesn't repeat within the length of 
the messages you are interested in send- 
ing. The random number function in Ba- 
sic provides a very irregular series of 
numbers. They do repeat eventually, but 
the cycle is much longer than any mes- 
sages you will ever send on your 
computer. 

If the random number function were 
truly random, it would not be useful for 
our purpose. Once you have enciphered 
a message, your recipient must be able to 
generate the same sequence of numbers 
to decipher the message. Fortunately, 
most versions of Basic provide some way 
to "seed" the random function so that it 
generates the same sequence of numbers. 

In Applesoft, for instance, calling the 
random number function with a negative 
argument, such as RND (-99), seeds the 

May 1 983 * Creative Computing 



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Cryptography, continued... 

Listing I. Apple II version of the random cipher program. 

10 REM DEMONSTRATION OF RANDOM ENCIPHERING ON THE APPLE II 

20 REM BY DANIEL D. WHEELER AND ELISHEVA PEERI 

30 DIM INI(255) 

40 HOME 

90 REM 

100 REM INITIALIZATION OF RND() FUNCTION 

110 INPUT "ENTER A NEGATIVE NUMBER: ";N 

120 IF N > -1 THEN 110 

130 X - RND (N) 

190 REM 

200 REM SELECT ENCIPHER OR DECIPHER 

210 PRINT "SELECT (1) ENCIPHER OR (2) DECIPHER" 

220 INPUT "ENTER 1 OR 2: " ;CH 

230 IF CH < 1 OR CH > 2 THEN 220 

290 REM 

300 REM INPUT MESSAGE 

310 PRINT "ENTER YOUR MESSAGE: - 

320 I • 1 

330 GET AJ: PRINT AS; 

340 IF A$ • CHRS (13) THEN 380 

350 INX(I) • ASC (AS) 

360 1-1*1 

370 GOTO 330 

380 ON CH GOTO 400,500 

390 REM 

400 REM ENCIPHER THE MESSAGE 

410 FOR J • 1 TO I - 1 

420 X • INt(J) ♦ INT ( RND (1) * 59) 

430 IF X > 90 THEN X - X - 59 

440 PRINT CHR$ (X) ; 

450 NEXT J 

460 END 

500 REM DECIPHER THE MESSAGE 

510 FOR J ■ 1 TO I - 1 

520 X ■ INt(J) - INT ( RND (1) * 59) 

530 IF X < 32 THEN X - X ♦ 59 

540 PRINT CHRS (X) ; 

550 NEXT J 

560 END 



Listing 2. TRS-80 version of the random cipher program. 

10 REM DEMONSTRATION OF RANDOM ENCIPHERING ON THE TRS-80 

20 REM BY DANIEL D. WHEELER AND ELISHEVA PEERI 

30 DIM INt(255) 

40 CLS 

90 REM 

100 REM INITIALIZATION OF RND() FUNCTION 

110 INPUT "ENTER A NUMBER BETWEEN 1 ANO 32767: ";N 

120 IF N<1 OR N>32767 THEN 110 

130 POKE 16554,0 

140 POKE 16555, INT(N/256) 

150 POKE 16556, N- I NT ( N/256) *256 

190 REM 

200 REM SELECT ENCIPHER OR DECIPHER 

210 PRINT "SELECT (1) ENCIPHER OR (2) DECIPHER" 

220 INPUT "ENTER 1 OR 2: ";CH 

230 IF CH<1 OR CH>2 THEN 220 

290 REM 

300 REM INPUT MESSAGE 

310 PRINT "ENTER YOUR MESSAGE:" 

320 1-1 

330 A$="" 

340 A$=INKEY$:IF A$-"" THEN 340 

350 PRINT A$;:IF AS-CHR$(13) THEN 390 

360 INX(I)-ASC(AS) 

370 I-I+l 

380 GOTO 330 

390 ON CH GOTO 400,500 

395 REM 

400 REM ENCIPHER THE MESSAGE 

410 FOR J-l TO 1-1 

420 X-INJ(J)*RND(59) 

430 IF X>90 THEN X-X-59 

440 PRINT CHRS(X) ; 

450 NEXT J 

460 END 

500 REM DECIPHER THE MESSAGE 

510 FOR J-l TO 1-1 

520 X=IN%(J)-RND(59) 

530 IF X<32 THEN X-X*59 

540 PRINT CHRS(X); 

550 NEXT J 

560 END 



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Cryptography, continued... 

Listing 3. Atari version of the random cipher program 

20 «f2 25 M SI2I?? T i°" 0F RAN00M ENCIPHERING ON THE 

3o i\: v^]% D { htr iik and el,sheva peeri 

*° ™™ J CHR$(125): REM CLEAR SCREEN 
100 REM INITIALIZATION 

llo "put ch NTE " * NUMBER BEmEN » AN0 99999: " 

130 IF N<1 OR N>99999 THEN 110 

140 N-N/100000 

190 REM 

200 REM SELECT ENCIPHER OR DECIPHER 

220 prJnT "fEtfpV^ ENC i PHER R <2) DECIPHER" 

eev PRINT ENTER 1 OR 2: ";:INPUT CH 

230 IF CH<1 OR CH>2 THEN 220 

290 REM 

300 REM INPUT MESSAGE 

310 PRINT "ENTER YOUR MESSAGE:" 

320 INPUT AJ 

330 L-LEN(AJ) 

340 FOR 1-1 TO L 

350 IN(I)-ASC(A$(I)) 

360 NEXT I 

370 ON CH GOTO 400,500 

390 REM 

400 REM ENCIPHER THE MESSAGE 

410 FOR J-l TO 1-1 

420 N-N*997-INT(N*997) 

430 X-IN(J)+INT(N*59) 

440 IF X>90 THEN X-X-59 

450 PRINT CHRJ(X) ; 

460 NEXT J 

470 END 

500 REM DECIPHER THE MESSAGE 

510 FOR J-l TO 1-1 

520 N-N*997-INT(N*997) 

530 X-IN(J)-1NT(N*59) 

540 IF X<32 THEN X-X+59 

550 PRINT CHR$(X) ; 

560 NEXT J 

570 END 



ATARI 



Listing 4. IBM PC version of the random cipher program 

IB REM RANDOM ENCIPHERING ON THE IBM PC 

30 Dm fS?7 2 55r LER AN ° PEERI - """""D BV JOHN ANDERSON 
40 CLS 

II EeM "*" SURE CAPS L0C " ,S IN *" CAPS POSITION 

I'll randomi"e AL " ATION ° F RAND0M "»""'<>« 

III REM THAT ' S ALL Y ° U NEED T ° SAY - PC ^KES IT FROM HERE. 
200 REM SELECT YOUR MODE 

in ssras izr^v or f2) <,ecipher - 

230 IP CH <1 OR CH>2 THEN220 

290 REM 

300 REM INPUT MESSACE 

31* PRINT-Enter your message " 

320 1-1 

330 A»-"" 

340 A*-INKEY$ : IF A»-"» THEN 340 

HI IN{?i, A lsC ( I I,t*" CHR ' n3) ™ EN "' 
370 I-l+l 

380 COTO 330 

390 ON CH GOTO 4(0.50* 

395 REM 

400 REM ENCIPHER THE MESSACE 

410 FOR J-l TO 1-1 

420 X-INtf J)+(INTrRND«59)) 

430 IF X>90 THEN X-X-59 

440 PRINT CHRS(X); 

450 NEXT J 

460 END 

490 REM 

500 REM DECIPHER THE MESSACE 

510 FOR J-l TO 1-1 

520 X-INtCJ)-(INT(RND»59)) 

530 IP X <32 THEN X-X+59 

540 PRINT CHRs(X); 

550 NEXT J 

560 END 



generator to start at a definite place in 
the sequence. If you agree beforehand on 
a number to use as the seed, your friend 
will be able to decipher your message by 
generating the same sequence of num- 
bers to use as offsets. 

Demonstration Programs 

Listings 1, 2, 3, and 4 show programs 
to demonstrate these techniques for four 
popular microcomputers. Each of the 
programs enciphers or deciphers a one- 
line secret message. Instead of encipher- 
ing just the letters of the message, these 
programs encipher everything: letters, 
numbers, punctuation marks and even 
spaces. (The ASCII code for the space is 
32. It is just as much a character as any 
of the others. You must be especially 
careful in typing the enciphered message 
to get all the spaces exactly right.) 

The program lines in the 100's initial- 
ize the random number generator. For 
the Apple this is simply a matter of call- 
ing the random number generator with a 
negative argument. The variable X in 
line 1 30 is included only to make a com- 
plete statement; the value stored in X is 
never used. 

Setting the random number seed on 
the IBM PC is a trivial process, as the 
randomize function allows automation 
of the seed generation. By omitting an 
argument in the randomize command 
in line 1 10, the PC will return with the 
default input statement, Random Num- 

May 1983 * Creative Computing 



ber Seed (-32768 to 32767)? You may 
then input your cipher base value. The 
message is input with an inkey com- 
mand, so backspacing is impossible. It 
should also be noted that messages for 
enciphering must be input in upper case, 
for proper decoding. The rest of the pro- 
gram follows other Microsoft versions 
closely. 

There is no instruction to initialize the 
RND(") function in TRS-80 Level II Ba- 
sic, but it can be done with pokes into 
memory. Lines 130-150 show how to do 
it. pokes can only be done with numbers 
smaller than 256. The instructions in 
lines 140 and 150 break the larger seed 
(stored in N) into two parts, each less 
than 256. 

We couldn't figure out how to seed 
the rnd() function in Atari Basic, so 
we'll show you how to write your own 
random function. The initial seed must 
be a decimal fraction between zero and 
one. In lines 1 10-140 the program gets a 
number and then divides by 100,000 to 
make it a fraction. 

The lines in the 2O0's allow you to se- 
lect whether the message will be en- 
ciphered (by adding the random 
numbers) or deciphered (by subtracting 
the random numbers). 

The next section of the program 
(300's) allows you to enter your mes- 
sage. For the Atari this is a straight- 
forward input statement. Then the loop 
in lines 340-360 converts the characters 

183 



to the numeric (ASCII code) values and 
stores them in the array in(). But neither 
the Apple nor the TRS-80 allows com- 
mas within input strings. The comma is 
used to separate multiple items in the in- 
put. Since we wanted to include the 
comma as an allowable character we 
used the single character input com- 
mands. These are get on the Apple and 
inkeyS on the TRS-80. The program 
loop starting at line 330 accepts single 
characters, converts them to numeric 
form, and stores the ASCII codes in the 
integer array in%(). 

When the message is completely en- 
tered, the program goes to the section ei- 
ther to encipher (400's) or decipher 
(500's) the message. There are 59 pos- 
sible characters from "space" (ASCII 
32) to Z (ASCII 90). To encipher the 
message we should add a random integer 
up to 59 to each of the character codes. 
This is easy on the TRS-80. 

The rnd() function with arguments 
larger than one returns integers in the 
range from one to the value of the argu- 
ment. Thus rnd(59) returns integers 
from 1 to 59. These are added to the 
character codes in line 420. Line 430 
subtracts 59 if the result is out of the 
allowable range. Line 430 converts the 
numeric code to a character and prints 
it. The loop in lines 410-450 repeats this 
for each character in the message. 

The Apple rnd() function returns 
decimal fractions between zero and one. 



134 



Cryptography, continued... 

Sample Run. 

Random number seed (-32768 to 32767)? 
Select (1) encipher or (21 decipher 
Enter 1 or 2 ? 1 



To convert to a random integer we mul- 
tiply by 59 and use the intO function to 
make the result an integer. This appears 
in line 420. The rest of the loop is ex- 
actly the same as for the TRS-80. 

In the Atari version we don't use the 
built-in rnd() function. We store the 
seed for our own random function in the 
variable N. To get each successive ran- 
dom number we multiply N by 997 and 
take the fractional part of the result to 
use as the random number and to store 
in N for generating the next number. 
Line 420 does this by calculating 997*N 
and subtracting the integer part to leave 
the fractional part. Then N is used in 
line 430 as a random number in the 
range zero to one, just as in the Apple 
version. 

The section to decipher the message 
(lines in the 500's) is exactly the same as 
the enciphering section except that the 
additions and subtractions are reversed. 
It will restore an enciphered message to 
its original form. 



Extending the Demonstration Programs 
These demonstration programs are 
not intended for practical use. They can, 
however, be extended to meet your 
cryptographic needs. You will certainly 
want to put in a loop so that your mes- 
sages can be more than one line long. 
You wiir probably want the output writ- 
ten on disk or cassette so the person 
receiving your message won't have to 
type the random-appearing enciphered 
text. Output to a modem for telephone 
communication is another possibility. 
Your imagination is the only limit. 

Breaking Random Ciphers 

You might think that the ciphers 
based on random number generators 
would be impossible to break. After all, 
the enciphered message looks just like a 
random sequence of characters. There is 
no pattern to give clues to the content of 
the message. During World War II the 
Germans were confident that their ma- 
chine cipher was secure. But first the 



Poles and then the British were able to 
break it. Churchill was reading Hitler's 
war dispatches— sometimes even before 
they got to Hitler. 

The method requires that the cryptog- 
rapher be able to guess a word in the 
message. For instance, if the message 
looks as though it was intended as a tet- 
ter, it is likely to begin "Dear . . lfce 
cryptographer subtracts the AiCii 
codes for "Dear" from the message to 
recover part of the sequence of the ran- 
dom number generator. It is possible to 
figure out from a few numbers where the 
random number generator is in its se- 
quence. Then it is a simple matter to 
generate the entire sequence and de- 
cipher the whole message. If the first at- 
tempt doesn't work, the cryptographer 
tries other probable words in all possible 
positions in the message. 

There are techniques for enciphering 
messages that are resistant to the prob- 
able word method. If you have a serious 
security problem you should get a 
commercially available, tested system. 
But for most personal computer users 
the ciphers based on the Basic random 
function provide a reasonable degree of 
security. Unless your lover's spouse is a 
mathematician, you'll be able to keep 
your tetters secret with Basic random 
ciphers. 



I ATR8000" THE EXTRAORDINARY 4 MHz, Z80, CP/M 2.2 
COMPUTER THAT BRIDGES COMPATIBILI TY GAPS 



The ATR8000 comes with 16k or 
64k RAM The 64k ATR8000 in- 
cludes double density CP/M 2 2 

The ATR8000 has five ports: 
COMPUTER IN to connect an 
ATARI 800/400 or a RS-232 
terminal (64k only); PERIPH- 
ERAL OUT to connect ATARI 
peripherals. PRINTER runs a 
parallel printer: FLOPPY DISK 
runs up to tour standard drives 
of mixed size <5V or 8" (.density 
(single, double or quad) and type 
(single or double-sided); and the 
RS-232 port runs a serial printer 
or a modem or can be used to 
communicate with another ter- 
minal 

SOFTWARE: The ATARI 800/400 
and the 64k ATR8000 can operate 
ATARI DOS. OS/A* and CP/M 
22 (The 16k ATR8000 cannot 
run CP/M ) At least one standard 
drive is required to run OSM« 
or CP/M The ATR8000 can read 
nearly any Z80. CP/M 2 2 disk 
Some of these are: 



OPERATING SYSTEMS 




'WITH SWF'S CO-FOWEF.-M 



MAXIMUM «SK STOfUCC K« OMVC 



AM figures are Of 2-16-83 



I — 1 



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horizontally 8" drives are vertically mounted 

Tandon Thinlines 

CO-POWER-88: A powerful 8088. 16 bit 
coprocessor, is available lor the ATR8000. 
the Xerox 820 and 820-II and the Bigboard 
It runs CP/M-86 and MSDOS Choose be- 
tween 128k and 256k versions 



v ss s- os r os •■ os 

AOT *OT SOT TT1 



DISK INTERFACES. 
A COMPARISON 



OCNSITY 



l«*o. MO 

X«>oi VO-M 
TRSBO-tl 



SOIOO 

soaoo 
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•iir-CO-ROWIR-l 




' ATARI HO OfflVIS ONLY 
2 MMTH AN ATARI RSO 
3 WITM SWT»A CO-ROWtR-M 



PRICES: 

64k AIR8000 
16k ATP.8000 
t— 5 V Tandon Di 
1— 5V Generic Or 
indon Drs 
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OS/A- 4 
Pa' 'Set Pi Cable 
4-Conn Dr Cable 



575000 2 Conn Or Cable S2500 

549995 8" Dr Adapter S1995 
5399 95 

S30OOO 126k CP 88* S79995 

574995 256k C-P-tt 5104995 

-CALL- */ CP/M 86 S125O0O 

54995 CP/M 66 525000 

52900 MSDOS -CALL- 

53500 '128k Add on RAM S3O0 0O 



CONTACT: 

SOFTWARE PUBLISHERS, INC 

2500 E RANDOL MILL RD . SUITE 
ARLINGTON. TX 76011 ffjajj 



ATARI800 400 and 810 are trademarks ol ATARI Inc ZOOisatrademarkotZiloo, CPM22 
and CP M-86 are trademarks ot Digital Research Inc MSDOS ,sa trademark ot Microsoft 
Percom is a trademark ol Percom Data Company Xero» 820 and 820-11 are trademarks ol 
Xero» Corp TRS80-II is a trademark ol Tandy Corp lBMPCjs_aJtademarj«j)MBM__ 




CIRCLE 305 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



May 1 983 c Creative Computing 




,E 



clLU 



± 



j 



Last Night, CompuServe Turned this 

COMPUTER INTOATRAVELAGENTFORJENNIE 

A Stock Analyst for Ralph, and now, 
Its Sending Herke To Another Galaxy 



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An HSR Block Company 

CIRCLE 142 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APPLE 
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Apple Adapter (Wico Joysticks) 

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Microline84P *™" 

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Printer *"£ 

Corona Startire 5 MB Drive JtBSO 

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Computer Foosball »*" 

The Battle otShiloh " 

Electric Duet *f: 

Temple ol Apshai »' 

Tuesday Morning Quarterback *£> 

Hi Res Computer Golt ■ -gf 

Davids Midnight Magic *" 

Track Attack -Jf|j 

Apple Panic * 

Ultima TL 

Bug Attack *ft 
Snack Attack 

Thiet .jo 

County Fair * 

CompuRead »fj 
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Firebird „, 

Sargonll * 

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Education 

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Snooper Troops #1/Spmnaker 
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Story MakerlSpmnaker 
Face Maker/Spinnaker 
Compu-Read'Eduware 

Spelling Bee w/Readmg Primer 

Algebra l/Eduware 

Fracttons/Eduware 

Decimals/Eduware 

Master Type/Lighting Sottware 

Type Attack/Sinus 

Wordrace/Don t Ask 

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Sticky Bear Numbers/Xerox 

Sticky Bear ABC/Xerox 

Rhymes a Riddles/Spinnaker 

Whole Brain Spellmg'Sublogic 

Sticky Bear Bop 

Ironsides 



$ 23 
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*** SPECIALS OF THE MONTH *** 

••Elephant Disks (Box) * *° 

••Amdek Color I Monitor * "* 

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• 'The Grappler Plus * 

•• NEC 8023A Printer .. . * 

••Rana Systems 40 Track Disk Drive » j»» m 

•*Rana Systems SOTrack Disk Drive $ 659 

••The Word Handler !«£.• 

••NEC 3530 Printer (IBM) «««o*. 

**Qume Sprint 11 + Printer « ono«« 

* * Hayes Smartmodem 300 » 209 ^ 
••Percom Double Density Drive (ATARI) » =15 
** Hayes Smartmodem 1200 » 493 

Computer Outlet 

c f™ 800-634-6766" 

Information & Order Inquiries (702) 369-5523 

Persona/ and company checks a»o« 3 wee/rs fo c ear C o_0 . orders ($3 00 



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Hi Res Football 

Hi-Res Soccer 

Time Zone 

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Wizardry 

Hadron 

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Computer Baseball 

Ceiling Zero »fr 

Sherwood Forest *" 

The Queen ot Phobos »« 

BezWars * 

BezMan *I? 

Star Blazor *~ 

Cross Country Rallyr- *f" 

Swashbuckler ■■*«•> 

Tumble Bugs ■*«" 

Rear Guard ~"| 

Hungry Boy *V. 

Dneiper River Line 
Labyrinth 
Oil Rig 
Human Fly 

Minotaur 
Bandits 
Oil Barons 
Monster Maze 
New World 

GFS Sorceress *23 

Telengard *» 19 

Starcross *2 7 

Aztec t27 

Tubeway *23 

Vegas Video J 20 

Odin t34 

Star Maze * 23 

Zendar J 2 ? 

Front Line **° 

Mask ol the Sun $27 

Pest Patrol * 20 

Lunar Leeper *» 2u ' 

Pie Man J 2 ? 

Thorolian Tunnels *20 

Canyon Climber $20 

Alien * 19 

Normandy * 27 

Germany *39 

Miner 2049er *29 

AE S 20 

Replon J 27 

Moon Shuttle $ 2 ' 

Spy's Demise J 20 

Space Vikings *34 

Flip Out * 20 

Wavy Navy i23 

Bomb Alley ■ *39 

Ultima II * 39 



$20 
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A ATARI NEW LOWER PRICES NEW 

ATARI 




TOP SELLERS 



Atari 



1200 XL . Call 
800 48K $489 
400 16K $209 



410 Recorder 


$ 72 


810 Disk Drive 


$419 


825 Printer 


$569 




$145 


850 Interlace 


$159 


461 Entertainer 


$ 64 


482 Educator 


$110 


483 Programmer 


$ 52 


484 Communicator 


$289 


853 16K Ram 


$ 74 


The Bookkeeper Kit 


$165 


ATARI Software 




CX4104 Mailing List 


$ 19 


CX404 Word Processor 


$102 


CXL4007 Music Composer 


$ 42 




$ 22 


.ational Languages 


$ 42 


CX4018 Pilot 


$ 55 


CX405 Pilot 


$ 92 


CXL4003 Assembler Editor 


$ 42 


CX8126 Microsolt Basic 


$ 62 


CXL4022 Pac Man 


$ 30 


CX8 1 30 Caverns of Mars 


$ 28 


CXL4020Cenli, 


$ 30 


0X14006 Super Breaklut 


$ 26 


CXL4008 Space Invaders 


$ 26 


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$ 26 


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$102 




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Alan Spa 


$ 54 


My First Al|>r 


$ 26 


iD C) 


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bow (D Cl 


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■ 1 Kil 


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Family F ii 


$ 36 




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Oik 


$ 30 


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Atari Witt**' 


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Visicaic 


$169 


Mail W- 


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Data P> 


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Letter P< 


$105 


Te»tV. 


$ 65 


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$ 59 


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$ 17 


Basic Compiler 


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File II 2 System 


$ 34 


Diskette Inventory System 


$ 17 


p M P Properly Management 


$179 



Temple ol Apshai $ 27 

Raster Blaster $ 20 

Apple Panic $ 20 

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War $ 17 

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Dragon's Eye $ 20 



Crush. Crumble ft Chomp $ 20 

Jawbreaker $ 20 

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Sollporn Adventure $ 20 

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Chicken $ 23 

Nautilus $ 23 

Rescue at Rigei $ 20 

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Snake Byte $ 20 



Programming Techniques 

Display Lists $ 17 

Honz/Vert Scroll $ 17 

Page Flipping $ 17 

Basics ol Animation $ 17 

Player Missile Graphics $ 24 

Sound $ 17 

Oata Files $ 24 



fm 



k*H 



^IPUTER 0UT!iL 



xo^ ww/A 



*** SPECIALS OF THE MONTH ••• 

ELEPHANT DISKS(BOX) $ 20 

HAYES SMARTMODEM $209 

MOSAIC 32K RAM $ 89 

RAMDISK(128K) $399 

AMDEK COLOR I MONITOR $309 

PERCOM DOUBLE DENSITY DRIVE $515 

NEC 8023A PRINTER $459 

BASIC A + (OSA + INCLUDED) $ 59 

FLIP N' SORT DISKETTE BOX $ 21 

(Holds 50 Diskettes) 
FLIP-SORT CARTRIDGE BOX $ 21 

(Holds 10 Atari Computer Cartridges) 

MOSAIC 64K RAM $149 

80 COLUMN BOARD(ATARI) $279 

ALL APX SOFTWARE $15% TO 20% OFF 

PERCOM SINGLE DENSITY DRIVE $409 

Computer Outlet 



Park Place — Upper Level 

1095 E. Twain — (702) 796-0296 

Las Vegas, Nevada 89109 



Ca F ; e T °" 800-634-6766 



Order Line 
Only 



Information Order Inquiries (702) 369-5523 

We accept Major Credit Cards 

Mon.-Fri. 8 A.M. -6 P.M. 

Sat. 9 A.M.-5 P.M. 
Dealer Inquiries Invited 



King Arthurs Heir (D) $ 20 

Escape Irom Vuncan's Isle(D) $ 20 

Crypt ol the Undead(D) $20 

The Nightmare (D) $ 20 

Danger in Drindisti (D. CI $ 15 

Armor Assault (D) $ 27 

Monster Maze (CT) $ 27 

Alien Garden (CT) $27 

Plattermama(CT) $ 27 

David's Midnight Magic ID) $ 23 

Star Blazer (D| $ 22 

Stellar Shuttle (D. Cl $ 20 

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Serpintine(D) $ 23 

Sea Fox (Dl $ 20 

Spell Wizard ID) $53 

Sands ol Egypt (Dl $ 27 

Pool 400 (CT) $ 27 

Speedway Blast ICT) $ 27 

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K Star Patrol (CT) $ 34 

KRazy Antiks(CT) $ 34 

Crossword Magic (D) .$34 

Master Type $ 27 

Gorl (D)$27.(CT)$ 30 

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Cyborg (D) $ 23 

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Bandits (D) $ 23 

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Miner 2049er(CT) $ 34 

Attack at EPCYG-4 (D)$22. (C)$ 20 

Chess (D) $ 45 

Checkers (D) $ 34 

Odin(D) $ 34 

Snooper Troops HMD) $ 30 

Snooper Troops «2 (0) $ 30 

Story Machine ID) $ 23 

Face Maker (D) $ 23 

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Trivia Trek (D) $ 20 

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Swilly Tach Master |D)$20. (C)$ 17 

Apocalypse (D. C) $ 23 

Raptillian(D. Cl $ 23 

Kid Grid (DC) $ 20 
Aliencounter (Face Flash) (D.C) . $ 26 

The Jar Game/Chaoe (D, C) $26 

Gulp/Arrow Graphics ID. C) $26 

Golf Classic/Compubar $ 26 

Frenzy/Flip Flop (DC i $26 
Battling Bugs/Concentration (D Cl $ 26 

Submarine Commander (CT) $34 

Jumbo Jet Pilot (CT) $34 

Soccer (CT) $ 34 

Kickback (CT) $ 34 

Darts (Cl $ 22 

Pool (C) $ 22 

Dominoes and CnbbagelCi $22 

Pig Pen (Dl $ 20 

Starcross(D) $ 27 

Zorklll(D) $ 27 

Journey to the Planets (D.C) $ 20 

Moon Shuttle (D) $ 27 

Moon Patrol (C) $ 17 

NormandiefD. C) $ 27 

ZaxxonID, C) $ 27 

Juggler (D) $ 20 

Survival ol the Fittest $ 27 

Baseball |D)$23.(C)$ 20 

Sentinel 1 (D)$23,(C)$ 20 

The Guardian olGorm (D)$23. (C)$ 20 

Miner 2049er (CT) $ 34 

Jeepers Creepers (D) $ 20 

Snapper ID) $ 20 

Twerps (Dl $ 23 

Flip Out ID) $ 20 

The Birth ol the Phoenix $ 16 

Protector II (D)$23. |C)$ 29 



CIRCLE 149 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






Makers ol Raster Blaster 
winner ot the Soltalk 
Award for most popular 
program ol 1981. 



The First 
Software Toy 



i 

i 









• % % % % 



BudgeCo announces The Pinball Construc- 
tion Set, the first entertainment software 
that has the simplicity and freedom of inter- 
action of a toy. You don't use this program— 
you play with it. 

The Pinball Construction Set allows you to 
build your own video pinball games by pro- 
viding a library of conventional (and unconven- 
tional) pinball pieces and a set of video tools. 
^ M Use the video hand to put library 
pieces on the game board— as many 
as you want, where you want them. 



Apple is a registered trademark ot Apple I 



*Tt 



Use the polygon tools to make QQ ■< 

A | borders and obstacles, jj 
I Add game logic and r\ I 
I scoring rules with the wiring kit. 
Create hi-res designs and logos using 
the BudgeCo magnifier and paintbrush. 
/.A Change gravity, time, elasticity 
vj^ and bumper strength. 
Load and save de- ^ 
signs to/from disk. _ 

Available for the Apple II" 

and Atari 800 Pie< 

Suggested retail price S39 95 946 



Piedmont. CA 

94611 415-65E 



CIRCLE 129 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



nc Alan is a regi: 



Lock up your data with a public key 



The 




Algorithm 



Methods of secret writing have been 
used for centuries to keep communica- 
tions secure from prying eyes. And for 
centuries men have been devising means 
to break the locks, to tear the secrets 
from these cryptic messages. The first 
practical electronic computers, the Brit- 
ish series called Colossi, were special 
purpose devices which were used 
successfully during World War II to de- 
cipher the German Geheimschreiber and 
Enigma messages. 

When Alan Turing visited the United 
States electronic computer EDVAC, the 
men who proudly explained its workings 
to him had no idea that he had been 
working with a functioning computer for 
years. The secrecy which cloaked that 
British project continues to this day. 
From the small amount of information 
which has been released we can only 
guess that the operation of the machine 
involved heuristic methods; the actual 
decrypting consisted of a search for pat- 
terns by the computer, with that search 
being guided by the operator into paths 
indicated by intermediate results of the 
search. This synergistic relationship of 
man and computer, the truest and best 
use of these electronic giants, combines 
the speed and accuracy of digital cir- 
cuitry with the incredible powers of the 
human brain. The German cipher ma- 
chines could not withstand that attack. 

It has long been considered axiomatic 
that no cipher is secure against a deter- 
mined attack; consequently the publica- 
tion of the method called the trapdoor 
algorithm took the cipher experts by sur- 
prise. Professor Donald Knuth reports 
(Seminumerical Algorithms, second edi- 
tion, p. 386) that this method was 
discovered by R.L. Rivest, A. Shamir, 
and L. Adleman in 1977. A trapdoor al- 
gorithm is a mathematical function 
which goes in only one direction. In the 
case of ciphers, it is the rules for making 
a ciphered message, rules which do not 

David Block. P.O. Box 12473. Gainesville, FL 
32604. 

May 1 983 ■ Creative Computing 



David Block 



tell you how to decipher the message. 
This article will explain how the method 
is applied and give a worked example, 
along with Basic programs useful in 
cryptography. 

A practical advantage of the method 
is that the keys used to make the cipher 
can be public knowledge. Your agent in 
a foreign country does not have to 
memorize the keys but can write them 
down, since it will not help the enemy to 
discover them. A serious disadvantage of 
the method is that it requires for security 
that the keys be very large numbers. 
This means that a special computer pro- 
gram is necessary. 

The arithmetic of the algorithm can 
be explained in a few words. You will 
remember that we are dealing through- 
out with only whole, positive numbers. 
First, the process of exponentiation, or 
raising a number to a power, is just mul- 
tiplying a number by itself several times. 
For example, 5 times 5 times 5 is equal 
to 125. That is called raising 5 to the 
third power. 

Second, the process of modulating a 
number is just finding the remainder af- 
ter another number has been subtracted 
as many times as possible from the first 
number. Thus 9 mod 2 is 1; 27 mod 12 is 
3. If your Basic doesn't have the MOD 
function, you can do it in one line: 

50 IF A > B then A = A-B: GOTO 50: 
REM A becomes A mod B 

Third, prime numbers are only those 
numbers which are measured only by 
themselves and by 1. Nine can be mea- 
sured by 3 (divided into 3's with no 
remainder) so it is not prime. Twenty- 
nine cannot be divided evenly into any 
smaller number of groups, so 29 is a 
prime number. (As an aside, consider 
the illogicality of saying that 3 divided 
into 9 is 3. On reflection it is apparent 
that what is meant is that 9 can be di- 
vided into 3 groups of 3.) 



Now we are ready for the trapdoor al- 
gorithm. Take two prime numbers, 
which we shall name P and Q. Multiply 
these numbers and call the result N. 
Now subtract one from P and one from 
Q. Call this new pair R and S, and find 
their greatest common divisor (GCD), 
the largest number which measures each 
of them evenly. 

The next step is to multiply the GCD 
by the product of R and S. The result of 
adding one to this product may, surpris- 
ingly enough, turn out to be the product 
of another pair of prime numbers. Call 
this new pair D and E. One of these 
numbers is your private key, D. The 
other number and N make up your pub- 
lic key. 

To send a message to someone, con- 
vert the message into groups of numbers. 
Then raise each group to the E power 
and modulate it with his N. When he re- 
ceives the cipher he will divide it into 
groups, raise each group to his D power 
and modulate with N. It will then be a 
simple matter for him to convert the 
resulting numbers back into the original 
message. 

The reason this is called the trapdoor 
algorithm is that when the numbers cho- 
sen are sufficiently large, it is practically 
impossible to calculate D, even though 
you know what E and N are. In this case 
sufficiently large has been defined as 
numbers containing 200 digits. To cal- 
culate D would require factoring N, a 
process which would take over three 
million years worth of CPU time on a 
Cray-1 computer. Thus Messers Rivest, 
Shamir, and Adelman have come up 
with a method of encrypting messages 
via computer which depends for its se- 
curity only upon safeguarding the pri- 
vate key, D. 

There have been indications that 
publication of research on advances in 
ciphers has been discouraged by govern- 
ment agencies. In the case of this trap- 
door algorithm an additional difficulty 
has been the fact that the high precision 
arithmetic required, calls for computer 



189 



Trapdoor Algorithm, continued... 

programs not generally available. The 
development of the following trivial 
example was possible through the use of 
special abilities of the muMath/muSimp 
program. That program was developed 
by Albert Rich and David Stoutmeyer of 
The Software House in Honolulu and is 
distributed by Microsoft in versions for 
CP/M, Apple II, and TRS-80 Models I 
and III. A practical example with a 200- 
digit N could be worked out in a reason- 
ably, short time only by using a large 
mainframe computer with a computer 
algebra program. MuMath is reviewed 
in detail in the October '82 issue of 
Creative Computing. 

Although the muMath program can 
work with numbers containing over 600 
digits, the pair of prime numbers we 
start with must be small because, as we 
shall see, the intermediate steps in the al- 
gorithm will produce numbers much 
larger than the primes we start with. We 
begin our example by generating the 
prime numbers between 2 and 100, using 
the Basic program in Listing 1. 

This is an implementation of the pro- 
cess called the Sieve of Eratosthenes, 
based on that ancient Greek math- 
ematician's observation that multiples of 
prime numbers cannot themselves be 
prime numbers. (The Greek math- 
ematicians did not consider 1 to be a 



muMath. The result of raising 999 to the 
2333 power is a number containing al- 
most 7000 digits. We shall choose the 
pair of keys, 37, 109, resulting from the 
pair of primes 29, 37. 

The message to be enciphered must be 
transformed into numbers. We shall as- 
sign two-digit values to the letters: 

A=U, B=12 Z = 36. Spaces will 

be given the value 37. See Figure I. (In 
an actual case, a more secure cipher 



number and of course did not admit the 
existence of 0. How can nothing exist?) 
The table, which contains intermedi- 
ate results as well as the pair of keys 
associated with each candidate for N, 
shows us that several combinations of 
the prime numbers we are investigating 
are unusable. Several pairs, such as 19 
and 29, do not produce keys. Other 
pairs, such as 19 and 37, produce a key 
so large that we cannot handle it with 

Listing 1. 

10 A=1:I=A 

15 REM: Set up an array representing one to one hundred. 

20 DIM A(100) 

30 N=10 

40 I=I+A 

50 IF A(I)=A THEN 40 ELSE IF I)N THEN 100 

55 REM: Label every multiple of I with a one. 

60 FOR J=I+I TO 100 STEP I 

70 A(J)=A 

80 NEXT J 

90 GOTO 40 

95 REM: Print out the unlabeled numbers. 

100 FOR K=2 TO 100 

110 IF A(K)=0 THEN PRINT K; 

120 NEXT K 

130 END 



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Trapdoor Algorithm, continued... 

would be obtained by not using a regular 
order for numbering the letters.) 

Listing 3 can be used to do the 
conversion, but we must now abandon 
Basic because the precision arithmetic 
required would call for slow and com- 
plicated Basic programs. 

Working With muMath 

Figures 2 and 3, which show muMath 



at work, require a little explanation. 
The machine prompt, the symbol telling 
the operator that the program is waiting 
for a command, is the question mark. 
The operator uses a colon for assignment 
and a semicolon to request a printout, 
with a left bracket to indicate exponen- 
tiation. The commercial at symbol (@) 
is a variable equal to the last answer the 
machine gave. 



Figure 1. 








COM 

13 25 23 
132 523 


E HOME E T 

15 37 18 25 23 15 37 15 30 
153 718 252 315 371 530 



Figure 2. 



D:37;E:109;N:1073; 
@: 37 



? @: 109 

? @: 1073 

? 132[D; 
@: 

289224750177183227558122231 9491 9143741 991 1681 339284019128060958 

0272599886200832 



? MOCXO.N); 
&: 169 



? 169[E; 
&: 

691 27492361 1 4944875069351 9027567451 87541021 421 59505486469575983 

897862558301410522788850470569636823308772505594223920522776430 

579174796174758156068348444012813870652591728984884069778523785 

097207349030191594180374014910139398996767476956645129 



? MOD«a,N); 
0: 132 



Figure 2 shows the process of en- 
ciphering and deciphering the first 
group, 132, in detail. The first four lines 
show the values muMath has been given 
for D, E, and N. Lines 7 and 8 show that 
raising 132 to the 37th power yields a 
79-digit number, which is then reduced 
mod 1073 to the cipher group 169. The 
work sheet goes on to reverse the pro- 
cess, calculating the 243-digit result of 
raising the code group 169 to the 109th 
power, then reducing that answer mod 
1073 to 132, thereby recovering the orig- 
inal message group. 

Figure 3 shows the process applied to 
the entire message in a more compact 
form, without printing out the inter- 
mediate values. 

This example of ciphering shows the 
mathematical operations of the method, 
but the short key numbers used destroy 
security. Anyone knowing the key num- 

Figure 3. 



9 


MOD((132[D),N); 
: 169 


7 

& 


MOD((523[D),N); 
: 523 


? 
& 


MOD((153[D),N); 
: 856 


? 

i 


MOD((718[D),N); 
792 


? 

& 


MOD((252[D),N); 
400 


9 


MOD((315[D),N); 
944 




MOD((371[D),N); 
297 


? 

& 


MOD((530),N); 
530 


7 





May 1983 e Creative Computing 



193 













Trapdoor Algorithm, continued... 








bers N and E could factor N quickly, us- been divided into groups of three digits: 






There's Only 


ing the method in Listing 2, and so only when he calculated groups of three 






recover D. A little experimentation raised to D, mod N, would he recover a 






would show him that the message had range of about 26 two digit numbers. 






One Problem 


Listing 2. 

10 PRINT «0 






With Your 


20 DIM A(250> ,B< 100) ,PR<45> ,X< 10) 

30 L=l 

40 FOR 1=1 TO 10: REM Read the prime values into array X. 






IBM PC... 


50 READ X<I> 
60 NEXT I 
70 GOSUB 410 






Security. 


80 FOR I«l TO 9: REM Get the different combinations of primes 
90 FOR J-I+t TO 10 




100 A=X<I> :B=X<J> 








110 N=AXB: REM Form the product, called N. 

120 PR»<A-1> X<B-1> 

130 PRINT #0, USING" ###***" ,A;B jN;A- 1 ; B- 1 j 


There's Only 


140 GOSUB 230 
150 PR-PRXA+ 1 
160 PR(L)«PR:L-L+1 






One Solution 


170 PRINT #0, USING " »#*#***»*" , PR ; 
180 GOSUB 330 
190 NEXT J 






For Under 


200 NEXT I 
210 END 






220 DATA 19,23,29,31,37,41,43,47,53,57 








230 REM EUCLID'S GREATEST COMMON DIVISOR 






$300... 


240 A»A-1:B«B-1 






250 IF A>B THEN T=A:A=B:B=T 








260 OB- 1 NT ( B/A) XA 






• 


270 IF r>0 THEN 310: REM: A is the greatest common divisor 
280 IF C-l THEN 320:REM THE NUMBERS ARE RELATIVELY PRIME 






The Futurex Encryptor: 


290 B-C 

300 GOTO 250 






• is J plu^-in board for 100', 


310 PRINT #0, USING "*###" ,Aj : RETURN 






secure data encryption 


320 PRINT HO, USING "***#", 1 ; : RETURN 
330 REM FIND THE FACTORS 






• scrambles data from PC 


340 FOR 0=1 TO 55 






to PC, micro to mainframe, 


350 D=B(Q) 






or stand alone PC 


360 IF D-0 THEN 390 






• eliminates local data 


370 IF PR/D-INT(PR/D) THEN PRINT M0 , USING - IMMtttN*" , D jPR/D:RETURN 
380 NEXT Q 






theft by scrambling data 


390 PRINT M0 






on floppy disc 


400 RETURN 






• no two scrambled data 


410 A=l :L=A:M=0: Q=250:N= 16 
420 FOR M-2 TO 25f 






sets are the same . . . 


430 IF A<M)»1 THEN NEXT M:GOTO 490 






your data is totally 


440 FOR J-M+M TO Q STEP M 






secured 


450 IF J>250 THEN NEXT M:GOTO 490 
460 A(J>=A 






For information write or 


470 NEXT J 






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480 NEXT M 






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490 FOR K-2 TO Q: IF A<K)=0 THEN B(L)«K« L»L* 1 






(inside California — 


500 NEXT K 
510 L-0:I«L 






800 251-5111) 


520 RETURN 

Listing 3. 

10 PRINT "This program converts messages into three=digit groups." 
20 PRINT "Use only capital letters and spaces, spelling out num-" 
30 PRINT "bers and punctuation." 








40 INPUT LINE A» 
50 DIM A<LEN(A»>> 






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60 L-LENCA*) 

70 FOR 1-1 TO L 






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90 A*=MID*(A*,2> 






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110 NEXT I 

120 FOR J=l TO L STEP 3 






lair Oaks, California 4S62H 


130 A=A<J> :B=A(J+i) :C=A(J+2> 






(416) 966-6836 


140 B1=INT<B/10> 

150 PRINT USING "**»", 10XA+B1 

160 PRINT USING "***", 100X ( B- 10XB 1) *C 

170 NEXT J 




CIRCLE 198 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


1 94 May 1 983 c Creative Computing 



SSLSi a cr yP to «rapher looking at 

atelv & mCSSage W ° U,d know ™«n«li- 
ateiy that some type of polyalphabetic 
substitution had been used/The methods 
of solvmg that type of cipher £e vS 
known and do not depend on a know 
edge of the key. With V longer meSe 
repetitions and frequency countT woTd 
provide valuable clues. 

Returning to the trapdoor algorithm 
L,h V ^° ne fUF,her P° im ,0 make. The 

?«nH°^ re -?K ,reS ° b,ainin « D and E from 
f and Q. The security of the method de- 

Table 1. 



pends on choosing P*Q = N U rae 
enough that N cannot possibly be "£? 
tored ,n a reasonable time. But D and IE 

nvo n+ a, , ned by fac,orin * °cd"(P 

> (y-D+1, a number which will an 
Proach N in size. I, looks, S E 
though we shall find it as hard to select 
our keys as i, would be for someone 
to break our cipher. And as Table 1 
il us rates, we could choose P and O un 
wjsdy.m which case we would fo2 "he 
labor we expend in trying to factor a 
prime number. £ 




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Will WW/// Be An Accident? 



The 
Apocalypse 

Equations 




KtS3 S^StfSX the Battle of 
Armageddon and the advent of the next 
anTSrfect world. Engendered by he 
growK nuclear weaponry over h 
last 35 years and by massive and skillful 
Kremlin-fanned propaganda, there is a 
widespread fear of starting Armageddon 
J ^accidentally launching an armed ™- 
clear missile from either the United 
States or Soviet Russia. 

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March/April, 1982 appeared a letter by 
one Bradford Lyttle, of Chicago. present- 
ing three forms of an equation which he 
says gives the probability of such™ £ 
cidental Armageddon. The Apocalypse 
program, which follows, presents these 
Rations so you may investigate the 
Presumed probability of Apocalypse. 
Probability is often expressed as a 
decimal between zero and one a 
probability near zero indicates that the 
chances of a given event ocurnng are 
Sed very low. A probability near 
one says that the chances are very high 
™aMhe event will occur. Probabilities 
exceeding about 0.95 are often consid- 
ered practically certain. Probability is 
expressed as a percentage in this pro- 
gram: 100<7r = 100, a certainty. 

The Equations ,u„c„ 

The three equations use these 

Tm? b the Probability of Apocalypse 
that is the probability over a period ot 
£ that t'e accidental launch of one 
nuclear missile by either the : UnUed 
States or the Soviet Union would falsely 
trigger a nuclear World War III. 

Howard S M«m. 10* Appta.de Drive. N«hu». NH 
OJ060. 



Howard S. Balsam 

U is the total number of strategic mis- 
siles in the U.S. arsenal. The program 
suggests 1900. You may wish to adjust 

th Sis the total number of strategic mis- 
sion the Soviet arsenal. The program 
suggests 2200; again, you may adjust 

^ifthe probability of the accidental 
launching of an armed strategic nuclear 
missile by either the U.S. or the Soviet 
Union during any 24-hour period. The 
program suggests that there 



Run the program and 

find out what the future 

holds- if anything. 



It turns out that the values given by 
th fnTtwo equations are usual y very 
close to one another, while the exact 
equation gives a slightly smaller value. 

Program Structure . . .. 

The Applesoft program consists of 4 
sections or routines ranging from 1 to U 
S each in length. In apP— ^or- 
der of operation, the main routines are. 
1000-1090 Introduction 
800- 890 Menu 
600- 720 Entries 
300- 370 Approximate Equation 
400- 470 Closer Approximation 
500- 570 Exact Equation 
140-180 Results 
Brief routines handle such operations 
as centering phrases on the screen 
rounding numbers, rejecting out-of-line 
va^es, and beeping three times. The En- 
tries subroutine is designed to mn.m.ze 
number re-entries; after the initial en- 
"riS each re-entry with the same value 
can be made with one keystroke The 
program is fairly well bullet-proofed and 
includes many REMarks. 



chance in one hundred million of this: 
1E-8 Change this if desired. 

N is the number of days in the period 
considered. You may enter whatever pe- 
riod you wish: the program suggests 
,4.600 days--«> years. You may con- 
sider that the clock started ticking per- 
haps 20 years ago. with a much smaller 
number of missiles. 

The three equations given by Mr. 

Lyttle are: 

Closer approximation: 

A p = l^(-NP(U + S)) 

Exact Form: 

AP=l-(l-Py N(lJ+S)) 

196 



V WWle the program considers strategic 
missiles of the U.S. and Sovk Russm 
only, the nuclear "club" is growmg .You 
maj modify the program accordingly. 

You may wish to take a short-cut, at 
,east for a minimum-effort tnaKIf^ 
try skipping lines 1000- liwu 

(I tto U u Ct do n) thi, make line 10 read: 
GOTO 810. Of course, you may also 
oSt "he REM, If you fmd the beeps 
annoying, delete lines ,70-80 and 
GOSUB 80 in lines 200. 350. 450. 550, 

890 and 1 100. , 

Now, RUN the program and find out 
what the future holds— if anything. U 
May 1983 c Creative Computing 





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Apocalypse, continued 


... 








z 








































i 

H- 


*0 


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A Program to Calculate the Limits to Growth 



Where Are We Headed? 



The world population has been growing 
exponentially for as long as history has 
been recorded. Without constraint, it 
would continue to do so, but there are 
constraints on our world system. There 
are limited amounts of land, food, and 
other natural resources. Even now, as we 
approach these limits, the world popu- 
lation shows signs of breaking its growth 
trends. 

Jay W. Forrester presented this concept 
to the world over ten years ago in his 
book World Dynamics. He described a 
world dynamics computer model which 
predicted the breakdown of the growth 
patterns and showed how a breakdown in 
certain cases could be catastrophic. The 
implications of this model were further 
explored in the better known work Limits 
to Growth. 

The world dynamics model was orig- 
inally written in Dynamo by Dr. Forrester 
at MIT. The entire computer model has 
now been written in Atari Basic, so that 
anyone may experiment with the capabil- 
ities of the model. 

Dr. Forrester's model treats the world 
as a closed continuous system, and models 
each important parameter in the system. 
Variables which measure levels, some- 
times known as state variables, in this 
model include population (P), natural re- 
sources (NR), capital investment (CI), 
pollution (POL) and the fraction of capital 
devoted to agriculture (CIAF). 

Each of these state variables affects 
the change of the other state variables 

Mark Lewis Baldwin. 16927 Barcelona Dr.. 
Friendswood. TX 77546. 



Mark Lewis Baldwin 

through a set of relationships. It is the 
definition of these relationships which 



reflects both the accuracy of the model 
and its actions. Small changes in a re- 
lationship between two states could cause 
vast changes in the action of the model. 
Let us examine a small portion of the 




Figure 1. Death-rate-from-food multiplier vs. food ratio. 



200 



May 1983 c Creative Computing 



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Limits to Growth, continued... 

model. The population of the earth is 
affected directly by two factors, the death 
rate and the birth rate. If we were model- 
ing a smaller system such as a country, 
we would also have to include immi- 
gration and emigration. 

The birth rate in the world is approx- 
imately 4 percent per year. In the model, 
this value is BRN for Birth Rate Normal. 
Likewise, the death rate (DRN) is at 2 
percent. These rates are approximations 
based on the year 1970 and include the 
entire world, not just the United States. 

If these rates stayed the same, we would 
be able by simple integration to predict 
the world population at any future time, 
but these rates vary for many reasons. If 
the available food (Food Ratio, FR) de- 
creases, the death rate varies in some 
inverse proportion until no food at which 
point the death rate becomes 100 percent. 
On the other hand, if an infinite food 
supply is available, the death rate does 
not drop to zero but asymptotically ap- 
proaches some value that is less than what 
currently exists today. 

Figure 1 shows the relationship between 
food and death rate incorporated into the 
model. This table appears on line 8290 in 
the program. Other factors which influ- 
ence the death rate include crowding 
(CR), pollution (POLR), and the material 
standard of living (MSL). All of the other 
rates in the model are controlled by the 
same types of considerations. 

The model then integrates the values 
over time and we have our world simu- 
lation. The Basic version uses only a first 
order integration scheme with a step size 
of one year. Better integration schemes 
could be used but it seemed impractical 
considering the original approximations 
in the model. 

What happens when we incorporate all 
of these factors? Figure 2 is a plot pro- 
duced on an Atari showing some of the 
important variables and how they change 
with time. Variable values plotted include 
population, pollution, capital investment, 
food, natural resources, and the quality 
of life. 

If the model is accurate, it shows that if 
the world continues on its current path, 
the population will peak in the year 2020. 
At the same time, the quality of life (0) 



Figure 2. The world on its current path. 




Figure 3. The world with a 25% reduction in birth rate. 



• 




"*a r *g . 




>s^. 






1 



Figure 4. The world with a 75% reduction in the usage of natural 
resources. 





Color 


Symbol 


Description 




■ Red 
1 Blue 
1 Green 
1 Purple 
1 Brown 


N 
F 

Q 
P 
C 


Natural resources 
Food ratio 
Quality of life 
Population 
Capital Investment 
Pollution Ratio 




H Orange 


2 




202 



May 1983 e Creative Computing 



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Limits to Growth, continued... 



will decrease significantly. One of the 
important detrimental factors will be a 
large scale increase in pollution and a 
drop in natural resources (NR). 

Can we do something about this? One 
of the most common suggestions is to 

Table 1. Micro-World Dynamics Variables 



control the birth rate. This is simple to 
test by inserting the following statement- 
1495 IF TIME>1980 THENBRN=03 
What we have done is decrease the 
birth rate by 25 percent to 3 percent 
starting in 1980. Figure 3 shows the results 



of this experiment. The change in birth 
rate helped some temporarily, but in the 
long run seemed to have little effect. 

What else can we try? Well, the govern- 
ment is always asking us to conserve our 
resources. Let's try cutting the consump- 



BR 
BRCM 

BRFM 

BRMM 

BRN 
BRPM 

CFIFR 

CI 
CIAF 

CIAFN 

CIAFT 

CID 
CIDN 

CIG 

CIGN 



CIM 
CIQR 

CIR 
CIRA 

CR 
DR 
DRCM 

DRFM 

DRMM 

DRN 
DRPM 

ECIR 

ECIRN 

FC 
FCM 
FN 
FPCI 

FPM 
FR 



Birth Rate (people/year) 

Birth Rate from Crowding Multiplier 

(dimensionless) 

Birth Rate from Food Multiplier 

(dimensionless) 

Birth Rate from Material Multiplier 

(dimensionless) 

Birth Rate Normal (fraction/year) 

Birth Rate from Pollution Multiplier 

(dimensionless) 

Capital Fraction Indicated by Food Ratio 

(dimensionless) 

Capital Investment (capital units) 

Capital Investment in Agriculture Fraction 

(dimensionless) 

Capital Investment in Agriculture Fraction 

Normal (dimensionless) 

Capital Investment in Agriculture Fraction 

adjustment Time (years) 

Capital Investment Discard (capital units/year) 

Capital Investment Discard Normal 

(fraction/year) 

Capital Investment Generation (capital 

units/year) 

Capital Investment Generation Normal (capital 

units/person/year) 

Capital Investment Multiplier (dimensionless) 

Capital Investment from Quality Ratio 

(dimensionless) 

Capital Investment Ratio (capital units/person) 

Capital Investment Ratio in Agriculture (capital 

units/person) 

Crowding Ratio (dimensionless) 

Death Rate (people/year) 

Death Rate from Crowding Multiplier 

(dimensionless) 

Death Rate from Food Multiplier 

(dimensionless) 

Death Rate from Material Multiplier 

(dimensionless) 

Death Rate Normal (fraction/year) 

Death Rate from Pollution Multiplier 

(dimensionless) 

Effective Capital Investment Ratio (capital 

units/person) 

Effective Capital Investment Ratio Normal 

(capital units/person) 

Food Coefficient (dimensionless) 

Food from Crowding Multiplier (dimensionless) 

Food Normal (food units/person/year) 

Food Potential from Capital Investment (food 

units/perscn/year) 

Food from Pollution Multiplier (dimensionless) 

Food Ratio (dimensionless) 



LA 
MSL 
NR 
NREM 

NRFR 

NRI 

NRMM 

NRUN 

NRUR 

P 
PDN 

POL 
POLA 
POLAT 
POLCM 

POLG 

POLN 

POLR 

POLS 

QL 

QLC 

QLF 

QLM 

QLP 

QLS 

TIME 



Land Area (square kilometers) 

Material Standard of Living (dimensionless) 

Natural Resources (natural resource units) 

Natural Resource Extraction Multiplier 

(dimensionless) 

Natural Resource Fraction Remaining 

(dimensionless) 

Natural Resource, Initial (natural resource 
initial) 

Natural Resource from Material Multiplier 

(dimensionless) 

Natural Resource Usage Normal (natural 

resource units/person/year) 

Natural Resource Usage Rate (natural resource 

units/person/year) 

Population (people) 

Population Density Normal (people/square 

kilometer) 

Pollution (pollution units) 

Pollution Absorption (pollution units/year) 

Pollution Absorption Time (years) 

Pollution from Capital Multiplier 

(dimensionless) 

Pollution Generation (pollution units/year) 

Pollution Normal (pollution units/person/year) 

Pollution Ratio (dimensionless) 

Pollution Standard (pollution units) 

Quality of Life (satisfaction units) 

Quality of Life from Crowding (dimensionless) 

Quality of Life from Food (dimensionless) 

Quality of Life from Material (dimensionless) 

Quality of Life from Pollution (dimensionless) 

Quality of Life Standard (satisfaction units) 

Calendar Time (years) 



Other Program Variables 



B$ 

DT 

DVAL 

GRAPH 

LJ 

INTVL 

IVAL 

MARK 

P$ 

PRNT 

TAB 

TABLE 

TABLK 
X 

XLOI 
Y 



String containing blanks 

Integration step size (years) 

Output value from table lookup routine 

Address of screen graph subroutine 

Temporary loop counters 

X interval in table lookup routine 

Input value for table lookup routine 

Address of subroutine to mark screen plot 

String containing print line for printer routine 

Address of subroutine to print plot 

Table to be looked up 

Array containing tables to lookup relationships 

or variables 

Address of table lookup routine 

Horizontal position for plot routines 

X low for table lookup routine 

Vertical position for plot routines 



May 1983 * Creative Computing 



205 



Limits to Growth, continued... 

tion of natural resources by 75 percent. 
This is easily done by adding the following 

l'495 IF TIME>1980THENNRUN=.25 
Look at Figure 4 for the results. A 

policy of reducing natural resource usage 
alone could be catastrophic to the world, 
by the year 2060. cutting our population 
by 80 percent. Here is an example of an 
obvious solution doing the opposite of 
what anyone would expect. Thought and 
analysis need to go into the decisions 
made by our world leaders. 

That is where this model and more 
detailed variations of it are important. It 
allows us to examine and experiment with 
systems which are complex in nature with- 
out destroying what we are testing. That 
is the real value of any computer model. 



The Basic program is shown in Listing 1. 
Table 1 lists all of the variables. For 
simplicity, the variable names are the 
same as those used in the original model. 
Four of the subroutines in the program 
are specific to the Atari as they enable 
the computer to plot the results. Sub- 
routine 10000 initializes the plotting rou- 
tine for the screen while 12000 does the 
same for an Epson MX-80 printer. Rou- 
tines 11000 and 13000 plot the data on 
the screen and printer respectively. 

The rest of the program should be 
easily translatable into other Basics, so 
you need only write your own output 

routines. . , 

A large number of simplifications and 

assumptions were required in the original 

model. Although there has been a great 



deal of argument in academic circles 
about the accuracy of Forrester s model, 
i, is a first attempt at solving and de- 
scribing a complex system, and it does 
provide some insights into the problem. 

Don't just run the program, experiment 
with it Vary the parameters and see what 
you can do with the world in your 
computer. 

References 

Forrester. Jay W.. World Dynamics 
(Cambridge: Wright-Allen Press 1971). 

Meadows. Donella H.; Meadows. 
Dennis L.; Randers. Jorgen; and Behrens 
William W. 111. The Limits To Growth. A 
Report For The Club Of Romes Project 
On The Predicament Of Mankind (New 
York: Universe Books. 1972). □ 



10 

11 

12 
13 
11 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
30 
31 

32 

33 

34 
SO 
90 



1 00 

101 

102 
103 
104 

10'J 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 



RE M 
REM 
REM 

REM 
REM 
REM 
RFM 
REM 
REM 
REM 



►»»* i ««*»#» *«-****»« ******** 



micro- hop.lv vyndmic-: 

based on u0p.lv dynamics 
by j w forrester (1972) 
and limits 70 gp.0nih 
by d l meadows (1972) 



# 

* 
* 
* 

I 



WRITTEN PY MARK BALDWIN » 
BEACON 1LCHMCGL SERVICES* 



REM **************************** 



MICP.0-H0P.LV DVNOMICS' 
BASED ON H0P.LV VVHRM1CC BY 

J W FORRESTER (1972)" 
AND LIMITS TO GP.0HTH BY" 

D L MEADOWS (1972)" 



BY MARK LEWIS BALDWIN" 
PLEASE WAIT . . 




PRINT ' 

PRINT 

•.PRINT 

PR I NT 

: PRINT 

PRINT 

: PR I NT 

PRINT 

DIM TABLE (21, 12) 

TABI 

:QRAPH-11000 
:MARK= 11900 
:Pl '0 

REN INITIALIZE WORLD 

p»16SOOOOOOO 

IREM POPULATION (PEOPLE) 

?REM°B?RTH RATE NORMAL (FRACTION/YEAR) 
TII1E«»1900 

:REM SIMULATION START TIME 

NR-9PH 1 1 

: : rem"natural RESOURCES (NATURAL RESDUR3E UNITS) 

^EFFECTIVE CAPITAL INVESTMENT RATIO NORMAL (CAPITAL UNITS/PERSON) 

DRN^0.02B 

:rem death rate normalfract ion /year) 

•'pI-h' POPULATION DENSITY NORMAL (PEOPLE/SOUARE KILOMETER) 

FC- 1 

:REM FOOD COEFICIENT (DIMENSIONLESS) 

"rn CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN AGRICULTURE FRACTION NORMAL (DIMENSIONLESS) 

d« '.i 10000000 

:REM CAPITAL INVESTMENT (CAPITAL UNITS) 

?RETcAP?TAL INVESTMENT GENERATION NORMAL (CAPITAL UNITS/PERSON/YEAR) 
?rFm'cAPI?al INVESTMENT DISCARD NORMAL (FRACTION/YEAR) 



206 



May 1983 c Creative Computing 




THE PERSONAL 
COMPUTER AD 
OUR COMPETITION 
DOESN'T WANT 
YOU TO READ. 



It's an ad for NEC's APC - 
Advanced Personal Computer. 
A solutions-oriented system that 
solves business problems in the 
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The APC supports both CP/M-86 '" 
and MS-DOS" It can store more 
information than any system in its 
price range. In short, it's got the 
best price/performance of any 
personal computer. That's why our 



)it 




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I saw. I don't know he 
for that price." 

"Now that I've used it 
awhile, I see why you nam 
Advanced Personal Compute 

And that from bu n ->ssmen 
who have tested ttt ^tmon 

When you see the 
understand why, a 
others, all of these 
picked NEC. 

Our business softwan 
was optimized to take 
advantage of the APC's 
unique hardware features 
makes system operation faster 
and easier. 

Our software includes a full set 
of general accounting packages, 
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management, business planning, 
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We're the only company to 
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nconditional guarantee. It will 
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f Our high-resolution color 
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The A r screen images— I 
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their clarity. 
olors against resolution 
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The i 
combines 
black hi^H 
128K bytes o 
a 1-million-t 
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dard features yoj 
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See for yourself the personal 
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Advanced Personal Computer 
from NEC. Return the coupon to 
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5 Militia Drive, Lexington, MA 02173. 




■mer. 








H APC is a trademark ol Nippon Electric Co , Ltd 


Ve sys- 
pgood 


^^. 


J3Q fJMFf 


V^k ^^^^ MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft, tnc 


'couldn't 
ny that 
veil as 








1 
1 

1 






Advanced Personal Computer 


Name 




Address ' 


jm that 
jjn the 


Title 




City. State. Zip 


Company 




Telephone 








KTf?C: 1 






CC0583 


NEC Information Systems , Inc. | 

5 Militia Drive. Lexington MA 021 73 ■ 



The Benchmark in World Class Computers 



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COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



4501 E. Eisenhower Circle, Anaheim, CA 92807 



Limits to Growth, continued.. 

113 



114 

115 

116 

117 

118 

119 

120 

121 

123 

130 

140 
150 



POLS=36000000tfO 

:REM POLLUTION STANDARD (POLUTION UNITS) 

PQL-2OOOOOO0O 

:REM POLUTION (POLUTION UNITS) 

POLN-1 

:REM^POLUTION NORMAL (POLLUTION UNITS/FERSON/YEAR) 

CIAPT=?5 ITAL INVES ™ ENT IN AGRICULTURE FRACTION (DIMENSI0NLES5) 

IREM^CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN AGRICULTURE FRACTION ADJUSTMENT TIME (YEARS) 

:REM DUALITY OF LIFE STANDARD (SATISFACTION UNITS) 
DT = 1 

.•REM TIME STEP SIZE (YEARS) 

LA= 1 3S0O0000 

:REM LAND AREA (SQUARE KILOMETERS) 

FN=1 

IREM FOOD NORMAL (FOOD UNITS/PERSON/YEAR) 
NRUN= 1 
BOSUB 8000 

:rem initialize tables 

GOSUB lOOOO 

:rem initialize screen plot 

GOSUB 12000 

:rem initialize printer plot 

1000 rem world loop 

1001 nrfr=nr/nri 
1010 cr=p/(la*pdn) 

1020 CIR=CI/P 
1030 TAB=0 

: IVAL=NRFR 
: GOSUB TABLK 
: NREM=DVAL 
1040 ECIR=CIR#(1-CIAF)#NREM/(1-CIAFN> 
1050 MSL=ECIR/ECIRN 
1060 TAB=1 

: IVAL=MSL 
: GOSUB TABLK 
: BRMM=DVAL 
1070 TAB=2 

:IVAL=MSL 
: GOSUB TABLK 
: DRMM=DVAL 
1080 TAB=3 

: IVAL=CR 
: GOSUB TABLK 
: DRCM=DVAL 
1090 TAB«4 

: IVAL=CR 
: GOSUB TABLK 
: BRCM=DVAL 
1100 CIRA=CIR#CIAF/CIAFN 
1110 TAB=5 

: ival=cira 
: gosub tablk 
:fpci=dval 

1120 TAB=6 

: IVAL=CR 

: GOSUB TABLK 

: FCM=DVAL 
1130 POLR-POL/POLS 
1140 TAB=7 

: ival=polr 
: gosub tablk 
: fpm=dval 
1150 fr=fpci#fcm*fpm*fc/fn 

1160 TAB=8 

I IVAL=MSL 

: GOSUB TABLK 

:CIM=DVAL 
1170 TAB=9 

: IVAL=CIR 

: GOSUB TABLK 

I POLCM=DVAL 




May 1983 *> Creative Computing 



209 







1180 TAB" 10 










■ 




: IVAL=P0LR 














:G0SUB TABLK 




f* •. C^^L /^B 










:P0LAT=DVAL 




- '.' ; J0O^ V ~\ 










1190 TAB»11 














: IVAL-FR 














•.GOSUB TABLK 














:CFIFR=DVAL 




^^^•^0^39 


%£$& 








1200 TAB- 12 






L 5Hy'iKjhJI 




^ i^^ 




: IVAL=MSL 




^mf- 


mm 




B^^^^jS*^^. 




:G0SUB TABLK 




V 




Hs /Dt^^W. 




: GLM-DVAL 




^B^ 


i£!§SBw 




Hi ^a% ^S». 




1210 TAB=13 




Ihl^ 


ld^~iiP» TvU 




^|S ^>M j^WJ. n. 




: IVAL=CR 










^C. — ^ >-* n TiflM^ 




:G0SUB TABLK 














:QLC=DVAL 




H ik^ 










1220 TAB=14 










Wu^yTm H 




: I\'AL=FR 








WtJ£ 


BR5^85uJPj f fl H 




:G0BUB TABLK 










■-''*■'. ^fcV sS 




:GLF=DVAL 














1230 TAB- 13 












: IVAL=POLR 










^R^I^^Arl^B V 




:G05U8 TABLK 








tfl"\ 


[^SfcfSZj%f^^ V 




: QLF=DVAL 








f6 **<V 


^f^^Sy^Jj^ V 




1240 TAB=16 








■M)*Ii 


v^^flfl Bf 




: IVAL=MSL 








^^^^HC *vr 


.s-^^k B^ 




tGOr.UB TABLK 










W B^^^^ 




; NRMI1=DVAL 










»■ B^^. 




1250 TAB=17 










J S^^J B^k. 




: IVAL=GLM/QLF 










RTRSfl^^ BW 




:G0SUB TABLK 










^K^^JI ^ 




:CIDF<=DVAL 










ptirHj&ftfiC^B Bk 




1260 TAB=18 










^* 9 *^hi ?fP<2f^fwiU Bk 




: IVAL=P0LR 










p^ , ,^ tt*t. U'^^jtv/ifV'^^B 




:G0SUB TABLK 










rfOg5^jjo*\flf5&¥5iB A 




: DRPM- DVAL 










7*n^J^S^tSia^W Br^B\ 1 




1270 TAB=19 










^3®JtS"SI JZSm.'BI B'/£v'HP^5£\^B] 




: IVAL=FR 










^^^A^^^^^nfPC^B^y7jp^tfjyN»^B 




:G0SUB TABLK 










K^^^SS^S^^a^^I 




:drfm=dval 












1280 TAB=»20 










|^Rogtjff^5<Ji?^3faflfi^ijv7« 




: IVAL=FR 










^■£^2^&^2flMRLY3{d^3& Jy# 




:gdsub tablk 










^ft^yj r^. >£j[ywJ 




: BRFM=DVAL 










^^^^TT/ 




1290 TAB=21 














: IVAL=P0LR 










Bw 




:G0SUB TABLK 










^1 Bar 




: BRPM=DVAL 










^S ^^^ 




1300 REM RATE COMPONENTS 










P^9 P^ 




1310 HR=P*BRN*BRFM»BRMM*BRCM*BRPM 








S^^T^T^^l Br 




1320 DR=P»DRN*URMM*DRPM*DRFM*DRCM 






^2 


J^S^&suil bw 




1330 NRUR=P»NRUN»NRMM 








s ^^Ag3&J k 




1340 CIG=P*CIM*C1GN 














1350 CID=CI»CIDN 














1360 POLG=P*POLN»POLCM 












1370 POLA=POL/POLAT 












1400 REM LEVELS 










1» fc ^k ^tt&il^l B\ 




1410 QL=QLS»GLM«GLC*QLF*QLP 










lijt ^Bt^H Bt 




1420 P=P+DT*(BR-DR> 














1430 NR=NR-DT*NRUR 














1450 CI=CI+DT*(CIG-CID> 










^^91 




1460 POL=POL+DT*(POLG-POLA> 






■ 




Bm >\ * / ^B^B^t7-->~^^Bb 




1470 CIAF>=CIAF + DT#CCFIFR*CIGR- 


-CIAF)/CIAFT 






Lj^SSjcj^ ■ 




1480 GOSUB GRAPH 














:GOSUB PRNT 














:REM GRAPHS DATA 












1490 TIME=TIME+DT 
1500 IF TIME<2102 THEN 
lOOO 










^^HtZISX' 




1510 GO TO 1510 














8000 FOR 1=0 TO 21 














:FOR J=0 TO 12 














8020 READ DATA 














:TABLE(1,J>=DATA 














:NEXT J 














:next i 






210 




May 1983 c Creative Computing 



£ 



' 



c< Tfife (tamo fe cr&Lte ^ 

fees Gfitc Gee (etet eoaicULtaq g©. 

efiBefp crx>Kta([ cat «?<?<;<? qigr; 

c< GJsm (daa emvqa & oimcaqc circa Cfrc 



(kmtfva (k-matftfi 



t(' d title <jc 



•<K/ur^ fecffti&ccrGo: get rem" on 
r®*£ freer (m&mm « 




» 



J? 



Any arcade game can be fun the first 100 times you play it. Its the j< 
that play 200 or 300 or 500 times. Marauder • "You get your money's 
worth"' in a game that's more than enough to challenge even the best 
arcader." They said it: we believe it. So will you. 

Marauder Is available for Apple ll/ll + (48K) and Atari 400/800 (40K) for $34.95. Order from your 
local dealer or directly from: Sierra On-Line, Inc., Sierra On-Line Building, Coarsegold CA 93614 
(209) 683-6858. CIRCLE 264 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TM Designates a Tf< 




IF YOU OWN A COMMODORE COMPUTER, 
YOU KNOW IT CAN DO ALLTHIS. 




BUSINESS 



EDUCATION 



PROGRAMMING 



GAMES 



BUT DID YOU KNOW FOR ABOUT £100, 
YOU CAN ALSO GET IT TO DO ALLTHIS? 




SHOP AT HOME 






DOW JONES 
NEWS/RETRIEVAL 



ELECTRONIC 
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TRAVEL 
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COMMODORE 
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EMPLOYMENT 
OPPORTUNITIES 



The screens at the top of the 
page show a few examples of 
how versatile the VIC 20'" or 
Commodore 64'" can be with the 
addition of Commodore software. 

The screens below them give 
you a few examples of how much 



more versatile they can be with 
the addition of a Commodore 
VICMODEM. 

For around $100. the 
Commodore VICMODEM 
will turn your VIC 20 or 
Commodore 64 computer 
into a telecomputer. 

To make matters even better. 
Commodore includes a few little 
extras ( such as a free hour's time 
on the two most popular telecom- 
puting services) that add up to a 
value of $197.50* A nice return on 



USA POBOMSOOConMxmocMnPAIWe.Canada 3370PI.armacvAver.oa Ao.ncoorl Otano CanerJaMlVWM -C«>l»noM«f»K*l»cltoch*>g. 
CompuServe rs a irerjeme* ol CompuServe. hrt«»B Block Co Dow Jont» Ne« Hewevel Service a a regrswed trademark ol 
OowJonet&Co inc the Source™ a wv^nwkol Source trtecaYWitmaCrjniorelrori a »ut»"*eiyolr»»erler%r> e „i Corporator* inc 



an investment of about $100. 

Most computer companies 
think it's reasonable to ask as 
much as $500 for a modem that'll 
give you telecomputing capabili- 
ties such as ours. 

However, with a VICMODEM 
priced at around $100. we think 
we're being a lot more reason - 
able. Don'tyou agree? 

f Z commodore 

* COMPUTER 

CIRCLE 140 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



8100 

8110 

8120 

8130 

8140 

8150 

8160 

8170 

8180 

8190 

8200 

8210 

8220 

8230 

8240 

8250 

8260 

8270 

B2R0 

8290 

8300 

8310 

9000 

9010 



Limits to Growth, continued... 

8030 RETURN 

DATA 0,1,0.25,0,0.15,0.5,0.85,1,1,1,1.1,1 

DATA 0,5,1,1.2,1,0.85,0.75.0.7,0.7,0.7,0.7 7 O 7 

DATA 0,5,1,0.9,1, 1.2, 1.5. 1.9, 3, 3,3,3,3 ' 

Sata o' l'\ '!-,' * 5 ; * ; °a 9 ; °; 7 ; °; 6 ' °- 55 - °- 55 - °- 5S ' °- 55 - °- 55 

UHlft 0,6,1,0.3,1,1.4,1.7,1.9,2.05.2.2 222222 
n£™ S^' 1 ' 2 ' 4 ' 1 . °-6. 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.2, 0.2,0.2,072 

Kf:s.-sr;:s:!:s?iri?;ss;3f5fjfifi'-*-" :o -«^- •••« 

DATA 0,5, 1,0.05,1,3.5.4.7.4,8,8,8,8,8 

DATA O, 60. 10,0. 6, 2. 5,5,8,11. 5, 15. 5, 20, 20, 20, 20 

5«™ v. 2 ' ?' 5 ' * ' °- 6 " °' 3 ' °" 15 ' °« » ' °- 1 > °- 1.0.1,0.1, 0. 1 

DATA 0,3,1,0.2^,1.7,2.3,2.7,2.9,2.9,2.9,2.9.2.9 

™™ 5"' 4 - 5 ' - 5 ' 2 ' 1 - 3 ' I'O. 75, 0.55, 0.45, 0.38, 0.3, 0.25, 0.2 
DATA 0,4,1,0,1,1.8,2.4,2.7,2.7,2.7,2.7,2.7,2.7 

S ^^ ; 1 r ,, i-? 4 A A 85 ' -- 6 ' - 3 ' - ls ' - 05 ' - 02 ' - 02 . 0-02, 0.02 

DATA 0,9,1,0,1,1.8,2.4,2.9,3.3,3.6,3.8,3.9,4 
DATA 0,2,0.3,0.7,0.8, 1,1.3,2,2,2,2 2 2 
DATA 0,60,10,0.92,1.3,2,3.2,4.8,6.8,9.2,9.2,9.2,9 2 
DATA O.2.O. .2.1.4.1,0.7,0.6,0.5.0.5,0.5 
DATA 0,4, 1,0, 1,1.6,1.9,2,2,2,2,2,2 

DATA 0,60, 10, 1.02,0.9,0.7,0.4,0.25,0. 13,0. 1,0. l.O. l.O.'l 
REM TABLE LOOKUP SUBROUTINE 
IF" IVAL< 'TABLE (TAB, 0) THEN 
DVAL=TABLE(TAb.7> 
: RETURN 
9020 IF IVAL>=TABLE(TAB. 1) THEN 
DVAL=TABLE(TAB. 12) 
: RETURN 
9030 INTVL-INT( < I VAL-TAEU.E <TAB, 0) ) /TABLE (TAB, 2) ) 
9040 XLOI=TABLE(TAB,2)*INTVL 

9050 DVAL=TABLE (TAB, INTVL+3) + (TABLE (TAB, INTVL+4) -TABLE (TAB, INTVL+3) ) * ( I VAL-XLOI 
) /TABLE (TAB. 2) 
9060 RETURN 
10000 REM BET UP PLOT 
1OO10 GOSUB 32000 
10020 SETCOLOR 0,1,10 
: SETCOLOR 1,5,10 
: SETCOLOR 2, 10, 10 
10030 COLOR 4 

:PLOT 9,0 

:plot 10,0 
:drawto 10,160 

:FL0T 9,40 
:PLOT 9,80 
:PLOT 9, 120 
10040 PLOT 10, 160 

CDRAWTO 70, l&O 
10050 FOR 1=16 TO 71 STEP 5 
:PLOT 1,160 
:PLOT 1,164 

:next I 

10060 RETURN 
11000 REM DRAW DATA 
11005 X=10+(TIME-1900> /4 
11010 COLOR 10 

: Y=159-l&0* (P) /1E+10 

: GOSUB MAR! 
1 1 020 COLOR 8 

: Y=159-160*QL/2 

: GOSUB MARK 
11030 COLOR 7 

:Y=159-160#NR/1E+12 

: GOSUB MARK 
11040 COLOR 5 

:Y=159-160«P0LR/40 

: GOSUB MAR! 
11050 COLOR 9 

: Y=159-160#CI/2E+10 

: GOSUB MAR! 
1 1 060 COLOR 1 

: Y=159-160»FR/2 

: GOSUB MAFvl 

11800 RETURN 




May 1983 e Creative Computing 



213 





, 


Limits to Growth, continued... 




11900 II Y<0 THEN 




Y-0 




: COLOR 




11910 IF YM59 THEN 




Y=159 




11920 PLOT X,Y 




: RETURN „„ „ 




12000 REM PRINTER SET UP ROUTINE FOR MX-80 




12010 DIN P»<130>,B»<130> 




:FOR 1=1 TO 130 




:b»<i,i>=" " 




1.020 LPRINr I CHR*(l S );CHR*(27,;CHR*<9 5 ,;CHR*<l) ! CHR*<27,;CHR*(72);CHR«(27,;", l " 




12030 LPRINT "P=P, 2=P0LR, C=CI , F=FR, N=NR, Q=OL' 




:lprint 4-B 

12O40 LPRINT " 0. *•«» 




6.B B.B P" 
12050 LPRINT " 0. 1U - 




30 - 4 °/ 2 " 5 B 10.B 
12060 LPRINT " O. =- B 




15. B 20. B C" 
12070 LPRINT " 0. ' 5 




15 2.0 F.Q" 
12000 LPRINT " 0. 250. B 500. B 






750. B 1000. B N" 




12100 RETURN 




13000 REM PRINTER PLOT ROUTINE FOR MX-BO 




13010 IF INT (TIME/4) *4<>TIME THEN 




RETURN 




13020 P*-B* 




:IF INT( (TIME-100)/40)»40=TIME-100 THEN 




13050 




13O30 FOR 1=11 TO 91 STEP 20 




:p«<i, i>-". m 




:next i _^^^^B^^^_ 




:GOTO 13100 ^ 






13050 P*(6, 10>=STR*(TIME> ^M 


lw 




CFOR 1 = 11 TO 91 STEP 2 .^■P? 




:P*(I, I)="-" ,^ll>' _l ^S&£5 S s^!^L. ,V ^ 




:NEXT J ^o^J ^~/^V<^lte«J ^. 

13100 x=ii+ol/o.o25 A^Etw fvV^arO^S ^. 






: IF X<92 THEN M m.&P2£j( f— ^5) J^^B A, 

p*<x,x)="0" M ■H^v3) m,Jfcn ■ TrU L 






13110 X=11+NR/1.25E+10 M IfKfflS^i^'-'nl Mv 
:IF X<92 THEN M ■ ^gflBtPtX- f V '"■ b M ■ 

p*(x.x)="N" ■ wffi&isHnr '•'■■''''■ \M ■ 






13120 X=ll+FR/0.025 ■ ■MfMNt'i'tt- •£' "' ' AM ■ 
:IF X<92 THEN ^YVCTaUA -~* '/? ' fM 




P*<X,X)="F" 
13130 X=ll+CI/25O00000O 






:IF X<92 THEN ■ 




P*(X,X)="C" ■ 




13140 X'IHPOLR/O.2 V 


mmmm^^^^S^W 




:IF X<92 THEN V 


wbft*5tti&fyW 




P*(X,X>-"2" ^ 






13150 X=ll+P/ 100000000 ^B 


EKSSpP^jy 




: IF X<92 THEN ^B 


^<*'^^^ • 1, i dr 




P»(X,X)="P" ^H 






13300 LPRINT P* ^BJ 






13310 RETURN ^BJ 






32000 REM SETS UP MULT I COLOR GRAPHICS MODE ^^^J E^-^ 




32010 GRAPHICS 24 ^^^^^^^^^^ 




32020 DL-PEEK (560> +256*PEEK (561 ) 




32030 POKE 559, 




32040 POKE DL+3,70 




IPOKE DL+99.78 




32050 FOR lNSERT=DL+6 TO DL+9B 




32060 POKE I NSERT , 1 4 




32070 NEXT INSERT 




320B0 FOR IN3ERT=DL+102 TO DL+198 




32O90 POKE INSERT, 14 




32100 NEXT INSERT 




321 lO POKE B7, 10 




32120 POKE 559,34 




32130 RETURN 




214 May 1983 c Creative Computing 




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A Comparison of Sorts, Revisited 



Howard Kaplon 

During a recent search for a better 
sorting routine, a colleague offered the 
article "A Comparison of Sorts" by John 
Grillo (Nov/Dec 1976— Some people 
never discard their issues of Creative— 
EBS). Previously, I had always used the 
bubble sort technique for exactly the 
reasons given in the Grillo article: it was 
a simple technique and one which was 
very familiar. According to the article, 
the Shell-Metzner sorting routine would 
end the search. 

However, another colleague suggested 
that a technique called quicksort 
described in The Art of Computer Pro- 
gramming, Vol. Ill by Knuth be investi- 
gated. Having programmed this algorithm 
and modified it slightly, 1 wanted to see 
how it compared with the Shell-Metzner 
sort. 

An empirical approach seemed the 
most direct way to compare the two sort- 
ing routines. The bubble sort was also 
included in the comparisons. At the end 
of this article (Listing 1) is the Basic 
program I used to make the comparisons. 
It is the Basic program given in "A Com- 
parison of Sorts" that was modified for 
use on a Univac 1 106 system and had the 

Howard Kaplon. Towson State University. 
Towson. MD 21204. 

May 1 983 « Creative Computing 



Table I. Sort Execution Data 
















N 


Technique 




10 


20 


50 


100 


200 


500 


1000 


Bubble 


T 
S 
C 


17 
19 
45 


70 
123 
190 


379 

600 

1225 


1501 
2329 
4950 


6241 

9744 

19900 


38890 

62181 

124750 


155642 
252427 
499500 


Shell-Metzner 


T 

S 
C 


15 
11 
30 


42 
47 
98 


125 
160 
339 


302 
427 
882 


948 
1050 
2162 


2127 
2827 
6078 


5280 

7415 

14890 


Quicksort 


T 
S 
C 


12 
11 

22 


29 
33 
69 


98 

116 
286 


233 
237 
790 


505 

615 

1599 


1595 
1851 
5443 


3526 

4013 

12083 



Table /A. Sort Execution Data. 





N 


Technique 


2000 


3000 


4000 


Shell-Metzner 


T 
S 
C 


13239 
17732 
34721 


19503 
28725 
57173 


33882 
49084 
87077 


Quicksort 


T 

S 

c 


7541 

9175 

25195 


11635 
14745 
38507 


18227 
20310 
55549 



217 



Comparison of Sorts, continued... 

quicksort technique appended to it. 

Tables I and I-A summarize informa- 
tion on sorting arrays of 10, 20, 50, 100. 
200, 500, and 1000 items by each of the 
three techniques. Additionally, arrays of 
2000. 3000. and 4000 items were sorted 
by the Shell-Metzner and quicksort tech- 
niques. Each of the arrays consisted of a 
random sample generated from a normal 
distribution with a mean of 5000 and a 
standard deviation of 2000. The codes 
are: T = time of execution in milliseconds 
on a Univac 1 106 time sharing system 
provided by the Maryland State Colleges 
Information Center. S = number of times 
that pairs of elements were switched. C 
= number of times that pairs of elements 
were compared, and N = number of items 
in the array. 

As in the Grillo article, a regression 
model of the form T= AN B was used to 
predict the sorting time (T) from the array 
size (N). Table II gives the estimated 
regression equation for each of the three 
techniques. Using these equations and 
extrapolating, I calculated the predicted 
sorting times for large arrays as shown in 
Table III. 

Differences between the values pre- 
sented in Tables I. I-A and III of this 
article and the corresponding values that 
Grillo presented may be attributed to the 
different operating systems. However, the 



figures themselves are not nearly as 
important as the comparison among the 
three techniques. 

What has been accomplished? First of 
all, we see the logic of the quicksort 
algorithm is much clearer than that of the 
Shell-Metzner algorithm. Briefly, the 
quicksort routine chooses a pivot element 
(the first element in this case) of the array 
and divides the array into two subarrays 

Table II. Estimated Regression Equations. 



such that the left subarray contains all of 
the elements that are less than the pivot. 
The larger of the subarrays is put on a 
stack. The smaller subarray is further 
divided by its pivot into two subarrays. 
This process is repeated with each larger 
subarray being put on the stack until a 
smaller subarray has fewer than ten ele- 
ments. This subarray is then bubble 
sorted, and the last subarray on the stack 



Technique 


Number of 
Data Points 


T = AN B 


Bubble 


7 


T = 0.176N 1978 


Shell-Metzner 


10 


T = 0.924N 1 25 " 


Quicksort 


10 


T = 0.821N 1206 



Table III. Extrapolated Predicted Sorting 


' Times. 




Array Size 


Technique 


N 


Bubble 


Shell-Metzner 


Quicksort 


10,000 


3.99 hours 


1.67 minutes 


0.91 minutes 


100,000 


15.81 days 


30.37 minutes 


14.66 minutes 


1.000,000 


4. 1 3 years 


9.19 hours 


3.93 hours 


10,000,000 


392.55 years 


6.95 days 


2.63 days 




LET YOUR APPLE SEE THE WORLD! 

The DS-65 Digisector opens up a whole new world for your Apple II. Your computer 
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May 1983 c Creative Computing 



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Comparison of Sorts, continued. 



NO 



C 



MAR I 



K=l 

IMKl 1 
Wi K I 1 

: i 

R 1 




L = P(K) 
R W(K) 
K K-l 



1 I ■ I 



YES 




YES 




I 



1 R 



NO 



YES 



NO 



YES 



J<l-I 



J I 



1 



NEXT 
J 



M = l-J I 11 



YES 




YES 



T = D(J) 
D(J) = D(I) 
D(I) = T 



T = CXM) 
D(M) = D(M+I) 
D(M + 1) = T 



-• 1 = 1+1 



T = D(J) 
D(J) = D(I) 
D(I) = T 



YES 



NO 



> « YES <c 





J=J+1 



K = K+1 



NO 



J = J + 1 



P(K) J 
W(K) = R 

R 1 




Quicksort Flowchart. 



P(K) = L 
W(K) I 
L = J 



220 



May 1983 c Creative Computing 



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Comparison of Sorts, continued... 

is examined. It is either divided or bubble 
sorted depending on whether it has at 
least ten or fewer than ten elements. Since 
all of the elements in each subarray are 
less than all of the elements in the next 
subarray to the right, after each subarray 
has been sorted, the sorted subarrays form 
the complete sorted array. 

Secondly, one may compare the sorting 
times of the three techniques. Using the 
equations in Table II, I estimated that 
quicksort is 0.214N ° m times as fast as the 



bubble sort and 1.1 25N °°" times as fast 
as the Shell-Metzer sort. From these esti- 
mates one may conclude that quicksort 
has the fastest sorting execution time and 
as the size of the array increases, the 
advantages of quicksort over the other 
two sorts also increase. 

Finally, Harold Lorin indicates that 
quicksort with some minor modifications, 
as done by Richard C. Singleton, on the 
choice of the pivot and the sorting tech- 
nique for the subarrays with less than ten 



elements may be the fastest of the cur- 
rently known sorting techniques. 

Since there is some theory to indicate 
that the sorting times of the bubble sort. 
Shell-Metzner sort, and quicksort are pro- 
portional to N-. Nln(N). and Nln(N) 
respectively, alternate regression models 
of T = KN 2 , T = KNln(N). and T = 
KNln(N) respectively were set up. For all 
three techniques, the estimated regression 
equations were computed using the seven 
data points. Then, with the additional data 



Producing a Frequency Table 



One of the more common applica- 
tions of numeric sorting is its use in 
producing a frequency table. Frequency 
tables are very useful when analyzing 
many different situations from inventory 
data to school test scores. Tables may 
be constructed by creating a new cate- 
gory each time a new value appears in 
the list. However, these categories are 
rarely in sorted order, and this proce- 
dure is inefficient when there are more 
than a few categories. On the other hand 
if the data list can be efficiently sorted, 
a frequency table can be constructed 
easier, faster and in increasing categor- 
ical order. The quicksort technique 
accomplishes this task. 

To understand how quicksort works, 
consider an example. Suppose the list 
consists of the test scores of 500 students 
whose records are arranged in alpha- 
betical order according to the students' 
last names. The first student's score is 
used as a pivot. It is compared to scores 
at the end of the alphabetical list begin- 
ning with the last score then the next to 
last score, etc.. until a score smaller 
than the pivot is located. Call this the 
rth score. The pivot and this score are 
interchanged. Now compare the pivot 
with the second, third, etc., score until a 
score larger than the pivot is found. Call 
this the kth score. The pivot and this 
score are interchanged. Next the pivot 
is compared to the (r-l)st, (r-2)nd. etc. 
score until a score smaller than the pivot 
is found. The pivot and this score are 
interchanged. This process— comparing 
the pivot to right end scores and working 
toward the center until a smaller score 
is found, interchanging, comparing the 
pivot to left end scores and working 
toward the center until a larger score is 
found, interchanging, and continuing to 
alternate comparing the pivot with right 
and left side scores always working 
toward the center— is continued until 
all scores have been compared with the 
pivot. The pivot is now in the pth posi- 
tion of the list. At this point, the scores 
will be arranged such that all of the 
scores smaller than or equal to the pivot 



will be in the first p positions of the list, 
and the last (500-p) scores in the list will 
be greater than the pivot. 

The entire list has been subdivided 
into two sublists; one being the first p 
scores, and the second consisting of the 
last (500-p) scores. These sublists are 
further subdivided in the same manner 
(choosing the first score in each sublist 
as the pivot for that sublist). Each time, 
all of the sublists are in increasing order 
as groups, however the scores within 
each sublist are not sorted. When a 



sublist is produced that has fewer than 
ten scores, it is bubble sorted in its 
present position in the entire list. After 
each has been subdivided into fewer 
than ten scores and bubble sorted, the 
entire list is sorted into increasing 
order. 

A frequency table may now be easily 
constructed by going through the list 
starting at the first position, increment- 
ing the first counter by one until a non- 
equal score appears, incrementing the 
next counter by one until a nonequal 
score appears, etc.. until the list is 
exhausted. 



Step by step example of the quicksort algorithm. 



1st Pivot ORIGINAL ARRAY (K = 1) 

02 2 1 2 17 6 24 3 4 1 2 5 15 7 9 10 11 8 19 17 1 1 21 22 28 

8 2 2 1 3 17 6 24 3 4 1 2 5 15 7 9 10 11 ©19 17 11 21 22 28 

8 2 2 13 06 24 3 4 1 2 5 15 7 9 10 1 1 17 19 17 1 1 21 22 28 

8 2 2 13 7 6 24 3 4 1 2 5 15 9 10 11 17 19 17 1 1 21 22 28 

8 2 2 13 7 6 03 4 1 2 5 15 24 9 10 1 1 17 19 17 1 1 21 22 28 

PUT ON STACK <K 2) 



-2ml Choi 



8 2 2 13 7 6 5 3 4 1 2(9]l5J24 9 10 II 17 19 17 II 21 22 28 
8 2 2 13 7 6 5 3 4 1 2 9 11 24 9 10 11 17 19 17 [Ts] 2 1 22 28 



822 13 7 6 5 3 4 12 9 11 |15| 9 10 11 17 19 17 24 21 22 28 

PUT ON STACK (K ') 

82213 76 534129 11 II 9 10p5|; i7 19 17 24 21 22 28' 

B-SORT. . (K 2) TAKE PIT STACK 

82213 76 5 3 4129 '9 10 11 11 15' 117 19 17 24 21 22 28j 

■ Vd Pivot TAKE OFF STACK B-SORT (K-l) 

<"8>2 213 76 534129' 9 10 11 11 15 '17 17 19 21* 22 24 28 

PUT ON STACK (K ^ 2) 

22213 76 534 1<8>99, 10 11 11 15 17 17 19 21 22 24 28 



■4th Pivot 

r — 



.B-SORT 



3 7 6 5 3 4 1 8'VVio 11 11 15 17 17 19 21 22 24 28 



A2 2 1 

12 2 13 7 6 5 3 4&8 9 9 10 1 1 1 1 15 17 17 19 21 22 24 28 

. PUT ON STACK (K 2 ) 

,12 2 lAl 7 6 5 3 4 3 8-9 9 10 1 1 1 1 15 17 17 19 21 22 24 28 

B- SORT (K-l) TAKE OFF STACK 

' 1 1 2 2 2" ! 7 6 5 3 4 IT, 9 9 10 11 II 15 17 17 19 21 22 24 28 

B-SORT (K-Q, 

112 2 2 '33 456789 9 10 11 11 15 17 17 19 21 22 24 28 

QUICKSORTED ARRAY 



223 



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Comparison of Sorts, continued... 

Table IV. Alternative Estimated Regression Equations. 



Technique 


Number of 
Data Points 


Sorting Time Function 


Bubble 


7 


T = 0.156 N 2 


Shell-Metzner 


7 


T = 0.753 Nln(N) 


Shell-Metzner 


8 


T = 0.847 Nln(N) 


Shell-Metzner 


9 


T = 0.824 Nln(N) 


Shell-Metzner 


10 


T = 0.934 Nln(N) 


Quicksort 


7 


T = 0.510 Nln(N) 


Quicksort 


8 


T = 0.499 Nln(N) 


Quicksort 


9 


T = 0.489 Nln(N) 


Quicksort 


10 


T = 0.523 Nln(N) 



Table V. Average Alternative Estimated Regression Equations. 



Technique 


Sorting Time Function 


Standard Deviation of 
the Coefficient K 


Bubble 


T = 0.156 N 2 




Shell-Metzner 


T = 0.840 Nln(N) 


0.065 


Quicksort 


T = 0.505 Nln(N) 


0.013 



Table VI. Alternative Extrapolated Predicted Sorting Times. 



Array Size 


Technique 


N 


Bubble 


Shell-Metzner 


Quicksort 


10,000 


4.33 hours 


1.29 minutes 


0.78 minutes 


100,000 


10.06 days 


16.12 minutes 


9.69 minutes 


1,000,000 


4.96 years 


3.22 hours 


1.94 hours 


10,000,000 


496.03 years 


1.57 days 


0.94 days 



when N = 2000, 3000, and 4000 added 
one point at a time, three additional esti- 
mated regression equations were com- 
puted for each of the Shell-Metzner and 
quicksort techniques. These equations are 
given in Table IV. For the Shell-Metzner 
and quicksort techniques, the four esti- 
mated values of K were averaged. These 
average estimated regression equations, 
the standard deviations of K, and the 
equation for the bubble sorting time are 
given in Table V. The extrapolated sort- 
ing times for large arrays are shown in 
Table VI. 

The conclusions that may be drawn from 
Table V are very similar to those already 
drawn from Table II, except that quick- 
sort is now predicted to be a constant 
1.663 times as fast as Shell-Metzner. How- 
ever, I think that the values of extra- 
polated predicted sorting times in Table 

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VI are more accurate than those in Table 
III when executed on the Univac 1 106. 

In conclusion, while the understanding 
of the logic of the Shell-Metzner sort 
algorithm provides an interesting exercise, 
and while its sorting time is faster than 
that of the bubble sort, the delayed 
replacement sort and several other tech- 
niques, it is less efficient than quicksort. 
And so it seems that when internal sorting 
techniques are discussed, quicksort 
should be among those presented. Among 
the advantages of quicksort are: it allows 
for experimentation with different simple 
sorting routines for the subarrays of fewer 
than ten elements; it allows for variation 
in the number of elements at which the 
smaller subarray is to be bubble or other- 
wise simple sorted to optimize the execu- 
tion time on each operating system; and 
it is easily programmed, clear, and quick. 

□ 



CIRCLE 164 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



224 



May 1 983 < Creative Computing 



CALL 1£!L99MPUTER-LINE'' In Colorado 

computers We are renowned lor our excellent after-sales suppo rt and our pramptrteVsZ de^eT Peac of Z2 anST? n yOUr qUeS "° nS perta " 1in 9 <° ° u ' "•* of micro- 
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PRODUCTS for the 



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We are smashing the prices on Apple Compatible Disk Drives! 

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0AVONG HAR0 DISKS: 5 Megabyte S1475 10 Megabyte $1875 15 Meoabvte $2275 
THIN-LINE APPLE COMPATIBLE DRIVES Megabyte KZ75 

MBI VIP CARD * W,LL 

Dual Port Parallel/Serial Graphics Card 



$379" 



Sorcim Software: 

Supercalc $199.00 

Superwnter $299.00 

Spellguard $149.00 

Liletree Systems: 

Volkswriter $14900 

Vlsicorp: 

256K Visicalc $185.00 

Visidex $185.00 



iV^l^S' ExDress T he Pro 'ess'°nal 4 to simultaneously transfer data 
from modem to printer using the VIP Card 



$129" 



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MBI APPLETIME CARD 

Works with DB Master and Visidex Mountain Computer mode 

Basic and pascal operation complete with datebook software $ 89 00 



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RAM CARDS 

Microsoft 16K 

CP/M FOR APPLE 

Microsoft Z80 Card 
Advanced Logic 

Kensington System Saver 

T«G: 

Joysticks $44°° 

Select A Port $4400 

Game Paddles $29" 

Kraft 

Joysticks $49°° 

Game Paddles $33°° 

80 Column Cards 

Videx with Softswitch $279°° 



WORD PROCESSING SPECIALS 

On Line Screenwriter $85 Pro $149 
Silicon Valley Word Handler $119 



APPLE SOFTWARE 

Continental: 
The Home Accountant 

Silicon Valley Systems: 

Word Handler 
List Handler 

Stoneware 

DB Master 

DB Utility 1, 2. 3 

Vlsicorp: 

Visicalc 3 3 
Visifiles 
Visidex 
Visitrend/Plot 

Denver Software: 

Financial P.i 
Pascal Tutor 
Pascal Programmer 



S 54« 

$119" 
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PRICES. 



r 24-H0UX/7 Days a Week Order ing & Product Information. Call Info-Line™", our computer modem line 1 -303-27Q-4? 1 R 



Monitors 

Amdefc Color l 
Color II 



BMC 
NEC 



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$299°° 
$699" 

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300A Amber $158" 

310G Green $179" 

310A Amber $179" 

15MHZ Green $ 85" 

20MHZ Green $148" 

1201 Green $158" 

1212 Color Composite $299" 

1203 RGB Hi-P.es Color $679" 

2VM-121 1SMHZ $109" 

Amber $145<» 



Operates at 300 Baud, Full Duplex 



COMPUTER-LINE Is Now Open 7 Days a Week!! 

Product Information & Ordering Lines 

Mon. - Fn 7 a m to 8 p.m.; Sal A Sun.. 8 a.m. to 6 p m. 
(Mountain Standard Time) 



Write or call for our comprehensive catalog. 

Call 

"THE 

COMPUTER-LINE" 




DISKETTES 

Kangaroo: The disks with the |ump' on the competition 
Outstanding value with library case and a 
ten year warranty 
5%" SS/DD (Box of 10) $ig« 

554" DS/DD (Box of 10) $28» 

Verbatim Diskettes 

5'." SS/DD (Box of 10) $23" 

5 V DS/DD (Box of 10) $43» 

Elephant Diskettes 

5 '." SS/DD (Box of 10) $22« 
5<" OS/DP (Box ot 10) J29 K 



MODEMS 

D.C. Hayes: Micromodem II (Apple) 

w/ Terminal Program $289°" 
Micromodem II (Apple) 

w/o Terminal Program $259" 

Smartmodem 300 Baud $209" 

Smanmodem 1200 Baud $525" 

Novation: J-Cat RS232 Direct Connect $119" 

Cat $149" 

Smart Cat 1200 Baud $455" 

Applecat II (Apple) $289" 



Product Information & Order Lines: (303) 279-2848 or (800) 525-7877 
Customer Service & Order Inquiry Line: (303) 276-8321 
ORDER DEPARTMENT: COMPUTER-LINE. Inc . 1019 8th Street . Golden. CO 80401 
COMPUTER-LINE of Denver • 1136 So Colorado Blvd • Denver, CO 80222 

We have leasing Look for our "Computer-Line" Stores 

terms available on opening throughout the United States. 
aOour equipment. Write lor our Franchise Package. 

ALL BRANDS ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS 



PRINTERS 
TEC/C-ITOH Printers 

Prownter I Parallel $379°' 

Prownter I Parallel/Serial $499" 

Prownter II Parallel 

Prownter II Parallel/Serial 

FIO Slarwriler Letter Quality 40 CPS Printer. 

Diablo Standard Daisywheel $1195" 

F10 Printmuter 55 CPS SCALL 

OKIOATA 
Microline 92: 160 CPS bidirectional with 40 CPS 

correspondence 80 column $575" 

Microline 93: 160 CPS bidirectional with 40 CPS 

correspondence 132 column $995" 

Pacemark 2350: 350 CPS bidirectional/2 color printing 

136 Column 

Parallel $2135" 

Serial $2285" 

Pacemark 2410: 350 CPS bidirectional/2 color printing 

85 CPS correspondence 

Parallel $2495" 

Serial $2595°° 

Cad For Prtcaa On Al OKIOATA Print.™" 

Star Micronics 

Gemim 104,15 Price is Too Low To Publish! 

IDS Prism 

132 Color $1495°° 

Smith Corona 

TP-I Parallel or Serial $568°° 

Call for Pries* on Epson's New FX Sertoli 



CIRCLE 146 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Atlantic 

OMPUTER 

Accessories 

niM I ctio w •yiuuciyio o 
MONITORS $ ETC. 



Comparison of Sorts, continued. 



A MOCK 

AMDEK 1-13- COLOR MONITOR u 

AMOEK II-13" HI RES RGB COLOR MON 
AMDEK III COLOR MONITOR 
AM-OVM DIGITAL MULTIPLEXOR 
AMPLOT PLOTTER 
AM0ISK3 - 3" DISK DRIVE 

ANCHOR AUTO AARS-232 DIR CON MODEM 

COMPUTER ACCESSORY CORP 



PI18I UNIV PRNTR STND (Til8l. ETC) 

PI18I UNIV PRNTR STNO W/WHLS&SHLF 16900 



310 0O 
69900 
425 00 
166 00 
795 00 
71900 
8500 

11900 



134 00 
94 00 



PI12II PRNTR STND W/WHLS&SHLF 
PI12I PRNTR STND (MX100 OR MB3A) 

C HAVES 

HMICRO/T P MICRO MOOEMII W/TER PRO 30900 

TERM PROG MICRO MODEM TERM PROG 90 00 

HSMART SMART MOOEM 

HCRON CHRONOGRAPH 

HMICRO MICRO MODEMII 

H1200 SMART MODEM 1200 
DATA SHIFT 

DSLCA LOWER CASE ADAPTOR A' 

DDBOOT DOUBLE BOOT 

DSLCB LOWER CASE ADAPTOR B' 

OSROM MINI ROM BOARD FOR APPLE 
MAXELL 



21500 
19900 
27500 
51900 

1995 
16 50 
4100 
24 60 



M0I5 2S-SS/SD(B0X0F10) 
""•< OF 10) 



32 00 
4100 
4500 



M1DD 5 25" SS/DOJBOX .. 
MD2 5 25-DD/SO(BOXOF 10) 
MICROSOFT 

SOFTCARO" 280 CARD 
MULTIAPP MULTI PLAN APPLE 
MULTIAPP CPM MULTI PLAN APPLE CPM229 00 
RAMCARD MICROSOFT 16K RAM CARD 

64K RAM CD 64K MEMORY CAROS 
128K RAM CD 128K MEMORY CARDS 
8OC0L CO 80 COLUMN CARD 
DUMPLING 16K PARA INTRF W/16K BUF 
DISK 128K W/DISK EMULAT FRMWR 
MKROWRRE OIST 

OKIPIX OKI HI-RES SCREEN DUMP 
SUPERPIX EPSON HI-RES SCREEN DUMP 
GRAFIT APPLE GRAPHING PROGRAM . 

PERFORMR PRNTR ENHNC USE W/PAR CD 38 90 

OKI ROL OPT 82A ROIL FEED 
M84S MICROLINE SERIAL PRINTER 
M83A MICROLINE 83A PRINTER 
MICR080 MICROLINE 80 PRINTER 
M82A MICROLINE S2A PRINTER 
2350P HIGH SPEED PARALLEL PRNTR 
2350S HIGH SPEED SERIAL PRINTER 

92 160CPS PRINTER 

93 WIDE CARRIAGE 160CPS PRINTER 



24900 
18000 



19900 
295 00 
16900 
163 00 
329 00 

1995 
19 95 
2195 



29 00 

1149 00 

655 00 

34500 

42900 

2099 00 

2219 00 

515 00 

899 00 



CT-160 COLOR MONITOR 

TR-120-MIP HI-RES GREEN PHOSPHOR 
PHOERIX ZOOM ERAPHICS 
SMITH CAROM TP-1 
TB PROOUCTS 

JOY STICKS 

PADDLES 

TYMAC PARALLEL INTERFACE/CABLE 
USI INTERNATIONAL 

P12 12" GREEN PHOSPHOR MONITOR 

PI3 12- AMBER PHOSPHOR MONITOR 

PI1 9" GREEN PHOSPHOR MONITOR 

PI4 9- AMBER PHOSPHOR MONITOR 
VIDEX 

VIDEX1 80 COLUMN CARD 

VIDEX5 ENHANCERII 

VIDEX6 FUNCTION STRIP 

VIDEX9 SPECIAL CHARACTER PROMS 
WABSN M11A411X 525' SS/SD OSK (10) 



299 00 

15900 

2900 

59900 

4700 
32 00 
99 00 

159 00 
175 00 
135 00 
15900 

235 00 
11900 
59 00 
25 00 
20 99 



2% Discount /Payment W/Order 
Fla. Residents Add 5% Tax. 

1 -800-327-O933 

1 -305-972-5399 

9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. 
6951 N.W. 15th Avenue 
Ft. Lauderdale. FL 33309 




00160 

001 70 

00180 

00190 

00200 

00210 

00220 

00230 

00240 

00250 

00260 

00270 

00280 

00290 

00300 

00310 

00320 

00330 

00340 

00350 

00360 

00370 

00380 

00390 

00400 

00410 

00420 

00430 

00440 

00450 

00460 

00470 

00480 

00490 

00500 

00510 

00520 

00530 

00540 

00550 

00560 

00570 

00580 

00590 

00600 

00610 

00620 

00630 

00640 

00650 

00660 

00670 

00680 

00690 

00700 

00710 

00720 

00X30 

00/40 

00750 

00760 

00/70 

00780 

00790 

00800 

00810 

00820 

00830 

00840 

00850 

00860 

00870 

00880 

00890 

00900 

00910 

00920 

00930 

00940 

00950 

00960 

00970 

00980 

00990 

01000 

01010 

01020 

01030 

01040 



INPUT S» 

IF S« . 'YES 

PRINT 



GO TO 270 



SELECT SORTING ALGORITHH' 



TYPE 
' B 

■ R 
' S 
' K 



TO USE' 
BUBBLE SORT' 
DELAYED REPLACEMENT ' 
SHELL - METZNER' 
QUICKSORT' 



4000' 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
INPUT S« 

PRINT 'TYPE THE FOLLOWING: SAMPLE SIZE. MEAN. STD. DEW. 

S2"S4=F»0 

Xl-TIM 

INPUT Y.M.S 

IT YO4000 GO TO 370 

PRINT 'MAXIMUM SIZE ■ 

GO TO 280 

REM 

RKM 

REM COMPUTE RANDOM NOS. USING CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM TECHNIQUE 

FOR N«l TO Y 

R=0 

FOR J-l TO 12 

R=R+RND 

NEXT J 

R»M+S*(R-6) 

D(N)=INT(R) 

S2-S2+D(N) 

S4=S4+D<N)*D<N> 

NEXT N 

X2>=TIM-X1 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

M2=S2/Y 

U2=S4-M2*S2 

V2=V2/<Y-1> 

PRINT 'MEAN 



RANDOM NUMBERS GENERATED IN'IX2»' SECONDS. 



SM2* 
STD. DEV. ■ 



»SGR(V2> 



WHAT FORM OF OUTPUT DO YOU WANT?' 



PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

INPUT 0% 

C»=CPY*<Q«.1.1> 

D» CPY»<U«.LEN<Q«>.1> 

IF C« OF' GO TO 810 

PRINT A TEMPORARY FILE OF THE FORM! YOUR PROJECT-ID*F«. ' 
PRINT 'HAS BEEN ASIGNED TO THIS RUN. TO PRINT THE CONTEt> 
'OF THIS FILE. YOU MUST EXIT THE BASIC COMPILER AND' 
'USE THE eED F«. OR eDATA.L F». COMMANDS. 



'TYPE 
' G 
' T 
' F 
' TS 
' FS 



IF YOU UANT' 
HISTOGRAM ON TTY' 
NUMBERS ON TTY' 
NUMBERS ON FILE' 
NUMBERS ON TTY. SORTED' 
NUMBERS ON FILE. SORTED' 



PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

OPEN F« FOR TEMPORARY OUTPUT AS FILE 1 

IF Q*<>'G' GO TO 860 

IF F=l 00 TO 840 

GOSUB 1470 

GOSUB 1260 

GO ID 1120 

IF D«<>'S' GO TO 890 

IF F'l GO TO 890 

GOSUB 1470 

IF C*<>'F' GO TO 990 

FOR A*l TO Y STEP 10 

FOR B=A TO A+9 

IF B>Y GO TO 1120 

WRITE ON II IKB)* 

NEXT B 

WRITE ON i: 

NEXT A 

CLOSE 1 

GO TO 1140 

IF M-'T' GO TO 1040 

IF LEN<Q«>: GO TO 1020 

STOP 

PRINT 'IMPROPER OUTPUT CODE. TRY AGAIN! 

GO TO 600 
PRINT 



CIRCLE 1 18 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



226 






May 1983 • Creative Computing 






INTERNATIONAL 



SAVE ON ... COMPUTERS • MONITORS 
PRINTERS • PERIPHERALS • SUPPLIES * 



OMEGA 

BLOCKBUSTER 

SPECIAL 



AMDEK 
COLOR I MONITOR 

*289 



Manufacturers 
Suggested 
Retail Price 

449.00 



NEW! 

EPSON FX-80 PRINTER 

Now Available 
For Immediate Delivery! 

• Up To 160 cps • II x 9 Matrix • Pinfeed Platen 
• Proportional Spacing • Graphics • Elite Pitch 
• Centronics Parallel Interface • Internal 2K Ram 



It's All New... And It's OMEGA PRICED! 
For Our Price. . .CALL 1 800-343-0873 TODAY I 



Offer Good Thru 5/31 /83 



SAVE ON LETTER QUALITY PRINTERS 

DIABLO 620 New Low Price 929.00 

DIABLO 630 w/API & cable 1 ,749.00 

NEC 3510 SPINWRITER 1 ,399.00 

NEC 7710 SPINWRITER 2,045.00 

NEC 7730 SPINWRITER 2,095.00 

BIG SAVINGS ON ACCESSORIES 

HAYES SMARTMODEM 300 Baud 230.00 

HAYES MICROMODEM II (APPLE II) 289.00 

MICROSOFT SOFTCARD PREMIUM SYSTEM . 459.00 

ORANGE MICRO GRAPPLER + 1 20.00 

PKASO PRINTER CARDS 1 29.00 

RANA ELITE I (APPLE II) 299.00 

SIGNALMAN MODEMS (MK I) As Low As . . 85.00 



DOT MATRIX PRINTER BARGAINS 

C-ITOH PROWRITER 8510 AP 399.00 

IDSMICROPRISM480 549.00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 92 (NEW) . 549*00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 93 (NEW) ... 859.00 

STAR MICRONICS GEMINI 10 349.00 

MONITOR SPECIALS FROM OMEGA 



AMDEK 300 G 

AMDEK 300 A 

NECJB1260 

NECJB1201M 

USI Pi-2 12" GREEN MONITOR . 
USI Pi-3 1 2" AMBER MONITOR . 



139.00 
165.00 
119.00 
169.00 
159.00 
179.00 



ACCESSORIES & SUPPLIES 

OMEGA Has A Complete Line of Accessories & 
Supplies for the Apple II and many other 
Popular Computers by manufacturers like: 

• D. C. Hayes • Microsoft • Tymoc 

• M & R Enterprises • Mountain Computers 

• Kensington Microware • Practical Peripherals 

• T.G. Products • Videx 

SOFTWARE 

Omega Caries Software by the following 
companies'. 

• American Business Systems • Ashton Tate 

• Dakin 5 • Innovative Software • Microsoft 

• Sorcim • Stoneware • Visicorp 



MAGNETIC MEDIA 

OMEGA Stocks Diskettes by: 

• Dyson • Elephant • Maxell • Verbatim 

• All Equipment Factory Fresh w/ MFT Worranty 

• Prices Do Not Include Shipping Charges 

• Mass. Residents Add 5% Sales Tax 

• All Returns Subject To Restocking Fee 



CUSTOMER PICKUP NOW AVAILABLE 

334 R Cambridge St., Burlington. Mass. 
(617)229-6464 



CALL TOLL FREE I 
1.800.343-0873 

Call Toll Ff ee lor Ordering. 
All Othert coll (6 1 7) 2?9 6464 



CHARGE IT! 

MasterCard / Vita 

WELCOME AT NO 
EXTRA CHARGE 



PRICES. SPECIFICATIONS AND 
AVAILABILITY OF ADVERTISED 
MERCHANDISE SUBJECT TO 
CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



UNADVERTISED SPECIALS ON • COMREX • EPSON • NEC • IDS PRISM • OKIDATA 

OMEGA INTERNATIONAL 

334 R CAMBRIDGE STREET, BURLINGTON. MA. 01803 



ARE YOU A 
SMART BUYER? 

For SS9.95 this is a smart buy if you re looking for a place 
to store your computer, peripherals, and accessories without 
spending a fortune. 



Comparison of Sorts, continued. 




The CS 1632 computer storage 
cabinets compact yet functional 
design fits almost anywhere while 
housing your computer monitor, 
joysticks, software, books and 
peripherals all for only $89.95. 
The slide out shelf puts the 
computer at the right height and 
position for easy comfortable 
operation. 

The fold up locking door keeps 
unwanted fingers off the key 
board when not in use. 
To store joysticks just turn them 
upside down and slide them into 
the inverted storage rack. 
Twist tabs on the back of center 
panel allow for neat concealed 
grouping of wires, while power 
packs rest hidden behind center 
panel on shelf. 

The slide out software tray has room for 14 cartridges or cassettes 
and up to 30 diskettes. Most brands of software will fit between the 
adjustable partitions with a convenient hook for the spare key at rear. 
Stand fits Atari 400 & 800. Commodore 64 &VIC 20. Ti 99/4A 

Cabinet dimensions overall 36" high x 33-7/8" wide x 16" deep 
Cabinet comes unassembled. Assembly requires only a screwdriver, 
hammer, and a few minutes of your time. 

Choice in simulated woodgrain. of warm golden oak or rich natural 
walnut finish. To ord erCS 1632. send $89.95 to: 

PO Box 446 V\fes» Um, OR 97068 
Phone orders cdl. (503) 636-6888 




IHYTECsystems 



Name _ 

Address 

City 



State 



Zip 



□ Golden oak finish □ Natural walnut finish 

□ My personal check, cashiers check or money order is enclosed. 

□ Bill my VISA # Exp. Date. 



J BUI my Mastercard * . 
Card Holders Signature. 



. Exp. Date . 



01050 

01060 

01070 

01080 

01090 

01100 

OHIO 

01120 

01130 

01140 

01130 

01160 

01170 

011B0 

01190 

01200 

01210 

01220 

01230 

01240 

01250 

01260 

01270 

01280 

01290 

O1300 



FOR A=l TO Y STEP 
FOR B=A TO A+9 
IF BY 60 TO 1120 
PRINT D<D>» 
NEXT B 
PRINT 
NEXT A 
PRINT 



10 



PRIM I 
PRINT 



Immediate shipment if m stock If personal check Is sent, allow additional 2 weeks 
Pnces subject to change Shipment subject to availability Cabinet shipped unassembled m 
2 canons Ships UPS fit collect FOB Portland. Oregon 



01310 

01320 

01 (.50 

01340 

01350 

01360 

01370 

01380 

01390 

01400 

01410 

01420 

01430 

01440 

01450 

01460 

01470 

01480 

01490 

01500 

01510 

01520 

01530 

01540 

01550 

01560 

01570 

01580 

01590 

01600 

01610 

01620 

01630 

01640 

01650 

01660 

01670 

01680 

01690 

01700 

01710 

01720 

01730 

01740 

01750 

01760 

01770 

01780 

01790 

01800 

01810 

01820 

01830 

01840 

01850 

01860 

01870 

01880 

01890 

01900 

01910 

01920 



DIFFERENT OUTPUT 

INPUT 0» 

IF Q»^'YES' GO TO 630 

IF Q«O'N0' GO TO 710 

PRINT DO YOU UANT ANOTHER SET OF NUMBERS'?' 

INPUT T» 

IF r«-'YES' GO TO 270 

STOP 

REM 

REM 

REM GRAPHING ROUTINE 

L=D(1) 

H ■ D< Y) 

I iH-D/30 

PRINT 

PRINT 'GRAPH OF' »VI NUMBERS PRODUCED. 

FROM .1 ; '" 'H- E ,r ' 

PRINT HAX<1»I> 

PRIM! 

PRINT 

1' 1 

fill A=L TO (H+MAX<lrl>> SfLP MAAtl.D 

PR1NI INT<A). 

II D<B) tKB-1) GO TO 1440 

IF D<B>: A GO TO 1420 

PRIN1 •» S 

B=B+1 

GO TO 1370 

PRINT 

NEXT A 

PRINT 

PRINT 

RETURN 

REM SORTING ROUTINE 

PRINT 



F-l 

X1=TIM 

IF S»='R' GO TO 1780 

IF S*-='B' GO TO 1580 

IF S*'='K' GO TO 2220 

GO TO 1990 

REM 

REM 

REM BUBBLE SORT 

PRINT 'BUBBLE SORT ALGORITHM' 

N7=C7-0 

FOR A-l TO Y 1 

FOR B=A+1 TO Y 

C7=C7+1 

IF D<AXD<B) GO TO 1680 
N7=N7+1 

T=D(A) 

D<A>-D<B) 

D<B)=T 

NEXT B 

NEXT A 

X2=TIM-X1 

PRINT X2f' 

PRINT N7S 

PRINT C7S' 

PRINT 

RETURN 

REM 

REM 

REM DELAYED REPLACEMENT SORT „.._-,. 

PRINT 'DELAYED REPLACEMENT SORT ALGORITHM 

N7=C7-0 

J7=K7»L7=0 

L7-L7+1 

IF L7=Y GO TO 1700 

J7-L7 

K7=J7+1 

C7-C7+1 

IF D<K7) -IKJ7) GO TO 1890 

J7=K7 

K7=K7+1 

IF K70Y GO TO 1860 

IF L7=J7 GO TO 1820 

N7=N7fl 



SECONDS SORTING TIME' 
SWITCHES EXECUTED' 
COMPARISONS EXECUTED' 



May 1 983 e Creative Computing 



01930 T=D(J7) 

01940 D<J7)=D(L7) 

01950 D(L7) I 

01960 GO TO 1820 

01970 REM 

01980 REM 

01990 REM SHELL - METZNER SORT 

02000 PRINT SHELL - METZNER SORT 

02010 N7»C7»0 

02020 N6 r 

02030 M6=INT<M6/2> 

02040 IF M6=0 GO TO 1700 

020S0 K6-Y-M6 

02060 J6=l 

02070 I6-J6 

02080 L6=I6+M6 

02090 C7=C7+1 

02100 IE D(I6X»D(L6> GO TO 2170 

02110 N7-N7+1 

02120 T»D(I6) 

02130 D<I6)»n<L6) 

02140 D<L6)=T 

02150 I6-I6-M6 

02160 IF I6>»1 GO TO 2080 

02170 J6*J6+1 

02180 IF J6>K6 GO TO 2030 

02190 GO TO 2070 

02200 REM 

02210 REM 

02220 REM QUICKSORT 

02230 PRINT 'QUICKSORT ALGORITHM' 

02240 N7»C7-0 

02250 K8=l 

02260 P<K8>=1 

02270 W<K8)»Y 

02280 L8=l 

02290 R8=Y 

02300 IF (R8-L8X9 GO TO 2640 

02310 I8*L8 

02320 J8*R8 

02330 C7*C7+1 

02340 IF D(I8)>D(J8> GO TO 2440 

02350 J8=J8-1 

02360 IF J8: 18 GO TO 2330 

02370 J8«JS+1 

02380 KB*--K8+1 

02390 IF (I8-L8) (R8-J8) GO TO 2600 

02400 P(K8)»L8 

02410 U<K8>»IB 

02420 L8=J8 

02430 GO TO 2300 

02440 N7»N7+1 

02450 T=tt(J8> 

02460 D<J8)-I>(I8) 

02470 D<I8>=T 

02480 GO TO 2510 

02490 C7-C7+1 

02500 IF 0(J8XD<I8> GO TO 2550 

02510 18*18+1 

02520 IF .18 IB GO TO 2490 

02530 J8=J8+1 

02540 GO TO 2380 

02550 N7=N7+1 

02560 r-D(JB) 

02570 0(J8)=D(I8) 

02580 D(I8>*T 

02590 GO TO 2350 

02600 P(K8>«J8 

02610 W<K8)=RB 

02620 R8-I8 

02630 GO TO 2300 

02640 IF (R8-L8+l)=l GO TO 2760 

02650 FOR I8><L8+1> TO R8 

02660 FOR J8-LB TO (IB-1) 

02670 J9-I8-JB+L8-1 

02680 C7=C7+1 

02690 IF D<J9)OD<J9+l> GO TO 2750 

02700 N7-N7+1 

02710 T-D(J9) 

02720 D<J9)«D<J9+1) 

02730 D(J9+1>-T 

02740 NEXT J8 

02750 NEXT 18 

02760 L8=P<K8> 

02770 R8-UIK8) 

02780 K8«K8-1 

02790 IF K8=0 GO TO 1700 

02800 GO TO 2300 

02810 END 

May 1 983 *> Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 279 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Medieval Combat 




Medieval Combat is a strategy game 
for the Atari which requires 32K for 
cassette and 40K. for disk. 

The game is the medieval equivalent 
of "This town ain't big enough for both 
of us, pahdner!" You and your opponent 
are superpowers surrounded by lesser 
kingdoms. The enmity between your two 
countries is so great that neither can al- 
low the other to survive. 

The game universe consists of eight 
kingdoms. The castle and armies of the 
two opponents are in red and blue. 
Other kingdoms are in brown. 

Initially, each opponent has 12 armies 
at his command; four each of archers, 
cavalry and infantry. The muster 
strength of each army is displayed in the 
first two lines of the text window (red is 
on the top line). These are updated after 
each battle. The combat strengths of the 
other (brown) kingdoms are assigned 
randomly. Since the peasants in these 
kingdoms are loyal, you cannot find out 
the strength of the brown armies before 
you attack. 

Your fighting or effective strength de- 
pends on the type of battle fought and 

Fred Pinho. 676 Rollingwood Way, Valley Collage. 
NY 1OT89. 



Fred Pinho 



the army type as shown in Figure 1. 
Infantry were not very effective in open- 
country warfare during this era. The ar- 
mored knight still reigned supreme. On 
the other hand, knights were not too 
useful when laying siege to fixed 
fortifications. If you attack a neutral 
(brown) kingdom, you must win by 
besieging the castle. Battles between the 
red and blue armies take place in open 
country. 

The outcome of the battle depends on 
the strength of the opposing forces. If 
the forces are closely matched, the battle 
will be indecisive, losses will be heavy, 



and both sides will be forced to retreat. 
If you can set your strategy so that your 
forces are greater than those of your en- 
emy, then your losses will be reduced. If 
you can overwhelm your opponent, you 
will destroy his armies. In addition, you 
will also further reduce your losses by 
recruiting a proportion of your foe's 
demoralized and discouraged soldiers. 

Here, as in real life, it is considered 
very bad form to lose your "home" king- 
dom. If this happens, a significant 
proportion of your subjects become dis- 
illusioned with your incompetence. They 
defect to your opponent providing him 
with sorely needed reinforcements. You 
also become nameless, being referred to 
solely by your color. This is a great 
humiliation for someone with your 
drive, ambition and ego. 



Figure I. 



Army 
Type 

Cavalry 
Archers 
Infantry 



Multiplier of Muster Strength 

per Battle Type 

Siege Open 

of Castle Country 

0.4 0.9 

0.8 0.7 

0.8 0.5 



230 



May 1983 • Creative Computing 



If both kings invade a neutral king- 
dom, the initial battle is between the 
forces of the two kings. However, the 
native forces immediately attack the vic- 
tor in the hope of catching his armies 
while still weak and in disarray from the 
first battle. 

During your campaign, you may be 
beset by natural disasters (illness, floods, 
etc.). No one said that war was a piece of 
cake. Also, you must constantly be on 
the alert for rebel attacks. Once you con- 
quer a kingdom, the losers form a rebel 
army which will quickly attack should 
you display any weakness. 

Type RUN and the program asks for 
the name of each king. Then the screen 
goes blank for a few seconds while the 
computer defines a new character set. 
The kingdom map is then drawn and the 
war begins. 

The computer flashes each army on 
and off, in turn, while asking for your 
move. Type the first letter of the king- 
dom you wish to move to. It is not nec- 
essary to hit return. To keep an army 
in place, type any number or letter key 
other than those of the kingdoms (i e 
AJJ,C.G,N,P,S,V). The space bar is also 
OK. Each kingdom is labelled on the TV 
display. 

Your forces are too massive to allow 
movement over the mountains or 
through the forests. They can move only 
via specific passes through these ob- 
stacles. The computer tells you if your 
move is illegal. 

Note that within each army type, each 
army is identified by a dot. These dots 
identify the army number as follows: 

1 2 



Since these dots are hard to see, the 
computer flashes the army when 
requesting battle commands. 

It is necessary for the opponent to 
look away while the first player makes 
his moves. If you suspect that your 
opponent is cheating, you can try to out- 
fox him by typing a key close to that of a 
kingdom's key. In this way, you can also 
exercise the diplomatic craft of devious- 
ness along with your battle skills. 

After all moves are entered, the com- 
puter moves the armies and the battle 
begins. 

You can conquer your known world 
in two ways. If you can control a total of 
four kingdoms, your influence will be so 
great that your opponents will give up 
the fight. Alternately you can destroy 
your opponent's armies until their 
strength is so low that they will surren- 
der and pledge their allegiance to your 
banner. Should you be so evenly 



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CIRCLE 183 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Zf*!??"'* 6u,de W,th A PP»cotlont Adam B. Green 

This incredibly helpful, clearly written, flme- 

savkia users guide to dBASE II will moke 

nlserable ... It you're the type who 



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May 1983 « Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 241 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




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CIRCLE 316 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Medieval Combat, continued... 

matched that both armies are reduced to 
near zero, the game will end due to the 
exhaustion of your soldiers. 



structure is shown in 



The Program 

The program 
Figure 2. 

The program makes use of two 
character sets. The standard one is 
stored in ROM beginning at memory 
location 57344. To form the second 
character set, the first half of the ROM- 
based set (512 bytes) is moved into 
RAM (lines 32000-32020). The location 
chosen was just beneath the Graphics 1 
display list. 

Then the punctuation characters are 
redefined into the army and landscape 



characters (lines 32030-32040, 32100- 
32123). To make use of the two sets, a 
display list interrupt is set at the last line 
of the Gr.l display. Finally, a short ma- 
chine language program is used to 
switch between the two character sets 
(lines 32050-32060, 32125). 

Note that the machine language pro- 
gram, used to move the ROM-based set 
into RAM, is stored as graphics charac- 
ters within a string (CHAR $ in line 
32020). Since, the printer will not print 
graphics characters, type the string as 
shown in Figure 3. 

I hope you enjoy this game as much as 
I enjoyed programming it. May all your 
campaigns be successful and may you 
rule your realm long and wisely. 



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CIRCLE 236 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Lines Purpose 

10-240 Initialization and initial display 

275-1292 Subroutines 

1740-2980 Main game loop 

3000-3617 Subroutines 

9000-9220 Data statements 

32000-32125 Subroutine and data for redefining the 

character set and setting up a display 
list interrupt. 



Figure 3. 



U 



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For the Sorcerer in you. 



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Desert Command - 

A board style wargame of the conflict in North 
Africa Try to surpass Rommel at tho commander ot 
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Cighth Army commander*- 

The Heads ot Thanatar - 

A fantasy quest to free the spirit ot a dead friend 
Rased on the rules ol Runequesl" _ s» 9S 



Rescue - 

You control 



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Money order or cheque in Canadian funds 

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Character 
Position 
in String Type 

1 Lower-case H 

2 Inverse ) 

3 Control comma 

4 Inverse control E 

5 Inverse M 

6 Inverse ) 

7 Inverse control period 

8 Inverse control E 

9 Inverse N 

10 Inverse 1 

1 1 Inverse M 

12 Inverse control Q 

13 Inverse K 

14 Inverse H 

15 Inverse P 

16 Inverse lower-case Y 

17 Inverse lower-case F 

18 Inverse L 

19 Inverse lower-case F 

20 Inverse N 

21 Inverse % 

22 Inverse N 

23 Inverse I 

24 Inverse lower-case B 

25 Inverse P 

26 Inverse lower-case M 

27 Control period 



Seen on Screen 

h 

Inverse ) 

Graphics heart 

Inverse graphics character 

Inverse M 

Inverse ) 

Inverse graphics diamond 

Inverse graphics character 

Inverse N 

Inverse 1 

Inverse M 

Inverse graphics character 

Inverse K. 

Inverse H 

Inverse P 

Inverse y 

Inverse f 

Inverse L 

Inverse f 

Inverse N 

Inverse % 

Inverse N 

Inverse I 

Inverse b 

Inverse P 

Inverse m 

Graphics diamond 



CIRCLE 303 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



232 



May 1 983 c Creative Computing 



18 DIM HOC 9. 7>,KS<3. 7),R*(5, 11).BA(5, 1 1 ) , NA< 7 ) , RBA( 7) , TE< 1 . 1 1 ) 

^1) DIM ENS|48),MVRS( 12),MVBS< 12>.NV8S(12),M1S(1|.KDS(8).NMRS(9),NMBS(9),HLDS(8), 
PIS(1>. JS(8),NUMBERS<24) 

, NAMEBS(25),L0G0S(3S).UNS(9),tSS<9) 

■: ENS ="2399992599998149998469992 3 



MEDIEVAL COMBAT ■ : FOR I'l TO 18:P0SITI0N 



25 DIN ARMYS(24),8tKS(39),NAMERS(25), 
38 BLKS'" 
567914 7999347999456999" 

35 NUMBERS=*FIRST SECONDTHIRD FOURTH" : ARMTS'"CAVALRY ARCHERS INFANTRY ": MV8S* "999 
999999999" 

48 GRAPHICS l:LOGOS«" 
1,8:? fbiLOG0S(L,L»17):COL0R 138 

42 PLOT »,7:0RAWT0 19,7:DRAWT0 19,9:0RAgT0 e,9:DRAWT0 8,8 

43 SOUND e,L-14,18,14:S0UND 1 , 1'14- 1, 18, 12: SETCOtOR 3, INT( RND(8 )-16) , 4: GOSUB 685 
:SETCOLOR 3. INT(RND(8)«16),6 

44 GOSUB 685:NEXT L:SOUND 8, 8, 8, 8: SOUND 1 , 8, 8, 8: POKE 71 1 , 78: E=2B8: F=298: G'688 
58 NAMERS'-".-? "My lord! You will conand the red":? "ir»1es. Choose your roy»l 
title! ": INPUT NAMERS 

55 IF NAMERS-"" THEN NAMERS'"Red Sire" 

68 NAMEBS-"":? :? :? :? "My liege! You will cosaand the blue":? "«r«les. Choose 

your roy»l tl tie! ": INPUT NAMEBS 

65 IF NAMEBS*"- THEN NAMEBS'"Blue Sire" 

2*8 GOSUB 32888: POKE 559,34: POKE 788, 38: POKE 82,1 

248 GOSUB 3888: GOSUB 3188: GOSUB 3158: GOSUB 3288: GOSUB 3588: GOTO 1748 

275 JS»"12483576":RETURN 

276 JS'"78612453":RETURN 

277 JS*"43526871":RETURN 

288 POKE 656,2:P0KE 657,1:RETURN 

298 POKE 656,3:P0KE 657, 1 : RETURN 

388 ADD = 8:SMW = 8:SMLR»8:SMLB = 8: IF RES> = 1.2 THEN 325 

385 IF B IHtN M»«.8b:G0SUB 18b8:00SUB 628:IF TESR>TESB AND TESB>8 THEN M'8.94;G0 



SUB 1*60 
318 IF R 



THEN M'8.65:G0SUB 1858:G0SUB 888: IF TESB>TESR AND TESR>8 THEN M'8.94:G0 



SDH 
31 S 



1850 

11 N 



320 UOTU bbb 



1 Ht M NA(.1)«0.B5«NA( J) 



Ji>b IF KtS>-l. b THEN 360 

110 IF B'ltl THEN M.0.9:GOSUB 1868:IF R'l THEN M'8.7:G0SUB 1858:G0SUB 888:G0T0 56 

i 

IF Fl>10 IHtN IF N'l THEN KBA ( J ) =0 . 7»NA( J I : NA( J ) =8 : GOTO 565 

IF k=18 IHtN M«8.9:GUSUB 1050: IF B'l THEN M«0.7:GOSUB 1868:G0SUB 828:G0T0 56 



335 

<40 

b 

34b 
3S0 
3bb 
lb0 
3/0 
l/b 



II K=18 IHtN IF N'l THEN RBA( J)'8. 7«NA< J) : NA( J)'B: GOTO 565 

IF N = 18 IHEN NA(J)=0.yNA(J): IF B=l THEN M*8.7:G0SUB 1068:GOSUB 828:G0T0 565 

IF N=10 fHFN IF R'l THEN M-0.7:GOSUB 1858:G0SUB 688:G0T0 565 

IF Ktl« IHtN 190 

V<0:GUbUH 1128 

IF B-0 IHFN 445 

38b GOSUB 1138: GOTO 445 

398 IF B<I0 IHFN 420 

V-l:ll(ISUH 1128 

II R-0 IHFN 445 
41b GOSUB 1140: GOTO 445 
428 IF R<0 IHtN 440 
430 GOSUB 1140:GUTO 445 
440 GOSUB 1138 

F B»18*rHEN M.0.9:GOSUB 1868: IF R'l THEN ADD' ( SMLR'8. 2 ) /SMW: V'l : GOSUB 1878: 
b: GOSUB 1058 

IF B«18 THEN IF R = l THEN GOSUB 888: GOTO 565 

IF B=l» THEN IF N'l THEN ADD' ( NA( })'*. 3) /SMU: V'l : GOSUB 1876: RBA( J) >8. 5»NA( J) 
NA( J) -0- GUTU 565 
46b IF R»10 IHEN M«0.9:GOSUB 1858: IF B'l THEN ADD'f SMLB'6. 2 ) /SMW: V = 8: GOSUB 1878 
471 IF R»18 IHEN IF B=l THEN M=8.5:G0SUB 1068:GOSUB B28:G0T0 565 
4/b IF R»18 IHtN IF N'l THEN ADD'(NA( J)»8. 3) /SMU: V = 8: GOSUB 1878: RBA( J)«8. 5«NA( J) 
:NA( J)=8:G0I0 56b 

4H0 IF N-10 IHtN NA(J).0.9'NA(J):IF B'l THEN NA( J)»NA( J)*SHLB«8. 2 
N:|| IHtN IF B»l THEN N=6.5:G0SUB 1868:G0SUB 828:G0T0 S65 
N=10 IHEN IF R'l THEN NA( J) =NA( J)»SMLR'8. 2: M-8. 5: GOSUB 1858:G0SUB 888. GOT 



400 
405 



4b0 
M'tt. 
45b 
4b0 



4B1 IF 
4«b IF 
b6b 
49b IF 
M>0 01 
b0b 
510 
M=0 
b20 
b25 



1060: IF R=l IHEN ADD«(SMLR«e.4)/SMU:V=l:G0SUB 1878: 



B=18 IHFN M=0 9: GOSUB 

GOSUB 10b0:GOTO 565 

B10 IHEN IF N'l THEN ADO- ( NA( J)«8. 5 ) /SMU: V= 1 : GOSUB 1878: NA( J)'8: GOTO 565 

R=10 THtN M.0.9:GOSUB 1058: IF B'l THEN ADD' ( SMLB-8. 4 ) /SMU: V'8: GOSUB 1878: 



II 
IF 
01:GObUB 10b0:GOlO 565 

k<10 THtN IF N'l THEN ADD' ( NA( J)*8. 5 ) / SMU: V 



IF 



8:G0SUB 1078:NA( J)»8:G0T0 565 
F N-ii THIN NA< J>'0.9'NA< J): IF B'i THEN NA<J)'NA<J).SMLB-8.4:M.e.61:G0SUB 1 

530IF N'18 THEN IF R'l THtN NA( J)'NA( J)*SMLR«8. 4: M-8. 81 : GOSUB 1856 
FOR U'8 TO ll.TE(V,U)'(INT((TE(V,U)*e.65)'16))/18 
X<6 IHtN b88 



b6b FOR V>8 TO 1: 
5/0 X'lt(V.H): IF 



S/b IF X<«0. 1 THEN TE(V,U)'0 
b7b GOTO 585 
5B0 1E(V,U)'-1080 
5BS NtXT U:NEXI VrRETURN 
F /=b7 THEN M1S«"8" 



bl0 
bll 
bl2 
613 
bl4 
615 
bib 
hi/ 



IF 2»bb THEN MIS' 



IF l'7l 



2'83 
2'b5 



IHEN MIS'' 
THEN MIS' 
THEN MIS' 



IF Z'8« THEN MIS' 



2»78 
2»8b 



THEN MIS' 
THEN MIS' 



RETURN 
1'sRETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RETURN 
RE I URN 



May 1 983 c Creative Computing 



233 



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: GOSUB 1106: GOTO 725 
: uuSUB liet: GOTO 725 




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Medieval Combat, continued... 

olB MlSs-tf-rRnUkN 

b20 If U<4 IHEN GOSUB F:L = W«6:? NUMBERS! L*l , L*6) i " ■; ARMYS ( 1 , 8) ;"?" ; : RETURN 

021 If W>3 AND W<8 IHEN GOSUB F. L«(M-4 ,«6: ? NUMBERS) L*l , L*6) ; " " j ARMYS( 9, 16) ; "?" 

• ■ Rt I URN 

622 If W>/ AND W<12 THEN GOSUB Fi L«(U-8)»6i ? NUMBERS! L*l , L*6) ; • " i ARMYS( 17, 24 ) ; ■ 

i - . . « t f UkN 

b2b II VAI(M1S)»X THEN GOSUB El 1 "You're already there! " i : GOSUB 1285:G0SUB G-.RET 

UkN 

oj« GOSUB Ei? 'Can't aove there! Please try aqal n. "■,-. GOSUB 128S:G0SUB G:RETURN 

b50 FOR V'0 10 1:F0R >>« TO 1 1 : TE< V, U)«- 1888: NEXT W: NEXT V 

6Sb fOR W;0 10 1 1 : T K RA(4,y)*J THEN TE( 8, W)«RA( 1 , W) 

ebb If BA(4,W)-:J THEN TE(1,U)*BA(1,H) 

66/ NEXT UktlURN 

b80 POKE 7/,0:fOR 1»1 TO 688iNEXT T 

brll GOSUB Et ? BLKS;:GOSUB F«? BLKS::RETURN 

bBb POKE 77,8:F0R T*8 TO 48:NEXT TiRETURN 

700 TESR»8: TESB»0:R£S*0:R>0:B»8:N«e 

78b IF RDol THEN 738 

/18 fOR W-8 TO 11 

711 If TE(8,W)>8 THEN 713 

712 NEXT W-GOTO 738 

713 IF BTL THIN 728 

714 IF W<4 THEN H<8.4 ; G0SUB 1188.GOT0 717 
71!, If U<8 IHEN M»8.8:G0SUB 1188:G0T0 717 
71b M<8. 8: GUSUB 1 100 
/17 NEX1 MibOTO 738 
728 If W<4 THEN M«0.9: 
721 If M<B IHEN M = 0. 7: 
/22 M=B. 5: GOSUB 1100 
72b NEX1 U 

/.IB If BLol THEN 755 

73b fOR W*8 TO 11 

/ Jb If lt( l,y)>8 THEN 738 

ISI NEXI U:G0I0 7bb 

7JB If BTl IHEN /4b 

739 II W<4 IHEN M*8.4:G0SUB 1118:G0T0 742 

/4« If U<8 THEN M»8.8:G0SUB 1118:G0T0 742 

741 M = B:(iOSUB 1118 

742 NEXT H:G0T0 755 

74b If K<4 THEN M«0.9:GOSUB 1110:GOTO 758' 

74b If W<B THEN M=8.7:G0SU8 1118:G0T0 758 

747 H.0. 5: liOSUB 1118 

7S0 NFXT W 

7bS It kl) AND BL THEN 775 

7bt) It kD AND NT THEN 778 

762 IF BL-0 THEN RETURN 

765 RES>TESB/NA(J):If RES>(1/1.2) AND RES<1.2 THEN B«l : BL»8: N«l : RETURN 

7b6 IF TESB>NA(J) THEN B-18: N'l : NT»8: RETURN 

76 7 kES«NA(J)/TESB:B>l:BL«8:N«18:RETURN 

778 kES»TESR/NA(J):If RES>( 1/1.2) AND RES<1.2 THEN R*l : RD>8: N'l: RETURN 

7/1 IF TESR>NA(J) THEN R«18: N'l : NT»8: RETURN 

772 RtS«NA( J)/IESR:R'l:kD«e:N'18:RETURN 

77b RES»rt.Sk/lfSB: IF RESX1/1.2) AND RES<1.2 THEN R« 1 : RD'8: B«l : BL*8: RETURN 

788 If RtS>l IHEN R=18: B=l : BL=8: RETURN 

78b RESOISB/IESR:R»1:RO«6:B»18:RETURN 

BUM 1=1: If KD(N,J)>1 THEN RETURN 

805 tOk Wtf TO LI, IF TE(8,W)<0.1S THEN 815 

818 GOSUB 1198:V-RA(b,W):Xl>KS(8,V):X2*KS(l,V):Yl>KS(2,V): Y2*KS(3,V) : Q0SUB 3488: 

RA(4, W)<RA(S,W):UOSUB 3388 

B15 NEXI UrkEIURN 

828 1=2:11 KU(0,J)*7 THEN RETURN 

82b fOR W = TO IliIF TE<1,W)<8. 15 THEN 835 

838 GUSUB 119b:V>BA(b,W):Xl>KS(8.V):X2>KS(l,V):Yl«KS(2,V) : Y2>KS(3,V):G0SUB 3488: 

BA(4,W)'BA(5,W):GUSUB 3388 

B3b NEXT W:kFTURN 

850 tOk W = TO 11 

Bbl If tt(0,W)>»0 THEN RA(1,W)'TE(8,U), IF RA(1,U)=8 THEN GOSUB 1198:F0R X*2 TO 3 

* K A ( X W)-H-kA(X+2 U ) * 9 ■ NE X T X 

85b It IFU, *)> = »' THEN'BA(1,W)«TE(1,W): IF BA(1,U)>8 THEN GOSUB 1195: FOR X*2 TO 3 

:BA(X,W)*0:BA(X«-2,U) = 9:NEXT X 

BbB Nix I W: GOSUB 3580: RETURN 

8/0 GOSUB 3bie+J:L=ir : KDS=HlDS:RETURN 

880 IF N>0 THEN 900 

882 It N>18 IHEN GOSUB 3610*0: LM-LTi MNS'HLDS: GOTO 988 

891 60SUB 3bl8*J:LL«LT:LSS«HLDS 

400 IF k=10 THEN WNS*NMRS:LW-LR 

901 It R=l THEN LSS'NMRS:LL*LR 

90^ It B>10 THEN WNS«NMBS:LW*LB 

40:1 II BM IHEN LS$-NMB$:LL<LB 

984 GOSUB Ft? 'Sires! Battle resul ts! ";: GOSUB G 

98'. If ktS<1.2 IHEN GOSUB t:? "Heavy losses on both sides! "j : GOSUB F:? 'Both sld 

«s are retreatl nq! " ; 

90b IF kts<l .? THEN GOSUB G: GOTO 940 

410 If kts>>2 THEN 935 

415 IF N THtN 92b 

420 GOSUB E: .' WNSIl.LU); 

r»ies are retreat i nq! " ; 

921 GO 10 940 

92b II N=10 THEN GOSUB E: ? UNS(l,LU)i* has withstood the s!eqe!"j 

926 it N=I0 THEN GOSUB F: ? LSS(l,LL);'s ar»1es are retreatl nq! ';: GOTO 948 

930 If N»l IHEN GOSUB E: ? UNS(l.LU);' has conquered ■ ; LSS( 1 , LL ) i • ! ■ , 

931 If NM THEN GOSUB F:? "Survivors have Joined the rebel s! "i : GOTO 948 



has defeated ■ ; LSS( 1 , LL ) ■, •< • ■, : GOSUB F:? LS$(l,LL)i*s a 



234 



May 1 983 » Creative Computing 



?or,o2s!V :? ' FOrC " " • = LS *< 1 -'-L),- destroyed! -,, GOSUB F. t M«(1,LM),< Is ,1c 
940 (jOSUB G: RETURN 

w.n'iS" ro U:,F R *c-«>-J then M(i.«)-n.iA(i,B).»»(i,ii,.(iirr((«*(i,y,* t . M 

9«SN[xTT^UB J ^R B ?{ U R{! ) ' M * B * (1 ' W,:BA(1 - M) - (INT «< B *< 1 .«>*«-»5).l.,,/ie 

. 1 m:^u8 J, GfR t 5 mS ,J,!Q0SU8 Fi? " Rebe,s '•*'•'* •'*•' • bi.,d, b.ttt.i-,.«osua 

B B G e RE 8 SRN , " ,!G0SUB F!? " RebeM <«*"»•« * 9.or„us vl ctory! ■ , , GOSUB 12B5=G0SU 

llll ll'W 8 - R8 »« J ) = 60SUB E,7 -Rebels l.fllct he.vy ,. , , 60 SUB F.l -then 

1821 GOSUB 1285: GOSUB G:RE1URN 

III* S?sist;?."; RBA(J,!G<>SUB t:? ' Rebe,S d " tr0y •«••«*'-«■.. "SUB F.t -A .111 

1831 GOSUB 1285: GOSUB G: RETURN 

\ttl l?,t 2"! !n !''"<<>. W>'M.TE<8,W> = NEXT U, RETURN 
252 l?,o u"l J2 " , IS!i'"»" , »"(l.")iKXT H=RETURN 

\lll ne u*2 2 'IMV W).TE(V,W)**00:NEXT H, RETURN 

l).\\TnV* '° U!lf TE < V -"»« THEN TE(V.M,. M .TE(V.W,,TE(V.W). ( INT(,TE(V.«) + ..e 

1891 NfXl W:RLTURN 

line USR.rESR^M.TEfe.WbRETURN 

1118 rtSBxrtSB*H.TE(l.H):RlTURN 

n23N?xTrKE?URN :IFTf,V - W,>8TH£NSM - SMW+1 

I"! NEXT^REtUn'" TE,1 ' W,>e ™" SMLB-SMLB-TEU.-, 

i"! n xt w ^^?urn !IF TE<,,W,> ' THEN ■wHw.nit.m 

lib* Gi.uI ( ?^ , :? 2 :'! S( !' J) i n * KS ' 2 - J » !Y 2" ( S(3,J) ! RETURN 

JoMlfL^I-.'.MfSiT 1 ' ° f Ch0 ' er4 h " br ° ken ° Ut '""'■GOSUB r,» -klngdo. of -, 
llbl M«e.85 ; G0SUB 9Se=RETURN 

iJ"ti4?"?,Miue D r ,,Lh ' reP ° rt * dySe " tery •P«—^ ! ' i = GOSUB F.l •».., de.th, r 
1166 M=8.8:G0SUB 958:RETURN 

ii 1 ^«??"f,lilo;"e d ,nf,uen " reported ,n ■•"*«i.L) 1 M-,,eosuB r.j -L.. 

11/1 M«».9:G0SUB 9S8:RETURN 

{ed 7 f-f°G S OSUB : G " Se, " re fU0<,U "' U '■«>*C».«.>I '■ •, .BOS* F.» "He.vy losses r.por 

11/6 M»8.B:60SUB 9S8;RE1URN 

ie 8 «?URN B F!? " Re,nforce " nt * reported In ■iKM(! l l.i,M'| l IMM G,M.l. 2, GOSUB 9 

1198 COLOR 32:PL0T RA< 2, W) , RA< 3. W) : RETURN 

Hit » l ??. 3 ? ! ?i;?I BA < 2 . H >.»*(3.«):RETURN 
288 If IKB» J THIN GOSUB E:? NAMEBS: GOSUB G 
1281 II IKR.J THIN GOSUB E: ? NAMERS: GOSUB G 

"*»J^.ft ?,.'£& G 0U ' t0 " 0Ur •"•■>•*•«.. -MaOS* r,? "your ho., Mnodo. h 

ices. G °fGOSUB ? G" r ° Ur SUbJeCtS "« «•'««.« to',, GOSUB F, ? -Join the opposlno fo 

^IWnnZ" r ° U,IF IKB * J ™ EN IF R *' 4 ' W »' J TH " D *<1.W)-(INT((1.3.RA(1.H)*8.8 

till RETUrS* rHEW IKR ' 9!N " R *-- R «< Slr.'.lR-e 

!"'to"°2, SwSV S' STSextT "•"' S0UN ° »•'»♦".". "• SOUND 2. FR-28, l..l. s FOR 

1251 NEXT X:RETURn' 

0(5?.«5)*U.e?«.T X 51 " 2!S0UN ° •• X *»». !•.'*= SOUND 1, 246-X, 18, 14: SOUND 2.INT(RN 

1256 FOR i.s'rb 2:S0UN0 X,8,8,8:NEXT X=RETURN 

1268 FOR W'S TO 7: IF KD<8.«).2 THEN J-W: P02, C-li GOSUB 3358 

1261 It KD(8,»).3 IHLN J«W: PCO. CM : GOSUB 3358 USU ° J "" 

1262 NEX1 WrGOSUB 3118 

|™ J?," »*• TO 11= IF BA(1,H).8 THEN NEXT W: RETURN 
,-Ai ?n D °5 1 A( r?-V\t LO l 8 *<2.«>.B*(3.y),NEXT W, RETURN 

26b 10R W<8 TO /:IF K0(8,W).l THEN J-W: PC«1 ■ C2: GOSUB 3358 
126b IF KI)(8.W)0 THEN J-W. PC-3: C-2 , GOSUB 3358 ' uusu0 "" 
126/ N1XT W: GOSUB 3118 

f^S F -2 R „J! 3 ! f0 U:,F "*<!.«)■• THEN NEXT U, RETURN 
^7? ^?k° R "*<».«) = f> LOT RA(2.H),RA(3,H):NEXT W, RETURN 

14?«KT r'Sti? k'I'cxV) TlF ° R T " T ° l!F0 '' X *' T ° 2 ' !F0R V * J T0 »S.SETC0LOR 4, Y 
I//B SfTCOLOR 4,M,H-bOSUB E 

isua .' ? HS^'bOSUB n G.RMSRN b " ,, ■ T » e, «'-^"60SOB F.l 'EMPEROR of the UNIVERSE! -, , G 
«?Sm°" *" 6 '° ' SUP - liF0R Y ' FR T0 "8 STEP iB.SOUND 8. Y, 18. X, NEXT Y:NEXT X: 

r=SOU^'S[iT. 9, * 1B " ,M8,!F ° R T " T ° 6e ' S0UN0 •.*.»•. ".SOUND l.A.,.18.14 !N EXT 
1286 SOUNU 1,8,8, 8: RETURN 

\IH ^nt't f0 U:IF RA <2.">>» THEN GOSUB 1198 

1291 It BA(2,W)>8 THEN GOSUB 1195 

1292 NIXI y.RFTURN 

!fiOSUFt°G UB E ' ? " S,r " ! ' " r " dy t0 »««P'"i '"SUB T.1 -your b.tt.e co-.^nds!", 
'■K e -?GoluS V r !MV8$ " 1VeSlG ° SUB F!? "*»«*»■. COMMAND MEI-..60SUB 128S.0PEN #3.4,8 



May 1983 • Creative Computing 



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Medieval Combat, continued... 

T!Zu = » ro ll.H «»(!.-)•• THEN NEXT U, GOTO 1856 
[J,. '^ gt;:K%i0T'S«J.«.Mt».">.«0«« 685 = IF "»M764,<> 2 55 THEN GET ,3. 
AGOSUB 6IBG0I0 1828 

IH66 GOSUB 1I96G0SUB 6»5: GOTO 1798 VAL ,[ NS (L L ) ) =VAL (HIS > THEN POP : GOTO 1 

lbV6 »»KA(4,W)-F0R Y«6 TO St I ■1*X«»»Y| If ValltWILMI 

"*• NEXT T.60SUB 625, H.--1. NEXT U:G0T0 1858 

IH4H «VRS(yi.W.l|=«lS:NEXI M rflMM . N0 « t .-. : G0SUB 1285:G0SUB G 

i 8 .*: rr^r: u ''.^f F B. ( rw"« : TH c E NT:? "goto ^ 

!S5. £3 B^TpioI'BA^-I.BA^.WWGOSUB 685: IE PEEK, 764 ,<> 255 THEN GET ,3. 
/.GOSUB bl6:00IU 1988 

1HH8 GOSUB 119S:G0SUH 6«: GOTO 1876 „.,.„,«.„ L ) ) = VAL (MIS ) THEN POP : GOTO 1 

I486 X*8A(4,W)-tOR Y = 8 TO S:L«1»X«6-Y:IF VAL ( t»> I I . L ), 

?"■ HEXT Y- GOSUB 6tS.UaU-l.RtXT W:G0TO 1925 

!SS ronN| , i g ; 1 i g ;!8:PO,E N 5 X 376S.24:EO R T = 8 TO 6 STEP 2:P0KE 53761-T. 168: NEXT T:P0K 

r S37b8,248-P0KE 53764,252 

1SS ^ro^.Ht'N'i^nirGOS^nUJc.l.GOSUB 3466:RA,5.-,.PA ( 4.W,:PA,4.., = J : 
GOSUB 3388 

GOSUB 1188 „,. T 

1478 NUI W-FUR T=e 10 3:S0I)ND T,8,8.6:NEXT T 
1496 r,|NTIKNU(8).3):G0SUB 275-Y 

r.,. ,8 -:i is ti^ A ^:uiiVT^^; e pSJ-^oi.36 

»M M.k'w^ 10 ll.fr BM4.U.-J THEN BL-1.P0P = G0T0 2656 

76SB |r HI) AND Bi fHtR BTI.»1:G0T0 2898 
-8h8 II RD = 8 AND 81 -8 THEN 2286 
;«78 II IIHU.JX'J THEN ??36 

:,;^r„ns.m B7.:G0SUB F. I "Battle underway 1. .,«.<1.L>, -I ', .rR.7S.B0S 

l«, GOSUB d ,_,...„ .c 

7188 GOSUB /B6G0SUB 8B6: GOSUB 386: GOSUB 858 
?1?6 IF Bll =8 IBtN 2388 
?1 (8 II M>(8 .))<>< THEN 2368 

US n^btiTgosub bsI'gosub f^K",-. forces .tt.ct the ..ct,M,,.r,. 

|S8 oOSUB 1286:G0SI)B G „.«,.. r „, 110 „c« 
i.OSUB 766 GOSUB 888: GOSUB 386: GOSUB 858 
?lhH If N«16 IHtN NFXT 2:GOT0 2376 

Vl" IF R.1B .HEN C1.PC3,00SUB 3 356: GOSUB 3118: NEXT 2: GO 2 78 
a [| Kali THEN C.2.PC3. GOSUB 3356:G0SUB 3116:NEXT 2:G0T0 23/6 

THEN NEXT 2:G0f0 2378 ,,. - 5 -•• GOSUB Ft? "unde 

2218 GDSUB H78GOSUB E=? "Rebel forces take over ,K06(l.L)i s ,-«« 

rir^KViSiW.niuffi^.SJSi.'StWsw's....... t.«™ » 

.. GOSUB B76 If Bl «l THEN 2278 

, || Kill... If I IHFN NEXT 2-GOTO 2376 Undefended MC0»| "I *| .FR«1S« 

NMK*(l.l Kli" takes over";:G0SUB F:? undefended . u , 

TH>N DUSDB U88- GOSUB 3568 

„..]). GOSUB dS-^OSUB 3116:NEXT 2:G0T0 2376 

I,a2 THtN NEXT 7:G0T0 2376 -undefended ■|K0*. '! *| .FR-1SB 

NMUHl.iBli- takes over-j:G0SUB Ft? undefended ,*u. 

I/S8-GDSI1H G 
??MS IF IKIfJ IHIN GOSUB 1/66- GOSUB 3588 

r,.s ^"iw^tf -. J .r*s«:. s?si*sa ^i e ^^ ( ^?:^B e 335. : GosuB .»..» ». 

V^^r BM. B rH!:'i^D%? b ">2 THEN C...r..»|..J..MM 3356=G0SUB 3.16: IF IKR 

;^I Hf f ? ^rTH^iF°^8?3H>3 THEN C = 3:PCK0,.. J , = G0SUB 3356:G0SUB 311. 

S T^NTfkNfi,6,.8,:IF K0(..3,O OR RB.(J).B OR IXBO OR I^^N 2MB 

?398 GOSUH »78 : G0SUB E:? -Peasants report rebels .assln, , : GOSUB F.. . u , 

. R.|8:G0SUB 1258:G0SUB G -GOSUB F. ? "run attack in 

;oif« ggsuB t.? "My lord! Rebels have bequn a hit and ; -. G05UB f.. 

".4l8 V GDMm'b56 U TtL8 65:V = 8-. IF KO(B,0)-2 THER Jf-1 
7471 I Oft W*6 10 II: If TF(V.W)>8 THEN TES«TES»TE( V, U ) 

Mm ni xr u 

?448 IT RBA(.l|>rFS THFN 2526 
,-4s- krs-rES/RBA(J):lF RFS> = 1.4 THEN 2588 
•4h8 «-8 BV..0SII8 1898-G0SD8 1666-.G0T0 2886 
,0SUB 1896- GOSUB 1616: GOTO 2866 
<fs.fcBA(JWTFs- II ftfS>M.4 IHEN2568 
;in N<6 n GOSUB 1896: GOSUB I 628: GOTO 2866 .„.,,.- or ,1 ♦« . r .3- GOSUB 3356:G0 
2568 H 6 61 GOSUB 1698 GOSUB 1 638 : NA( J ) =RBA( J > : RBA( ) -6 : PC-l-V . C-3. GOSUB 
',1111 .116 
.-B68 GOSUB MS6 

■ ,' -INI (RNIII6)aHl»l : IF ?>5 THtN 2876 



CIRCLE 236 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



236 



May 1 983 ■ Creative Computing 



2H15 .JMNI(RN0(N)*8):ri0SUB 878: FR. 1 8 , GOSUB 1256 

2B28 UN Z GOSUB 1168.1165,1178,1175,1188 

2H76 CKR«8:CKB'8: f!>R»8: TSB-6 

2875 FOR W8 10 7- IF KD(6,W)-1 THEN CKR.CKR.l : GOTO 2898 

2BH5 IF KU(8,R|«2 THEN CKB«CKB*1 

fSofo'ms"' " ""' 4 * ND CKB = 4 ™ EN 6 ° SUB F:? '* STALEMATE?-,: GOSUB 1285: GOSUB G 

289b It CKR<4 IHEN 2911 

™£2?™£ft£'J$i,* f ■'""■»<>■«■«>.■ "••«• tr.u.phe,!-,: GOSUB F, J -Opposl 

2985 bOSIM 1255: GOSUB 1268: GOSUB G: GOSUB 1275- GOTO 2958 

2911 IT CKK<4 THEN 2925 

|2* r ••?* » B *r Jouf -r P ' *** " ,Ct ° ry f ° r ••■ ro «« 1 .<-»)l'l'l.aOSUI F.7 -Opponents pled 

?<J1S GOSUB !?!>!» QOSUH 1265:GOSUB G:GOSUB 1275:G0T0 2958 

?92S^0R ... 10 H.TSR = rSR»RA(l,g):TSB.TSB»BA(l.W):N£XT H, IF TSR>2 AND TSB>2 THE 

?"?60S0B S f >2 * N ° rSB " 2 ™ EN G0SUB E:? NHB *". LB >="' '•«•«•« "«ve been destroyed 
OSUH ilwISi'.jTS.S^'mS" ? NMRS(1 - LR »- "1-MI...-..80SUB 1255:G0SUB 126., G 
d7" bOSUrlV *"" tSR<=Z ™ EN G0,iUB E:? N " R * (1 ' LR >>" S » r "«s h «»e ^en .nihil, te 

79..; IF lsH>2 ADO rSk,=2 THEN ? NMB5U.LB).- Is «t ctorl ous! ", : GOSUB 1255:G0SUB 1 
2h:. inisiih (,:iiOSUB I275G0IO 2958 ° J 

2948 II rSR^? AND TsB<«2 THEN GOSUB E: > "Both ir.1t. dec) ..ted 1 ••• GOSUB F 

"aisfUoS'u' *"" rSB< " rHE " 7 '"•' "° ,0n, " r *••«•«•' "»••« at 1 ..t! ', : GOSUB 
29M n^liV-l.'Wtl \' \ SX V % \ ?S y ° U " ,Sh t0 »•' »9»1n- ; :INPUT PLS=POKE 752.1 

j"-s.i^ l .*;;i; :? E , N do.s'-: ? 60suB E:? ■"» •»*.•—«•■ <* »..»..,.,, 6 osu. f, 

2988 ioTo'lCsJ" INEN ° 0SUB 1285:60SUB 129«=60SUB G: GOTO 248 

3888 RESrORl 9868F0R V«8 TO 14:REA0 M, X, Y, Z: COLOR 43PL0T V XDRAaJTO Y 7-NFxT « 

RHURN ' 9 * 2 ' :F0R ""' '° 9:REA ° ".".UfcOlOR iefpLO?Vx b" A ?J°Y Y zfNm V- 

V^l Rf J r0RE ,B4e - l '" 0R «•• r 7:F0R »•• TO 9:REA0 2: KD( V. WW- NEXT VNEXT U 

3 • FOR Hi. 10 7:C0L0R KD( 1 , y ) : PLOT K0(2. W) , KD< 3. W ) : IF "o(4 WW6 THEN 3115 

Jill (.01 OR <r.(4.«l:PLUT K0<5,.).KD<6..) IF KD<7 . =8 THEN 3115 

3112 COLOR XD(7,W):PL0T H0(8. N) KO 9 « 

3115 NEXI W:RE1URN 

3158 FOR X^8 10 18 STEP 2:C0L0R 154:PL0T X,8:C0L0R 186:PL0T X 19NEXT X 

! ^ rSS J ' I0 1S SfEP 2:COL0R 186:PL0T X 8: COLOR 54: p[oT X 19 NEXT X 

s .x ;:. to 15 iri? ;:%s .Sifts ..ttsts isrss? ! •;:. s ; 

KIOI xTnVx.'x ,3!, ' F * *' COl «>« '''LOT X.8:NEXT X:FOR X«16 TO 19:READ Z.COLOR Z: 
31b2 FOR Y 1 10 4:RFAI> 2:C0lOR Z:PLOT 19.YNEXT Y 

i , Au :i z R coi , SR'z 9 Pi S r r x k i9"SFx? x 4: " fA0 2:C0L0R Z:PL0T 19 ' Y:NEXT Y:F0R X ' 15 T ° »9= R 

J iu 4 0R° R :PL0? x°i9?NElTY' :RtA0 Z:C0L ° R 2!PL ° T 19 ' r ' NEXT Y:F0R Xs7 T 12=»EA0 Z 

D l z! > CO| r R 2!RLot ,, X^9:Nlx? 1° 19:REA ° Z " C ° L ° R Z:PL ° T •• Y!NEXT Y = F0R X 'l T ":REA 

J166 10R Y--8 TO 13.-R1A0 Z:C0L0R Z:PLOT 8,Y : NEXT YRETURN 

3288 RESIORF 9288F0R W>8 TO /:FOR V = 8 TO 3:REA0 Z: KS( V, WW: NEXT V- NEXT W 

3218 FOR V,8 TO 7: NA( V ) =2*INT(RN0( «).S) : RBA( V ) .8: NEXT V 

3228 RESTORE 9218:F0R W>8 TO 11:REA0 Z: RA( 8. W) -2: NEXT U 

3238 RESIORF 9228:F0R W>8 TO 11:REA0 Z: BA(8. W) «Z: NEXT W 

3248 FOR U*8 TO U:RA(l.W)«2:BA(l,y).2:NEXT W 

(i?JlfYi"is(2 l, j" , " 3)M:RBA(J)rNA(J)iNA(J) ** !PCO:C " 1,G0SUB »»•• «"«(•. JhXMK 

3251 Y2,«S(3.j):IXR.J:F0R W<8 TO 1 1 : RA(4, H) . J : R»( 5, W) - J: NEXT W: GOSUB 3688: GOSUB 

3252 FOR W^B TO 1 1 : GOSUB 3488: GOSUB 3368: NEXT W:T.J 
.(25b J>S*INI(RND(8)«3): IF I * 3 =. J THEN 3255 

)268 RBA(J)=NA(J):NA(J)»6:PC=3:C»2:G0SUB 3358:X1»KS(8, J):X2.KS(1 J)-V1«KS(2 Jl 
3261 Y2.KS(3.J):IKB.J:FOR W-6 TO 1 1 : BA( 4. W) • J: BA( 5. i) 1 J= NEXT W: GOSUB "bm'goSUB 

J262 FOR U>8 10 11G0SUB 3488:G0SUB 3388: NEXT W : RETURN 

3388 II II THEN IF RA(1,U)>8 THEN 3328 

3381 IF (-1 THIN COLOR RA(8.H) : PL0T RA( 2 , W) , RA( 3, W) , GOTO 3328 

3318 IF C;2 THEN IF BA(1.W)*8 IHEN 3328 I • ' »» » J«« 

3311 IF C-2 THIN COLOR BA(8,H):PI.0T BA( 2, W) . BA( 3. W) 

3328 RHURN 

3358 ON C GOSUB 3378,3388,3398 

3368 Kl((8, J)=C:REIURN 

Jl'rHEN K0(7 Jl^D^'j;^" "' '* 96 '" X0,4 ' J) ™ tN l( 0(4,J).KO(4,J)*96:IF KD<7, 

33/2 IF PC»3" IHtN RETURN 

" 74 HIN K0(/ J)"o(7 ( J)-M KO<1,J, ""' IF XD(4 ' J) ™ EN K 0(4,J).|tD(4.J)-32:IF K0(7, 

3376 IF PC«2THLN REiuRN 

3378 IF PCI THEN REIURN 

7^: fH t N C ;u«7 M J ^0, < 7:J!:^8 1 ' J,M28!,F K0(4 ■ J, ™ EN »M. J ..XD,4. J ,M28:,F K0 ( 

3382 IF PC3 THFN RETURN 

"*TMtll K0() J)'X0?7 ( J)O2 ,C0n ' J, * 32!lF KD(4 - J) THEN «(4,J).XD(4,J)02:IF K0(7, 



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:F0R X-8 TO 3:G0SUB 3S48:NEXT X:? 'A 



■A",. FOR X-4 



Medieval Combat, continued... 

3386 IF PC*1 THEN RETURN 

^S. i, PCI. THIS R KDU?VkD<1. J >-96,IF KD.4,0, THEN K0,4. 0>.K0<4. 0,-96: IF ,0,7. 

.1) THIN KD,7,0,«KD,7.0>-9b 

S5 If P C :J !.£. ^rO,-KO,1.0,- 12 8.IF KD,4.0,<>8 THEN KD<4. 0,.KD<4. 0,-128: IF 

KD</,0> THEN KU,7, 0>«KD< 7, 0,-1 28 

U4h IF PL^ IHtN RtlURN 

3^86 ioR P X-X, T "o N X2 E FOR N y.r. TO Y2:L0CATE X.Y.V:IF V<>32 THEN 344. 

\Z cVh Mil W).X:RA(3. H ).Y..P0P = POP . 60T0 3498 

1426 II C-2 THIN BA,2,U,.X=BA,3.WCY = POP : POP : GOTO 3498 

3448 NEXT YtNEXT X 

3498 RE1URN ...,., , r . 

3566 POKE 75?,8:P0K t 656.8.P0KE 657,1:? C 

"••MIR X = 4 10 7:60SUB 3S48:NEXT X 

,1,,. , •[•..FUR X«8 TO lliQOSUB 3548:NEXT X 

3S2. P0KF 656??: POKE M7..7? "C-.FOR X-8 TO 3.G0SUB 3576:NEXT X:? 

IsS.^IVFOr'a^TO 11.60SUB 3578-.NEXT X:P0KE 752.1:? ■ '.RETURN 

3548 S'18.RA,1.X):IF S<18 THEN 3568 

3b58 ? S:- ".RETURN 

3Sb8 ? " ";S; " ".RETURN 

3S/8 S--18.BA(1.X,:IF S<16 THEN 3598 

3bH6 r Sj " ".RETURN 

lb86 BOSUe' 36U*j! If C'l THEN NHRS-HLD*: LR«LT: RETURN 
3b8S Ir C«? THEN NMBS-HLD*: LB«LT: RETURN 
,blM Hll)4'"tAMHUI":lT«7:RETURN 
3611 HLnS-"BltRGAN0Y":LT^8: RETURN 
3b 12 HI l.S - "liAI. ESIA" : 1 T- 7: RETURN 
Ihll HI U4 = "SAXONY":ir = 6:RETURN 
u>14 HI US»"ARAI»0N":LT«6: RETURN 
lb 15 HI liS "I'U.ARDY":! T* 7: RETURN 
Jblb HI l>$s"NURMANUY":lT-8:RETURN 

3bl/ Hll)i«"V»LHAlLA":l T-8:RETURN .«.«.«••■•• ■• m . 

9666 l.AfA /, 2,/, 9, 8. 4, 8, 7, 9, 5. 9,;, 7. 18. 7. 11. 13, 7.1/. 7, 12, 9, 12, 18. 13, 8, 13, 18. 14.1 

98 '•DAI A 14,12.15. 12.3.12, 4, 12. 1.13. 4, 13, 1,14, 5. 14. 1.15. 2. 15, 8, 15, 8. 17. 9, 15. 9,1 

9828 DA I A 1.1,3.13.4,6,2,6,7,13,5,14,5,15,4,15,6.5.5.5.7.1,7.3,7.14,14.15.14.15.1 

5, 18, lb, 8, 14, 12, 14, 18,1b, 18, 17 

9848 DAIA 3,39,2,3,35,3,3,8,8,8 

98b8 DAIA 3, 3b, 1 /, 2,8,8,8,8,8,8 

9»bB DATA 3,33,12,6,48,13,6,34,14,6 

9878 DATA 3, 3h, 2, 18,38,3, 18,36,4,18 

9MHM DAIA 3,34,9,11,37,16,11.34,11,11 

9898 DAIA .i, ii, 17, 18,8,8,8,6,8,8 

9188 DATA 3,36,2,17,8,8,8,8,8,8 

^! 5 2 ^rS ^^i^;^>?!97f^6;ie7^44yi 9 9.2 2 5. 2 .4.2 2 9. 2 ll. 2 33.193. 22 6. 2 13.2«.l<. 

SiIPm'*' 288:233. 195. 225. 216. 228. 217. 246. 193, 236. 288. 225. 284, 236. 193. 225, 218. 22 

s i *m ? i 4 2 1) 6 

9ib8DA I A' 238, 287, 242, 28S, 225, 286, 226, 217. 243, 193. 248, 287, 236. 217 

9288 DAIA 1,5,1,6,14,18,1,6,8,12,1,6,1,6.8,12 

9281 DATA 8,13.8.13,15,18,8,14,1,7.15,16,11,18.15,18 

9218 DATA 156, lb7, 158,159, 148.141,142,143,252.253.254,255 

X226 DAIA 188,189,198,191,172.173,174,175,226,221,222.223 „.„_.,„ DMF ,„ 

1/666 (.KAPHICS IrPOKF 559, 8 . START- , PEEK , 186 , -6 , «256: POKE 756, START/256: POKE 752, 

12618 SHI INr,sTARr/256):SL0.START-SHI.256:P0KE 283,SL0:P0KE 284 SHI 

32828 DIM LHAK4(7B):t.HAR=>»"h)M) NlMKHPyFLf N%NIbP8' ": Z-USfifAOR, CHARS ,,: RESTORE 32 

126.18 krAD X II X»-l THEN 32856 

12846 KIR Y-6 TO /:RFA0 2: POKE X*Y»START. Z. NEXT Y:G0T0 32838 

1/6S8 i.i si PlFk(Sb6)*256.PEEK(561,:P0KE OLST+24, 134: RESTORE 32125:F0R X»8 TO 15: 

328t>VpOKI lb3b.X,Y-NFXT X:P0KE 512.8:P0KE 513. 6. POKE 54286, 192: RETURN 

1^166 UAIA 8, Ibb, 231, 231, 231, 255. 219, 255, 231 

,2181 DATA 16,66,231,165,731,165,231,255,255 

1/162 DAIA 24, lbl, 162,228,232,248,227,227,227 

i<163 DAIA 32, b,b9, 231. 231, 167, 255, 255, 231 

32164 DAIA 48,74,68,126,66,126,219,255,255 

12l>is DATA 48,8,6,8,36,36,36,255,255 

3216b DATA 56. 153, 153, 153, 153, 153. 255, 153, 2-55 

3216/ DATA 64,8,6,8,8, 165, 255, 219, 255 

3216H DAIA 86,8,24,68,126,68,24,24,24 

1^169 DAIA 88,4,14,63,115,8,48,128,252 

12118 DAIA 96,128,44,68,254,76,44,26,22 

32111 DATA 184,1,44,68,254,76,44,28,22 

32112 DAIA 112,6,44,68,254,76,44,28,158 

12113 DAIA 128,8,44,68.254,76,45,28,22 

12114 DATA 288,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255 

12115 DATA 224,128,152,8,46,186,28,28,28 
12Mh DATA 232,1,25,8,48,186,28,28,26 
.1211/ DATA 248,8,24,8,46,186,28,148,148 

12118 DATA 248,8,24,8,46,186,28,21,21 

12119 DATA 488,6,58,36,128,112,116,88,88 
32126 DATA 488, 8, !>6,. 16. 128, 112, 113.88,88 
12171 DAIA 496,8,56,36,128,112.112,88,84 

DATA 584,8, 58, 3b, 128, 112. 112.88,81 

3212b DATA /2, 169, 5, 133, 284, 198, 284, 266, 252, 169, 224. 141, 9, 212, 164, 64 



238 



May 1983 c Creative Computing 



CIRCLE 223 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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BASIC - With amazing 3D graphics, you fight 
your way through a maze facing real time 
monsters. The graphics are real enough to 
cause claustrophobia. 

Similar game for Timex/Sinclair 16k - hunting 
treasure instead of monsters $14.95. 




ADVENTURE WRITING/DEATHSHIP by 
Rodger Olsen - This is a data sheet showing 
how we do it. It is about 14 pages of detailed 
instructions how to write your own adven- 
tures. It contains the entire textof Deathship. 
Data sheet - $3.95. NOTE: Owners of TI99 
TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Vic 20 computers' 
can also get Deathship on tape for an addi- 
tional $5.00. 

Dealers- We have the best deal going for you. 
Good discounts, exchange programs, and fac- 
tory support. Send for Dealer Information. 
Authors- Aardvark pays the highest commis- 
sions in the industry and gives programs the 
widest possible advertising coverage. Send a 
Self Addressed Stamped Envelope for our 
Authors Information Package. 



ADVENTURES - Adventures are a unique 
torm of computer game. They let you spend 
JO to 70 hours exploring and conquering a 
world you have never seen before. There is 
little or no luck in Adventuring. The rewards 
are for creative thinking, courage, and wi<e 
gambling - not fast reflexes. 

In Adventuring, the computer speaks and 
listens to plain English. No prior knowledge 
of computers, special controls, or games is re- 
quired so everyone enjoys them -even people 
who do not like computers. 

Except for Quest, itself unique among Ad- 
venture games. Adventures are non-graphic 
Adventures are more like a novel than a comic 
book or arcade game. It is like reading a par- 
ticular exciting book where you are the main 
character. 

All of the Adventures in this ad are in Basic. 
They are ful featured, fully plotted adventures 
mat will take a minimum of thirty hours (in 
several sittings) to play. 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, TRS- 
°^ a ?2, TRS -80 Color. They require 8k on OSI 
and 13k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires extended 
BASIC. Now available for TI99. 

TREK ADVENTURE by Bob Retell* - This 
one takes place aboard a familiar starship and 
is a must for trekkies. The problem is a famil- 
iar one — The ship is in a "decaying orbit" 
(the Captain never could learn to park!) and 
the engines are out (You would think that in 
all those years, they would have learned to 
build some that didn't die once a week). Your 
options are to start the engine, save the ship, 
get off the ship, or die. Good Luck. 

Authors note to players - I wrote this one 
with a concordance in hand. It is very accurate 
- and a lot of fun. It was nice to wander 
around the ship instead of watching it on T.V. 

DERELICT by Rodger Olsen and Bob Ander 

son - For Wealth and Glory, you have to ran- 
sack a thousand year old space ship. You'll 
have to learn to speak their language and 
operate the machinery they left behind. The 
hardest problem of all is to Jive through it. 

Authors note to players - This adventure 
is the new winner in the "Toughest Adventure 
at Aardvark Sweepstakes". Our most difficult 
problem in writing the adventure was to keep 
it logical and realistic. There are no irrational 
traps and sudden senseless deaths in Derelict. 
This ship was designed to be perfectly safe for 
its' builders. It just happens to be deadly to 
alien invaders like you. 



PYRAMID by Rodger Olsen - This is one of 
our toughest Adventures. Average time 
through the Pyramid is 50 to 70 hours The 
old boys who built this Pyramid did not mean 
for it to be ransacked by people like you. 

Authors note to players - This is a very 
entertaining and very tough adventure I left 
clues everywhere but came up with some in- 
genous problems. This one has captivated 
people so much that I get calls daily from as 
far away as New Zealand and France from 
bleary eyed people who are stuck in the 
Pyramid and desperate for more clues. 

MARS by Rodger Olsen - Your ship crashed 
on the Red Planet and you have to get home 
You will have to explore a Martian city repair 
your ship and deal with possibly hostile aliens 
to get home again. 

Authors note to players - This is highly 
recommended as a first adventure. It is in no 
?J? V Sim l )le -P , avingtime normally runs from 
JO to 50 hours - but it is constructed in a 
more open manner to let you try out ad- 
venturing and get used to the game before 
you hit the really tough problems 




Dungeons of Death - Just for the 16k TRS- 
80 COLOR, this is the first D&D type game 
good enough to qualify at Aardvark. This is 
serious D&D that allows 1 to 6 players to go 
on a Dragon Hunting, Monster Killing, Dun- 
geon Exploring Quest. Played on an on-screen 
map, you get a choice of race and character 
(Human, Dwarf, Soldier, Wizard, etc.), a 
chance to grow from game to game, and a' 15 
page manual. At the normal price for an Ad- 
venture ($14.95 tape, $1935 disk), this is a 
giveaway. 



QUEST by Bob Retelle and Rodger Olsen - 

THIS IS DIFFERENT FROM ALL THE 
OTHER GAMES OF ADVENTURE!!!! It is 
played on a computer generated map of 
Alesia. You lead a small band of adventurers 
on a mission to conquer the Citadel of Moor- 
lock. You have to build an army and then arm 
and feed them by combat, bargaining, explora- 
tion of ruins and temples, and outright ban- 
ditry. The game takes 2 to 5 hours to play 
and is different each time. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice visual effects and sound Not 
available on OSI. This is the most popular 
game we have ever published. 

32K TRS 80 COLOR Version $24.95. 
Adds a second level with dungeons and 
more Questing. 

PRICE AND AVAILABILITY. 

All adventures are $14.95 on tape Disk 
versions are available on VIC/COMMODORE 
and TRS-80 Color for $2.00 additional. $2 00 
shipping charge on each order. 



Please specify system on all orders 

AL T^0^.r!r A ,^ntn 1" Th " - °"' V " "I?"' m °' Wh " , W ' ■""* W# haV# ' ,ot of °*« r ■«••» <P»rticul.rly for the 
TRS-80 Color and OSI ). business program,, blank tapes and disks and hardware. Send $1 .00 for our complete catalog. 

AARDVARK 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 / (313) 669-3110 flW. 
Phone Orders Accepted 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST. Mon.-Fri. ^S»7 

TRS-80 COLOR TIMEX/SINCLAIR COMMODORE 64 

$2.00 shipping on each order 




VIC-20 



CIRCLE 101 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Joystick 
For The Color Computer 



One of the strong points of the TRS- 
80 Color Computer is its game playing 
ability. For many games, joysticks are 
essential. They come in two basic vari- 
eties: the proportional control type con- 
tains a pair of potentiometers, one for 
vertical and the other for horizontal con- 
trol. This type of joystick normally 
works with an analog-to-digital con- 
verter and yields values from 1 to 63 (for 
the 6-bit converter on the Color Com- 
puter) with 31 at the center. The switch 
type of joystick contains four momen- 
tary contact switches and gives values of 
up, down, left, right and center, but no 
in-between states. These joysticks nor- 
mally have a spring return to center. 

The joysticks sold by Radio Shack for 
the Color Computer are of the propor- 
tional control type, and do not automati- 
cally return to center. They are well 
suited to controlling objects on the 



Ian Hodgson 



ing or changing direction when center is 
reached. For such games the response is 
much better when a switch-type joystick 
is used. The most common of the switch- 
type joysticks are those sold by Atari 
and Commodore. Here you will learn 
how to connect these to your Color 
Computer. 

Theory 

The Atari joystick contains five small 
"oilcan" type switches for left, right, up, 
down and fire. (Note: if your joystick 
contains coil spring switches, you have 



You will be amazed 

by the control you 

have over your 

favorite arcade games. 



screen where the position of the object is 
controlled by the position of the joystick. 
Many arcade type games do not behave 
this way, however. Instead, the player 
moves or changes direction whenever 
the joystick is off center and stops mov- 



an ancient model and I suggest you buy 
one of the newer ones.) All five have one 
side connected to a common ground 
return; the other sides are used to con- 
nect one of five input lines to ground. 
The original wiring is shown in Figure 1. 
The Radio Shack joystick interface 
requires quite a different arrangement, 
which allows you to vary a voltage from 
about 0.25v to 4.75v on each of two 
input lines. This means that you must 
isolate the common connection from 
several of the switches. This is done by 
cutting two of the traces on the joystick 
printed circuit, and setting the voltages 
to the correct values with four resistors 
(the voltage is already supplied by the 
Color Computer). The final circuit wir- 
ing is shown in Figure 2. 



Ian Hodgson. 296 Malcolm Circle. Dorval. Quebec 
H9S 1T7. 




240 



May 1 983 c Creative Computing 



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Joystick, continued... 



c^o. 



t 



-o Fire 



<?"o 



-o Up 



-o Common 



-cr*o- 



-o Right 



-o Left 



6^0- 



-o Down 



o Ground 
Fire 



U 



L 



R 



-o Vertical 



D 



-o +5V 



-o Horizontal 



Figure I. The original wiring of the Atari or Commodore Figure 2. The joystick circuit must be modified as shown to work with 
joystick. the Color Computer. Four resistors and two circuit cuts are required to 

do this. 



Construction 

To do the job, you will need: an Atari 
or Commodore joystick (they appear to 
be identical), a 5-pin, wide spaced (240 
degree) DIN plug to match the joystick 
connector on the TRS-80; four 51K 
ohm, '/ 4 watt resistors; some fine gauge 
wire (I used wire wrap wire); and a 
soldering iron, as well as ordinary elec- 
tronic tools. 



To begin, remove the bottom from the 
Atari joystick. It is held in place by four 
Philips head screws. Hold the joystick 
upside down while separating the halves 
of the case, and be careful not to lose the 
small spring in the fire button. Inside, 
you will see a small printed circuit board 
as shown in Figure 3a. (Since this article 
was originally written I have bought a 
second joystick and it is constructed dif- 



ferently in a much smaller case. The 
operation is identical, though, and its 
circuit board is shown in Figure 3b.) 
This board is covered with a transparent 
plastic tape and has five small circular 
switches held in place by the tape. Do 
not lift the tape and disturb them, as 
they must be accurately positioned. You 
must make some modifications to this 
board. 











Figure 3. The circuit board of the Atari joystick. The wire col- 
ors represent the original connections. Figure 3a shows the 
larger type board, and Figure 3b shows the smaller type. Both 
perform identically. 




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242 



May 1 983 « Creative Computing 



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III 



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Joystick, continued. 





Figure 4. The dark block represents areas where the insulat- 
ing tape should be cut off the board as described in the text. 
Two places marked with open boxes and *'s should also have 
a cut made in the copper foil. 



Six colored wires are attached to the 
board, as shown in Figure 3. They may 
be removed so that the board is easily 
accessible. Using a small X-acto knife, 
carefully cut small rectangles out of the 
tape in the six spots shown in Figure 4a 
for the older type or Figure 4b for the 
newer one. The point of the knife may be 
used to lift the bits of tape off the board. 



At the two openings marked with an 
*, carefully cut through the copper 
traces on the board. To do this, firmly 
scribe two lines about 1mm apart, cut- 
ting completely through the copper 
trace. Then, with the point of the knife, 
pry out the small sliver of copper that 
has been freed. On this phenolic board 
material the copper should lift off quite 



easily. If it does not, you have probably 
not cut all the way through the trace. 
Check with a magnifying glass to make 
sure that there is no connection left at 
these points. 

Install the four 51 K ohm resistors 
(47K should work just as well and may 
be easier to find) in the positions shown 
in Figure 5a or 5b. Trim and shape their 




Figure 5. Four resistors and two wire jumps must be soldered 
to the circuit board. Place them as shown, and they should 
not interfere with any of the hardware. The new wire connec- 
tions are shown with function, wire color, and DIN plug pin 
number. 



Horiz. Orange pin 1 
Vert. Green pin 2 
Gnd. Black pin 3 
+5v White pin 5 
Horiz. Blue pin 1 
Fire Brown pin 4 





<y 


cC= 


o o 


yj 0>* 



Fire Brown pin 4 
Horiz. Orange pin 1 
Vert. Green pin 2 



+5v White pin 5 
Horiz. Blue pin 1 
Gnd. Black pin 3 



244 



May 1 983 c Creative Computing 



NEW from Creative Computing— 

Three great books for 
Apple, Atari and TRS-80 owners! 

Creative Computing has just produced the books you've been waiting for- the most informative 
challenging and stimulating volumes yet written for the Apple," Atari," or TRS-80" owner! 

THE CREATIVE APPLE 



brings you 450 pages of the best articles 
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past four years of Creative Computing. 
Revised and updated, this wealth of material 
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dous potential of your Apple, with informa- 
tion-packed chapters on: 

• Graphics • Music • Education • Word 
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Whether you use your Apple for business, 
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THE CREATIVE ATARI is an inva.uable 
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techniques 




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Joystick, continued... 

leads before soldering, and use a small, 
hot iron and low temperature (63% tin) 
solder if you can get it. Temporarily 
replace the covers to make sure that the 
resistors don't interfere with the support 
posts; move the resistors if they do. 
There is nothing like a fast session with 
Space Invaders to break improperly 
mounted resistors. Install the two wire 
jumpers also shown in Figure 5. The 
new circuit diagram is shown in Figure 
2. 

Now you may replace the board in the 
holder and reconnect the wires using the 
color coding shown in Figure 5. Hold 
the assembly upside down and replace 
the bottom of the case making sure that 
no wires are trapped or interfere with 
the motion of the stick. Disassemble the 
DIN plug and note that the pins are 
numbered. If you can't read the num- 
bers, refer to Figure 6. Cut off the DB-9 
connector on the end of the Atari cable 
(if you leave a few inches of wire on it, 
you may be able to re-use it for some- 
thing else later). Strip about '/ 2 " of 
insulation off the cable, and about '/•" 
off the colored wires. Then solder the 
wires to the pins as follows: 

Pin 1 - orange and blue 
(twisted together) 

Pin 2 - green Pin 4 - brown 

Pin 3 - black Pin 5 - white 



Figure 6. The DIN 5-pin plug, viewed from the pin end. On 
most plugs the pin numbers are clearly marked. Slide the 
hood over the cable before soldering to the pins. 



Now you will probably discover that 
you have forgotten to slide the plug 
hood over the cable. If so, you will have 
to undo those nice solder connections 
and start over. Otherwise, assemble the 
DIN connector, and the job should be 
finished. 

Testing and Operating 

Connect the joystick to the right joy- 
stick connector, and type in the follow- 
ing program to test it: 

10CLS 

20 A = JOYSTK(O) 
30 B = JOYSTK(l) 
40 F = PEEK<65280> 
50 FRINTG0,A,B,F 
60 GOTO 20 

When you run this program, your 
screen should clear and show values of 
31, 31 and either 127 or 255. Press the 
fire button. The 127 should change to a 
126 (or the 255 to a 254). Push the stick 
left. This should change the first 31 to a 
0. Push the stick right. This should 
change the first 3 1 to a 63. Similarly, up 
should change the second 31 to a and 
down should change it to a 63. 




Congratulations! It works. Now, how do 
you use it? 

Unlike the Radio Shack joysticks, 
which allow any value from to 63 in 
both the vertical and horizontal direc- 
tions, this conversion allows only values 
of 0, 31, and 63 in each direction. Most 
games that I have tried work perfectly 
with this arrangement. If you are writing 
your own programs, you will have to ar- 
range a timing loop so that the position 
or speed of objects depends on how long 
the joystick returns a or 63 rather than 
on its exact position. 

You will be amazed by the control 
you now have over your favorite arcade 
games. The spring return to center 
instantly quadrupled my score on Gob- 
bler (a Pac-Man type game). The entire 
job can be done in less than an hour for 
only about $12. □ 



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May 1983 ' Creative Computing 



247 




Computer Art For 
The Tektronix 4052 



88 REM SINE PRODUCT 

81 PAGE 

82 PRINT "ENTER B" 

83 INPUT B 
"ENTER 
C 

"ENTER H" 
H 

"ENTER HJ 
H 

•ENTER 
G 



84 PRINT 

85 INPUT 

86 PRINT 

87 INPUT 

88 PRINT 

89 INPUT 
98 PRINT 
91 INPUT 



MUST BE 1 OR 2. 



92 PRINT "ENTER K" 

93 INPUT K 

94 Zl>8 

95 PRINT "ENTER L" 

96 INPUT L 

188 PRINT "ENTER D" 

118 INPUT r> 

128 U«INT<368/G)*18 

138 DIN X(U>,Y<U> 

148 SET DEGREES 

158 PRINT "ENTER Tl. 



Tl MUST BE 1 OR 2." 



This month I will discuss my Sine 
Product computer program. This is 
somewhat similar in structure to the 
other polar coordinate programs I pre- 
sented in recent issues of Creative 
Computing; it involves successive 
angular sweeps with the radius 
incremented between sweeps. However, 

Joe Jacobson. 675 E. Sireet RomJ. Apt. 10OT. 
Warminsler, PA 18974 



Joe Jacobson 



a different polar function is used in Sine 
Product. 

The radius is computed as the 
weighted sum of products of two 
sinusoids, or as the absolute value of that 
weighted sum (depending on the value 
you enter for the parameter M). 



248 



Technically, this program was more 
difficult to write because it required 
automatic scaling. The radius values 
computed can be very large or very 
small, depending on the input parameter 
values selected, and it is desirable to 
have the pattern just fill the screen in all 
cases. This scaling was accomplished 
through the use of storage arrays and an 
algorithm that finds the maximum value 
of the radius. 

May 1 983 • Creative Computing 




160 INPUT Tl 

178 PACE 

180 FOR Q»D TO 360 STEP D 

190 u=i 

200 FOR A«0 TO 360 STEP G 

210 GOSUB 330 

220 U«U+1 

230 NEXT A 

240 GO TO 540 

250 FOR 01-1 TO U-l 

260 IF Q1>1 THEN 290 

270 HOME X<Q1>,Y<Q1> 

280 GO TO 300 

290 DRAW X<Q1>,Y<Q1) 

380 NEXT 01 

310 NEXT Q 

320 GO TO 420 

lit 5 r 5*SIN<L*A)*COS(K*A>*C*SIN<L*A)*SIN<K*A)*H*COS<L*A)*COS<K*A 
340 R=Q*R 

350 IF H«l THEN 370 

360 R*ABS<R> 

370 IF Q>D THEN 390 

380 Z1«R MAX Zl 

390 X(U>*RtCOS(A> 

400 Y<U>»R»SIH(A> 

410 RETURN 

420 IF Tl»2 THEN 530 

430 WINDOW 0.130,0,100 

440 UIEHPORT 0,130.0,100 

450 NODE 0,10 

460 PRIHT - SIHE PRODUCT PROGRAM PARAMETERS" 

470 MOUE 0,5 

488 PRIHT " <B,C,H,M,G,K,L,D> « <"?Bj ", ";C: ". ";H| 

490 PRIHT -, a lM B f'lGr,'fKr» a |L| S , S f6|">" 

500 IHPUT J* 

510 Tl=2 

520 GO TO 170 

530 EHD 

540 IF Tl-2 THEH 570 

550 UIEHPORT 22,108.14,100 

560 GO TO 580 

570 UIEHPORT 15,115,0,100 

580 Z2-Z1+Z1/1000 

590 Z2*Z2*<360'D) 

600 WINDOW -22,22,-22,22. 

610 GO TO 250 




The parameters B, C, and H, which 
are requested in user prompts, are the 
weighting coefficients for the products of 
sinusoids. K. and L are angular fre- 
quency coefficients in the arguments of 
the sinusoids. D is the radius increment 
added between successive angular 
sweeps. G is the angular increment 
within a sweep. Enter M = 2 if you want 
the radius to be an absolute value; enter 
M=l otherwise. 

As with the programs previously de- 
scribed, setting Tl = 1 yields a design 

May 1983 *■ Creative Computing 



plot with the input parameter values 
listed at the bottom. Then you clear the 
screen and hit RETURN and a "clean" 
plot (without the parameter list) ap- 
pears. If you don't want the parameter 
list at all, set Tl=2. 

Table 1 lists ranges of input param- 
eters that I have found to give good re- 
sults. Some values outside these intervals 
may also work well. Note that B, C, H, 
G, K, L, and D can be decimal fractions 
(i.e., not only integers) and some of these 
can even be negative. You should ex- 
plore the possibilities inherent in this 
program by trying various combinations 
of parameter values. □ 

249 



Table 1. Suggested Parameter Values. 


Parameter 


Range of Values 




From 


To 


B 


— 00 


+ 00 


C 


— 00 


+ 00 


H 


— 00 


+ 00 


M* 


1 


2 


G*» 


5 


15 


K 


6 


60 


L 


6 


60 


D 


30 


50 


Tl* 


1 


2 


*M and Tl must each be either 1 or 2. 


**G must be +2.4 or greater. 






icts . . . new products . . . nev 



COMPUTERS 



IBM ANNOUNCES 
PC XT, PRICE 
REDUCTIONS 

IBM today extended its Personal Com- 
puter line with the IBM Personal Com- 
puter XT, which provides individuals and 
businesses with more than nine times the 
storage capacity previously available. 

The base system, which is priced at 
$4995, features 131,072 characters of user 
memory, a dual-sided disk drive with a 
368,640 character capacity and a fixed 
disk drive with a capacity of more than 10 
million characters. The IBM Personal 
Computer XT also includes an asynchron- 
ous communications adapter to enable 
the system to communicate with other 
IBM Personal Computers, larger IBM 
systems and outside information sources. 
In addition, there are eight expansion 
slots, three of which are used for the 
already installed communications adapter 
and the floppy and fixed disk drives. 

With an optional expansion unit install- 
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can store nearly 22 million characters of 
information, or the equivalent of 11,000 
double-spaced, typewritten pages. 

Also announced was the IBM Color 



Display, which features a 12-1/2" screen 
capable of displaying 256 characters in 16 
colors against one of eight background 
colors. 

Along with the introduction of the XT, 
IBM announced price reductions for IBM 
Personal Computer products. 

A configuration including System Unit 
with 64K of user memory, keyboard, 160K 
disk drive and color graphics monitor 
adapter will be $2108 at IBM Product 
Centers. Addition of an IBM graphics 
printer, printer adapter and printer cable 
would bring the price to $2908. Formerly, 
this entire configuration would have cost 
$3305. 

A larger configuration, consisting of a 
64K system unit and keyboard, with two 
160K disk drives, monochrome display, 
display /printer adapter and an asynchron- 
ous communications adapter, will be 
$2953. Adding a graphics printer and 
printer cable would bring the price to 
$3603. 

IBM also introduced a new version of 
its Disk Operating System, DOS 2.0, 
which supports the expanded capabilities 
for both IBM Personal Computers and 
includes a new version of the Basic Inter- 
preter. The operating system also permits 
selected IBM application programs to 
operate on both IBM Personal Com- 
puters, as long as the necessary memory, 
disk storage and other system resources 
are available. 

PeachText, a new word processing 



package for IBM Personal Computers by 
Peachtree Software, Incorporated, pro- 
vides a series of Help menus for quick 
problem solving. The program allows the 
user to insert new copy in existing text. 
Simple commands from a single menu 
enable users to write, correct, change, 
edit, store, display and print documents. 
New versions of IBM Personal Com- 
puter business software packages also 
were announced. Users who already have 
Version 1.0 of the Peachtree Accounting 
System may upgrade each program to 
Version 1.1 through Authorized IBM Per- 
sonal Computer Dealers. The cost of up- 
grading each program is $120 at IBM 
Product Centers. 

CIRCLE 405 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TERMINALS & I/O 



BAUSCH & LOMB PORTABLE 
PLOTTER 





A new small plotter is available from 
Houston Instrument. The DMP-40 is a 
portable single-pen f rum plotter featuring 
pen speeds of up to 4.2 ips, and a format 
size of up to 11" x 17". 

Internal firmware enables the DMP-40 
to automatically generate circles, arcs, 
ellipses and general curves on command. 
Five different character sets are resident 
in ROM, which may be presented norm- 
ally, or as italics, and at 255 possible sizes 
and 360 different degrees of rotation. 
Eleven different line types are available, 
ranging from solid lines, to variations on 
dotted and dashed lines. The DMP-40 
will also clip, window, viewport and scale 
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is the ability to autobaud, at no extra 
cost. Price is $995. 

Bausch & Lomb, 8500 Cameron Road, 
Austin, TX 78753. (512) 835-0900. 

CIRCLE 406 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



May 1983 c Creative Computing 




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sultant Broker i use your skills or those ol others make $150 - $1000 a day!). The incredible 
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wen, „om nil to $20,000,000 and .00 employee. ,n four years! Programmers Iha, mi. i^m ^u^ 

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'L n ±l™^.™ , !2*?° u - m ? ^ , A vo .' d J. H0 " ,0 h,r « •■*•»•"•■• «?totoyeaa. mcorpor.t.on | when and how to do ,t cheaply"). SuTvivl^g bad time. R«ord 




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THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR NEWSLETTER - 

ALL THE LATEST INSIDE RUSINESS NEWS! 
NOW! SIX MONTHS FREE WITH YOUR MANUAL! 

Vou re always attuned to the industry and your 
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I don t miss mfg s promos like recently when top video moni- 
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1982. THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR 



CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



New Products, continued... 

DAISY WHEEL PRINTER 

Digital Associates has introduced the 
DP Series 35 and 55 cps daisywheel 
printers. 

Features include in-use noise level of 
less than 62 dBA; a selection of over 100 
font styles in both plastic and metal print- 
wheels; column/status display (DP-55); 90 
degree printwheel rotation to permit easy 
changing; universal power supply; re- 
moveable platen; and expandable pro- 
grammable memory. Compatibility with 
many computer systems is available. 
Optional features include cut sheet feed- 
er; tractor feed paper; bottom feed paper 
slot, and word processing package. 

Digital Associates Corp., 1039 E. Main 
St., Stamford, CT 06902. (800) 243-9054. 

CIRCLE 407 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

IBM GRAPHICS PRINTER 

IBM has announced the IBM Graphics 
Printer, a new version of the Personal 
Computer Matrix Printer. 

The 80 characters per second, bi-di- 
rectional printer includes the following 
features for text and graphics 
applications. 

All points addressable graphics capa- 
bility with up to 240 dots per inch hori- 



zontally, 216 dots vertically; two character 
sets, one of which is similar to the video 
display character set, while the other adds 
international characters enabling users to 
print French, Spanish, Italian and 
German; and superscript and subscript 
capability and an underline module. $595. 
IBM Corp., P.O. Box 1328. Boca Raton, 
FL 33432. 

CIRCLE 408 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



THERMAL PRINTER 

ACI has introduced the MP 2000, a 20- 
column thermal printer. Features include 
an integral Bell 103 standard ASCII 300 
baud FSK modem for communications 
over any dial-up phone line and unattend- 
ed automatic answering on the first or 




fourth ring which allows incoming mes- 
sages to be printed at 30 characters per 
second, 24 hours a day. The FCC regis- 
tered printer plugs into any standard RJ 1 1 
telephone jack and does not require 
special installation. 

Advanced Communication, Inc., 462 
Oakmead Pky., Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 
(408) 773-8585. 

CIRCLE 409 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

APPLE PRINTERS 

A dot matrix and a letter quality printer 
are now available from Apple Computer, 
Inc. 

The Apple Dot Matrix Printer, which 
uses a parallel interface, has a printhead 
life of over 100 million characters. It 
offers high-resolution graphics output (7 
x 9 dot matrix, 144 x 160 dots per square 
inch) and a bi-directional print speed of 
120 characters per second. It permits 
multiple-pitch and proportional spacing, 
and will mix fonts during a single pass. 
The Dot Matrix Printer utilizes pin- 
addressable graphics, and handles cut 
sheets or tractor-fed paper (roll or fan- 
fold). $695. 

The Apple Letter Quality Printer, 
which uses a serial interface, prints bi- 
directionally at 40 cps on individual sheets 
or continuous forms. Its switch-selectable 
settings include vertical and horizontal 



INTRODUCING... 

THE WORLD'S FIRST . 

TRULY Portable Uninterruptible Power Supply 



SEE YOU AT 
COMDEX ,4 
BOOTH 4143 



The BITS PUPS (Portable Uninterruptible Power Supply) is 
what the world has been waiting for since computer became a 
household word. 

No more worries about power losses, spikes, or surges from 
unreliable AC power. Continuous pure DC power to your 
computer that reduces heat and prolongs circuit life. 

PUPS is compact and completely portable. For the first time 
your portable computer is truly portable. PUPS allows you to 
run on AC, self contained batteries providing 3 to 4 hours, or 12 
volt automobile power. 

PUPS the first complete power system that is compatible with 
almost any personal computer or intelligent terminal. 

Available from Your Local Computer Dealer or Contact BITS for 
the Dealer Nearest You 




11020 AUDELIA RD.. SUITE B114. DALLAS. TX 75243 
TOLL FREE 800-527-1378 • IN TEXAS CALL COLLECT 214-340-1208 



CIRCLE 123 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



May 1 983 c Creative Computing 



tabs, 6 or 8 lines-per-inch vertical pitch; 
10, 12, or 15 characters-per-inch hori- 
zontal pitch; and Auto-Line-Feed toggle. 
A full complement of print wheels, in- 
cluding six foreign language character 
sets, will be available. $2195. 

Apple Computer, Inc. 10260 Bandley 
Dr., Cupertino, CA 95014. (408) 996- 
1010. 

CIRCLE 41 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

COMPOSITE VIDEO COLOR 
MONITOR 




USI International has announced a 14' 
composite video color monitor. 

The monitor eliminates the two-step 
process of converting the computer's 
video signal to a form that a television 
can receive and the subsequent con- 
version within the television set back to a 
pure video signal. $399. 

USI Computer Products, 71 Park Lane, 
Brisbane, CA 94005. (415) 468-4900. 

CIRCLE 41 1 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

TYPEWRITERS BECOME 
PRINTERS 

Vertical Data Systems Inc. has an- 
nounced a line of Converters which turn 
Olivetti and IBM electronic typewriters 
into computer printers and/or terminals. 
Printing speeds range from 175 to 230 
words per minute. 

Converters are available for either Cen- 
tronix type parallel or RS-232 serial input. 
The serial version can send as well as 
receive data and is available for IBM 
models 50, 60, and or 75. Both versions 
are available for Olivetti ET121 or 
ET221. 

The Converter fits inside the type- 
writer, does not affect normal use and 
requires no modifications. Serial inter- 
faces have selectable baud rates, hard- 
ware or XON, XOFF handshake protocols 
and a built in self test mode. 

Vertical Data Systems Inc., 1215 
Meyerside Dr., Unit 2, Mississauga, 
Ontario, Canada L5T 1H3. (416) 671- 
1752. 

CIRCLE 41 2 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



America's # 1 Software Dealer 



Mc £ ^r°1! ram - An y Program, 
At A Software City Store! 

•Programs -Books -Magazines 'Peripherals -Disks -Accessories 
SOFTWARE ALWAYS DtSCOVNTED! 

Now you can browse through thousands of programs for your per- 
sonal computer — at Software City, your program discount center 
When you need software for business, education, entertainment 
utility or home management, Software City has a program for you 



MT. KISCO, NY 

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113-01 Queens Blvd. (212)261-1141 

PINE BROOK, NJ 

101 Route 46 East (201)575-4574 

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161 Cedar La. (201)692-8298 

SUMMIT, NJ 

5 Beechwood Rd. (201) 273-7904 

MONTVALE, NJ 

147 Kinderkamack Rd. (201)391-0931 

GREEN BROOK, NJ 

60 Route 22 West (201)968-7780 

FAIRVIEW. NJ 

251 Broad Ave. (201)943-9444 

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33 Witherspoon St. (609) 683-1644 



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85 Godwin Ave. (201)447-9794 

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9027 Quioccasin Rd. (804) 740-8400 



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Franchises for retail stores. Approximate total investment, $30-35 000 

Write Software City, PO Box 313, Closter, NJ 07624. Offering by prospectus only. 



CIRCLE 272 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




The TECH Shirt™ with the CRT 
design is "The Symbol of High 
Tech", designed exclusively for 
the high-tech professional and 
home computer enthusiast. 
The TECH Shirt is made of the 
popular LaCoste knit with a 
fashion-knit collar and rep- 
resents the high quality and 
classic styling that is the stan- 
dard in fine casual wear. 

Now for $21.95 each, this 
fashionable collection of shirts 
is available in four colors: light 
yellow, kelly green, navy blue 
and scarlet. You can order by 
using your MasterCard, Visa, or 
send check or money order to: 




TECH 



Products 



945 Concord Street 
Framingham, MA 01701 

QUANTITY COLOR StZRS-M-L-Xt) CHARGE 



ADDRESS: 

crrv: 

( 

( 

( 



. STATE: 



) Chack or Monay Ordar Endoaad 

) MaatarCard* 

) Vlaa# 

Expiration Dale 

Slonatyra __ 



May 1983 « Creative Computing 



SHIPPING * HANDLING: 
TOTAL CHARGE: 

DEALER INQUIRIES 
INVITED 



*150 



CIRCLE 288 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Not Just Another 
Summer Camp. 




New Products, continued... 



Learning is part of the fun 

• Coed, ages 10-16 • 2, 4, or 8 week 



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sessions • Convenient locations 

• With or without computer skills 

• Traditional camp activities 

• Professional Camp Directors 



A. 



ATARI 
COMPUTER CAMPS 

ffj * Wain** CommurMcatioflS Compeny 

CALL TOLL FREE 800/847-4180 

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lo 40 East 34th Street. DrptJX New *>rk, NY. 10016 

i lude age and phone ruiintM-r I. ( >nt^id** I 5. 
I or in New Vbrk Stair. calf collect 212 889-5200. Stall 
I appln .nits should apply in writing 

CIRCLE 116 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



M 



icro oense 



offfinA i/orvaain pruazA oh 

Software 
and accessaries 

- 9 titadwctoru Of fen _ 

Ekdhard jDkftittsA. (£>ox io) 




Ondun Toff 7au 

800-98Z-6 3S2 

7I4--886-I083 

( Cafcfoinia ^widuitA ) 



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— daft fmoun-f rut Catalog. — 

APPLE-IBM -TRS-80-C0MM0D0RE 64 
\ VIC-ZO- FRANKLIN ACE lOOO f 

CIRCLE 306 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PERIPHERALS 



PRINTER BUFFER FOR IBM PC 

von Leivendyke Enterprises has an- 
nounced ConvertaBuffer, model CBP-64, 
a 64K byte printer buffer designed to 
work with the IBM PC and the 
IBM/Epson dot matrix printer. Convert- 
aBuffer accepts data at 1000 characters 
per second; stores up to 27 average pages 
of data in its built-in memory buffer; and 
then sends it at the IBM/Epson's slower 
speed of 80 characters per second. 

Additionally, ConvertaBuffer can for- 
mat pages to skip over perforations, num- 
ber the pages, insert a standard header 
(such as the date) at the top of each page, 
and print multiple copies. 

ConvertaBuffer comes with its own 
power supply, and since it connects to 
the standard parallel printer adapter, it 
does not use a card slot inside the PC. 

$299. 

von Leivendyke Enterprises, Silvermine 
Ave., Norwalk, CT 06850. (203) 846-4973. 

CIRCLE 413 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

TYPEWRITER TURNED INTO 
PRINTER 

Electric Typing Fingers (ETF-80) is a 
peripheral which turns an IBM Selectric 
or equivalent typewriter into a printer. 

The ETF-80 offers the following fea- 
tures: compatibility with IBM Selectric 
or similar typewriters, no need for addi- 
tional software required, interface cables 




inexpensive eye for industrial robotics. 
Other applications include image storage, 
signature analysis, games, and scanning 
for security of home or property. 

The major component in the camera is 
the Micron 1S32 OpticRAM, which is a 
light sensitive 64K dynamic RAM in a 
clear package. The MicronEye connects 
to the Apple II, IBM PC, TRS-80 Color 
Computer, Commodore 64 or Timex Sin- 
clair. Included with the camera are the 
16mm C-mount lens, tripod, 6' telephone 
cord (camera to computer), serial inter- 
face card, floppy disk with basic software 
routines, and an instruction manual. 
$475. 

Micron Technology, Inc., 2805 East 
Columbia Rd., Boise, ID 83706. (208) 383- 
4000. 

CIRCLE 415 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

MOUSE FOR 
MICRO COMPUTERS 

Micromouse, designed and priced for l 
microcomputers, has been introduced by 
the 3G Company. The mouse acts as a 
pointing device. Roughly the size of a bar 
of soap and with two pushbutton switches 




available for Radio Shack TRS-80, Per- 
sonal Micro Computers PMC-80/81 and 
Apple II, IBM Personal Computer 
adapter available and computer access to 
all standard typewriter functions. $595. 

Personal Micro Computers, Inc., 475 
Ellis Street, Mt. View, CA 94043. (415) 
962-0220. 

CIRCLE 414 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

COMPUTER CAMERA 

Micron Technology, Inc. has an- 
nounced the MicronEye, which adds a 
visual function to a home computer or an 



on top, when it is moved on a table top, a 
small cursor is moved on the computer 
screen. The pushbutton switches are used 
to initiate a computer action at the identi- 
fied screen location. The mouse has word 
processing and graphics applications. 
$180. 

3G Company, Inc., Rt. 3, Box28A, 
Gaston, OR 97119. (503) 357-9889. 

CIRCLE 416 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

LIGHT METER FOR APPLE 

A plug-in light meter with accompany- 
ing software is being offered by 
Centronic, Inc. Called "Light Meter II," 
this hand-size device may be used in a 
variety of applications including labora- 
tory photometric measurements; home, 
office or physical plant lighting control; 
photographic light measurements; solar 
energy management; and other environ- 
mental controls. 

The Centronic Light Meter II plugs 
into any Apple microcomputer and mea- 
sures light levels up to 6 feet away. The 
software, which comes on a DOS 3.3 disk, 
may operate either as a stand-alone light 



254 



May 1 983 c Creative Computing 




measurement program or as a subroutine 
package incorporated into existing appli- 
cation programs. The software can dis- 
play light levels in footcandles, lumens, 
or photos. $69.95. Muirhead, Inc., 1101 
Bristol Road, Mountainside, NJ 07092. 
(201)233-7200. 

CIRCLE 41 7 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

TEXT-TO-SPEECH 
SYNTHESIZER 

Micromint, Inc. has introduced the 
Microvox, a second generation text-to- 
speech synthesizer. 

It can annunciate data transmitted at 
high baud rates over telephone lines or 
serve as an unlimited vocabulary audio 
interface for telephone transaction appli- 
I cations. Features include 64 digitally pro- 
grammable levels of inflection, a 6K text- 
to-phoneme algorithm, 750 character buf- 
fer, RS-232C parallel connector, music 
and sound effects capability, and adjust- 
able baud rate. 

Attached to a terminal keyboard, 
Microvox can function as a typewriter 
for the blind or as a communicator for 
the vocally impaired. Every ASCII char- 
acter is recognized (including punctu- 
ation) as it is typed and can be echoed 
automatically. $295. 

The Micromint, Inc., 917 Midway, 
Woodmere, NY 1 1598. (516) 374-6793. 

CIRCLE 41 8 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

PRINT SPOOLING FOR IBM PC 

Persyst Inc. has announced Wait-Less 
Printing, a software print spooler for the 
IBM Personal Computer. 

Wait-Less supports both parallel and 
serial printers and user-selectable buffer 
sizes from 2K to 62 Bytes. Buffer size may 
be automatically assigned through the 
execution of AUTOEXEC.BAT when the 
system is initially loaded. $49.95. 

Personal Systems Technology, 22957 
La Cadena, Laguna Hills, CA 92653. (714) 
859-8871. 

CIRCLE 41 9 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CARTRIDGE RIBBONS FOR 



APPLE PRINTERS 

NEC 8023A 

C. ITOH PROWRITER 

$ 9. 95 . S 107. 46 UO 



LABEL 
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$0 99 

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(SKMrN) 
I I «CBOSS J . « it CONTINUOUS LAMLS I 



CARTRIDGE RIBSONS FOR 

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MX-80 MX- 10< 

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EA S 129.°»D 



OKIDATA 
PRINTERS 



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MAXELL 
DISKETTES 

SINGLE SIDE 
DUAL DENSITY 
MD 1 



80 82. 83 



INNOVATIVE 
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FLIP'NTILE 

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MOLDS UP TO 60 DISKETTES 

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COMPLETE LINE OF OTHER RIBBONS AVAILABLE. PLEASE CALL 

ALL ABOVE PRICES INCLUDE SHIPPING 

Check-Mate 

Ifttl 51 DIAUTO DR JS8 P.O. BOX 103 

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TOLL FREE 800-343-7706 IN MASS 61 7-963-7694 

WE ACCEPT MASTER CARD & VISA 

MASS RESIDENTS ADD 5% SALES TAX 

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CIRCLE 135 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Attention: Programmers 

Do you need a screen generator package that lets you produce clear 
uncluttered professional quality monitor screen formats with just a few lines 
of code in your BASIC program. Selection menus, data-entry inquiry 
display, etc. ...done quickly and easily with Microscreens. 

• Microscreens provides configuration routines for monitor control characters that 
permits use of any monitor 

• Microscreens provides a 'DRAW program that permits the programmer to create 
any screen format on a blank screen. 

• Microscreens provides protected, unprotected and variable useage fields 

• Microscreens provides editing of input to data-entry screens and full date validity 
checking ' 

• Microscreens provides highlighting and reverse video features useaqe (when 
available on your monitor). 

• Microscreens lets you position the cursor at the beginning of any data input field 

• Microscreens provides six different escape codes for help, emergency stop or any 
other abnormal complication of input 

• Microscreens can be INCLUDEd in CP/M" BASIC compiled programs or MERGEd 
with the MICROSOFT *BASIC Interpreter for Apple II with Softcard* 

• Microscreens screen handling routines use only 3K memory frequently less than 
your own code for monitor input/output. 

• Microscreens is a screen generator providing maximum flexibility, reducinq your 
programming time as much as 40%. 

ORDER NOW - $119.00 - Check, Money Order, MC/VISA 

TO: PMI Incorporated 

P.O. Box 218, Buckfield. Maine 04220 
OR PHONE: (207) 336-2500 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY, STATE. ZIP 



PHONE 



MC/VISA 



Exp. Date 



'Apple II. 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

■ ol Apple Computer Inc Microsoft MBASIC " of Microsoft Inc CP/M 



Check One I need 
Microscreens for: 

□ CBASIC Compiler 

□ CB80 Compiler 

D BASIC-80 Compiler 
D MICROSOFT BASIC 
Compiler 

□ MBASIC Interpreter 
for Apple CP/M 



' of Digital Research Inc 



May 1983 ® Creative Computing 



255 



CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CALCULATOR 

PROGRAMS SOLVE 

MACHINE SHOP 

PROBLEMS 

KM 

A program set for the Hewlett- 
Packard HP 41CV calculator solves 
problems in bolt pattern drilling coor- 
dinates, bolt pattern cost optimiza- 
tion, load & torque calculations. 3 
wire thread gages, production capac- 
ity costs, purchase vs. lease deci- 
sions, NC machine tape decoding, 
and general regression analysis us- 
ing eight types of curves. Software 
only: $295.00, complete systems 
from $695.00. 

HP 41CV MACHINE TOOL ENGI- 
NEERING PAC 1 from: 
SIERRA DIGITAL RESEARCH, INC. 
P.O. BOX 50089 

100 WASHINGTON ST. SUITE 104 
RENO. NEVADA 89513 



New Products, continued.. 



CIRCLE 265 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



«#%^V Is it good? 

•>JJV Is it worthwhile? 

£&,/ Is it yours? 



We currently publish over 40 
educational programs and games 
that develop skills — for use on 
the Apple II computer. 

Our buyers ? Schools — 
elementary, secondary and 
college level — plus over 500 
computer stores, school supply 
companies and audio visual 
dealers nationwide. 

Our exposure? Advertising in a 
number of national publications — 
computer, business and 
educational. 

Our Interest ? The opportunity to 
evaluate your program, with an 
eye to making you an outstanding 
royalty offer. 

Are you Interested? If so, contact. 

MICRO 
POUICR 

SLIGHT CO. 



(2820 HMcrast Rd. #224 
Dallas. Tanas 75230 
2M239-6620 



DISK SYSTEMS 



DISK DRIVE FOR APPLE II 

A 5-1/4" floppy disk drive system with 
half-tracking and 250K of unformatted 
storage is available for the Apple II com- 
puter. 

A standard 20-conductor cable con- 
nects the drive system with the Apple 
Disk II interface PCBA. No external 
power supply is required. The system is 
designed to handle 3.3 DOS, Pascal and 
CP/M programs. An Apple Disk Control- 
ler is required. 

The complete single drive system with 
250K unformatted storage, is $375. The 
dual drive system, which includes two 
drives, an Apple disk controller and fea- 
tures 500K of unformatted storage, is 
$850. 

Interface, Inc., 20932 Cantara St., 
Canoga Park, CA 91304. (213) 341-7914. 

CIRCLE 420 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

WINCHESTER DRIVE 

FOR APPLE II 

XitenSystems has announced Gallium 
10 . The Ten Meg Plus Winchester for 
Apple II computers. The Winchester disk 
subsystem offers an unformatted capacity 
of 14.4 megabytes and formatted capacity 
of 11 .3 megabytes. Each controller is cap- 
able of driving up to four Winchester disk 
drives for a total formatted capacity of 45 
megabytes. 




times by as much as 80% with Automated 
Resource Management's ARMdisk/525 
Winchester disk subsystem. 

It offers 30 megabytes of formatted 
hard disk storage and allows up to 4 hosts 
of equal design to share the same unit. 
The ARMdisk/525 is supported by TRS- 
DOS compatible operating systems 
(HSDS for TRS-80 Model II and LDOS 
for TRS-80 III). Price is $3395 for the 7- 
1/2 megabyte system. $3995 for the 15 
megabyte system, and $6695 for the 30 
megabyte system. 

Automated Resource Management, 
3613 West MacArthur Blvd., Santa Ana, 
CA 92704. (714) 850-9792. 

CIRCLE 422 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

HARD DISK FOR APPLE III 





The Gallium 10 is compatible with 
DOS 3.3, Pascal and CP/M. 

XitenSystems, 16815 Hawthorne Blvd., 
Lawndale, CA 90260. (213) 370-3966 or 
(800) 421-1947. 

CIRCLE 421 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

HARD DISK FOR TRS-80 

Owners of the Radio Shack TRS-80 
Models II and III, and other personal and 
small business computers can expand stor- 
age capacities and cut data accessing 



Davong Systems has introduced three 
hard disk expansion systems for the Apple 
III, the DS1-A306 with 5Mb formatted 
(6Mb unformatted), the DSI-A312 with 
10Mb formatted ( 12Mb unformatted), and 
the DSI-A319 with 15Mb formatted 
( 19Mb unformatted). 

All Davong hard disk systems include 
support for up to four hard disks and 
back-up for files larger than a floppy disk. 

They are compatible with all standard 
Apple HI software: Prices begin at $1995. 

Davong Systems, Inc. 1061 Terra Bella 
Ave.. Mountain View. CA 94043. (415) 
965-7130. 

CIRCLE 423 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



GRAPHICS 



80-GRAFIX BOARD 

The 80-Grafix board gives any config- 
uration of a TRS-80 Model III computer 
an effective resolution of 512 x 192 (256 x 



256 



May 1 983 e Creative Computing 



$ $ $ MONEY SAVINGS SPECIALS $ $ $ 



FRANKLIN ACE 1000 
With Color 



LOWIST PRICE 



ACE 1200 

• 6502 & Z-80 Processors • Built-in Drive 

• 128 K • 80 Columns 



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KAY COMP II 
Z-80 64-K 

Twin 5' 4 Floppy Disk Drives • 9" Video (80 

column) • RS-232 C • Parallel Printer Port 

SOFTWARE INCLUDED CP M 2 2 » S Basic • Prol.t 

Plan • Perfect VNnter V\ P • Perfect ( all • Perfect 

Filer • Perlect Speller 

LOW LOW PRICE 



TELEVIDEO 802 

• 64k • CPM • 2 Drives • Del. Keyboard 

• Monitor £<-»s- m m 

*2645 



PRINTER SPECIALS 



NEW 



TELEVIDEO 803 



*2295 



EPSON 

MX 80 FT III . 
MX 100 FT III 
FX80 

CEMINI 

10" 

15" 




$489 
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. 549 

$329 
. 509 



PRINTER INTERFACES 

Parallel Interface $ 59 

Grappler + 129 

Wizzard BPO 
(Graphics + 16K Buf) ... 159 



CITOH 

8510 Parallel $439 

8510 ACD Serial ^*t\ . . . . 569 

1550 Parallel ^^<&^- .... 659 

1550 Serial f£3**^\ 699 

OKIDATA 

82 A $ 419 



MODEMS 

Hayes 300 BAUD $212 

Hayes 1200B 509 

Hayes Micro II 269 

Novation AppleCat II . . . 279 



THE COMPUTER STORE 

869 Sandcastle .Corona del Mar, CA 92625 



(714) 

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CARDS 

80 Column $125 

Micro Soft CPM 239 

16K RAM 75 

Franklin Color Kit m »Uer.n RI 39 



Call of write loi M.C or VISA | )'. c (targe - 
include expiration datei Or send cheek or 

money order Add 1% shipping charge. CA res. 

add 6,. tax Ml PR/C/S SI HllCt It) ( HANOI 



CIRCLE 151 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CAVES OF OLYMPUS 



MB • 



aft 



U 



h 









*N. 



Beneath the Palace of 

Anson Argyris, on the 

Planet Olympus, lies the last 

fortress to withstand the onslaught 

' the Laren forces fhe Caves ol Olympus. 

Protected by a robotic over-seer, the fortress, 

with its miles of corridors, false chambers, 

death traps, one way doors, and matter transport 

devices, is impregnable to all but one. . . the little 

Vario 500 egg-shaped robot you become. 

• Full Color Hi-Res Graphics 

• Blaster, sight and sound special effects 

• Requires both quick action, and careful 

plotting and reasoning 
• Pulsating matter transportation 
Caves of Olympus #26094 S39.9S Apple lle-P 



b.i^ 



Howard W. Sams & Co., 

4300 West 62nd Street 
i Indianapolis. IN 46268 



Inc. 



To find your nearest dealer or to order, cell BOO 428 1696 
or 3172W $5*6 end reference SVVtOi In Canada, contact 
Lenbrook Industries. Ltd.. Scarborough. Ontario. 

.Apple products are a registered trademark ot Apple Computer, inc 



CIRCLE 259 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PROWR1TER 



Printers 



now 
only 



$393 






Interfaces available for: 

Apple 

Atari 

Radio Shack 

IBM 

etc. 

SNAVE CALL 
SYSTEMS 312/966-4505 



CIRCLE 271 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Now. .all the 
advantages 

plus COLOR... 

FRANKLIN 



AddCOLOR-only $ 59- 

Convert graphics to color 

w/Adwar FCB plug-in board. 

Available now in stock 

at your local dealer - or 



335 West 35th St. / New York 10001 

(212)6910976 
PROMPT SHIPMENT- MASTER CARD/ VISA 



CIRCLE 106 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TAKE THE MYSTERY 



OUT OF BUYING 
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CIRCLE 152 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



New Products, continued... 

192 in the 32 character mode) through 
the use of 128 programmable characters. 
These characters are each made up of a 8 
x 12 matrix of individually controlled dots. 
Once programmed, in Basic or machine 
language, the characters can be easily 
and rapidly displayed with a PRINT or 
POKE statement. Software which uses 
the normal graphics is not affected since 
the high resolution graphics are disabled 
whenever the reset button is pressed. In 
the high resolution mode, which is 
enabled by a Basic or Assembly language 
OUT statement, the new graphics char- 
acters are given the values 128 to 255. 




lengths: 10 feet (26-1490) for $29.95; 25 
feet (26-1491) for $39.95; 50 feet (26-1492) 
for $54.95; and 100 feet (26-1493) for 
$89.95. An 8-inch flat cable extender (26- 
1497) for $17.95 allows the use of longer 
cables with the TRS-80 Model III desktop 
microcomputer, which requires flat RS- 
232C cable. 

Two RS-232C cables (male-terminated 
at both ends) can be connected using a 
new female-to-female RS-232C adapter 
(26-1495) for $29.95. The null modem (26- 
1496) for $29.95 lets two RS-232C- 
equipped computers communicate with- 
out additional equipment. A 5-foot, 4-pin 
to RS-232 cable (26-1494) for $19.95 con- 
nects the TRS-80 Color Computer to Net- 
work III. 

Tandy Corporation/Radio Shack, 1800 
One Tandy Center, Fort Worth, TX 
76102. (817) 390-3300. 



EZ PORT-II FOR APPLE 



The board is supported with over 20 pro- 
grams/files. In addition to many example 
programs, included are the utility pro- 
grams Create, Gethr, and Hires83. 
Hires83, for example, allows you to edit 
an entire character set one character at a 
time on an enlarged grid using the arrow 
keys to draw characters. 

The 80-Grafix programmable character 
generator gives you the ability to make 
accurace representations of objects that 
can be easily and quickly moved around, 
the ability to experiment with graphics, 
and 100% compatibility with previously 
written software. Installation requires 
clipping on six micro-clips, cutting two 
traces, and removing three integrated 
circuits from sockets. $169.95. 

Micro-Labs Inc., 902 Pinecrest, 
Richardson, TX 75080. (214) 235^)915. 

CIRCLE 424 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MISCELLANEOUS 



RS-232C CABLES 

AND ADAPTORS FOR TRS-80 

Radio Shack offers TRS-80 computer 
users eight RS-232 cables and adapters 
used to connect computers together to 
transfer information, or to connect peri- 
pherals. 

RS-232C cables are offered in four 




Versa Computing, Inc. announces EZ 
Port-II, a twin switched zero insertion 
force (ZIF) socketed extension and cable 
designed to extend the Apple computer 
game I/O Port. EZ Port-II is a two socket 
version of EZ Port-I which extends the 
I/O games port outside of the computer. 
$34.95. 

Versa Computing, Inc., 3541 Old 
Conejo Rd., Suite 104, Newbury Park, 
CA 91320. (805) 498-1956. 

CIRCLE 426 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SOFTWARE 



TRS-80 PROGRAM LIBRARY 

Over the past two years, Gordon Speer 
has written over 250 Basic programs for 
the 16K TRS-80 Model I and III, most of 
which have been published in H «fi E 
Computronics Magazine. For those who 
do not wish to type them in, Gordon is 
now offering these programs individually 
on tape or disk for the nominal cost of $2 
each for 1 to 10 and $1 each for programs 
over 10. 

Gordon also has eight business pro- 
grams such as inventory, dealer list, health 
insurance and mail lists at prices ranging 
from $40 to $495. Send a self-addressed 
stamped envelope for a complete list. 

Gordon Speer, 3304 Woodlawn Road, 
Sterling, IL 61081. 



258 



May 1983 e Creative Computing 



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BUSINESS REPLY CARD 

FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO 738 MORRISTOWN. NJ 

POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE 

Microsystems 

CN 1987 

Mornstown, NJ 07960 



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IN THE 

UNITED STATES 




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FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO 738 MORRISTOWN. NJ 

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CN 1987 

Mornstown. NJ 07960 



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IF MAILED 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



More up to 
Mcroisystems 

THE JOURNAL FOR SOPHISTICATED 
MICROCOMPUTER USERS. 



Microsystems is not, in any sense, for beginners. 
Unlike "personal computer" magazines, 
Microsystems is written exclusively for expert users 

I and designers in the software and support hard- 

I ware field. 

If you need a reliable, high-level, up-to-date 
I journal devoted to CP/M,® MP/M® MS-DOS™ 
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tutorials on the modification and special use of 
systems, offer short-cut routines, show you debug- 
ging procedures, techniques for interfacing, and 
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In a few recent issues of 
Microsystems you would have seen: 

■ Reviews of four C compilers: BDS C, Small C, 
tiny c TWO™ and Whitesmiths C. 

■ A programming style comparison: Digital 
Research PL/I-80™ vs. Microsoft BASIC. 

■ Twenty-seven 16-Bit DOS compared. 

Virtual segment procedures under UCSD 
Pascal. 

An in-depth look at MP/M-80 II.™ 

A simple 6-byte hexadecimal ASCII conversion 
routine. 

Using CP/M's undocumented "Autoload" 
feature. 

An explanation of double density disk 
controllers. 




■ A comparison of five popular S- 100 disk 
controller cards. 

■ OS-l-a UNIX-like DOS with a CP/M adapter. 

Every issue of Microsystems keeps you at the 
forefront of the industry in customizing software 
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and standards. You'll also find industry news, book 
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To get the high-level systems information you 
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Controller Corner 



Multiple Socket Extensions 



This month we will show you how to 
build multiple socket extensions for Ap- 
ple computers. These devices provide 
several convenient functions for the 
computer user: they bring the game port 
out of the case to a position beside the 
keyboard; they permit switching game 
controllers without interrupting the pro- 
gram currently running; and, with 
appropriate software, they let you use 
two standard joysticks at once. 

Socket extensions are available 
commercially, of course, but no single 
unit has all the features we will describe. 
Besides, you can construct a home built 
unit for about half the cost of a commer- 
cial one. A multiple socket extension is 
an excellent first project for learning to 
work on computer hardware, since the 
device is simple and easy to construct. 
The materials are easy to obtain, and 
only a small multimeter is required for 
testing the finished unit. What more 
could you want? 

Figures 1 through 5 give you the de- 
tails of units that were built for the Ap- 
ple II. We will discuss what might be 
done to construct multiple socket exten- 
sions for other computers later in the 
article. 

Types of Multiple Sockets 

There are two types of multiple socket 
extensions. Those which permit the 
choice of one of two or more controls 
will be referred to as selection units. 
Those which permit two standard pad- 
dle sets or joysticks to be used at the 
same time will be called two-person units. 

We will also describe special features 
for each type of unit, including click ac- 
tion power switches, isolation diodes 

Tom and Kelda Riley. 1002 Lewis Ave.. Rockville. 
MD 30851. 



Tom and Kelda Riley 



that prevent controls from affecting each 
other's readings, and zip (zero insertion 
pressure) sockets. These special features 
will let you customize the unit to your 
exact needs. 

A Word of Caution 

Good practice for working on elec- 
tronic equipment requires that the 
power to the unit be turned off before 
any plug is installed or removed. The 
power switches on these multiple sockets 
are intended to allow you to select 
among controls already plugged into the 
sockets. Plugging in a paddle when the 
power switch is off but the computer is 
turned on violates good practice, al- 
though it is preferable to plugging the 
paddle into a live socket. Remember: 
turn off the main power supply to your 
computer before plugging in or unplug- 
ging any device from any of these socket 
extensions. 

Tools Required 

The construction of a socket extension 
is primarily a precise and somewhat te- 
dious soldering job. Soldering is the key- 
stone of all hardware skills and one that 
can only be learned through practice. It 
is definitely a skill worth mastering. 

For this project you need a small pen- 
cil soldering iron of about 25 watts and a 
stand to hold it, a sponge to clean the tip 
of the iron, desoldering braid to remove 
solder bridges, and fine resin-core solder. 
Other tools you should have on hand in- 
clude a pair of small diagonal cutters, 
long-nose pliers (for bending fine wires), 
an X-acto or other small-bladed knife, 

260 



and wire strippers. The plier-type wire 
strippers with an adjustment bolt work 
well but must be adjusted and tested on 
each new wire size. 

The Stacked Plug Unit 

The plugs on Apple paddies and joy- 
sticks are easily damaged and may have 
to be replaced. It is helpful to replace the 
plug with a stacked plug and socket, 
thus providing an extra socket of the 
two-person type. For this replacement 
you will need a 16-pin wire-wrap socket 
and a 16-pin dip header. The construc- 
tion details are given in Figure I. The 
socket rides on top of the header, 
providing not only a new socket but also 
a handle for the plug. 

First trim off the socket pins to an 
even '/ 2 " and bend them out slightly. 
(You might cut the #2 pin '/, 6 " longer.) 
Then straighten the pin ends as shown in 
the end view of Figure 1; this allows the 
wire-wrap pins to slip over the spades of 
the header. Double check to be sure that 
the pin 1 end of the header, marked with 
a cut off corner, is matched to the pin 1 
end of the socket, marked with a notch 
or cut off corner. 

Plug the header into another un- 
attached socket so that its pins will not 
misalign when heated- Solder pins I, 8, 
9, and 16. Then solder pins 3, 5, 12, 13, 
14, and 15. Cut off pins 4, 7, and 11 
about '/„" down from the socket. Using 
long-nose pliers, bend pin 6 over to fit 
into spade 7 and bend pin 10 over to 
reach spade 1 1 . 

Now for the tricky part: pin 2 must be 
bent around behind pin 3 to reach spade 
4, but without touching pin 3. If this 
gives you trouble, try cutting off the #2 
pin '/»" from the socket and soldering a 
%" piece of insulated #22 solid wire be- 
tween the pin 2 stub and spade 4. 

May 1983 *> Creative Computing 



PIN I SIDE 



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to 






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SOCKET 



HEADER □ 





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IF LOOSE 



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Figure 1. Apple slacked plug. 

If the old paddle plug that you are 
replacing with the stacked unit needs 
pull-down resistors for its pushbuttons, 
these can be installed between the socket 
pins. We used two '/« watt, IK ohm, 5% 
resistors. They share pin 8 for ground; 
one resistor goes to spade 2 and the 
other to pin 3. Trim the wires carefully, 
bend them neatly around the pins, and 
solder. 

May 1983 e Creative Computing 



The cable should be stripped of its 
outer cover for 3 /«" and the wire 
trimmed. Since the cable normally en- 
ters from the pin 8 end, the + 5 wire will 
be longest and the ground wire shortest. 
Strip the wire back 3 /,„", twist the 
strands, bend them into a small hook, 
and tin the wire. Your wire stripper 
must be set so that none of the fine wires 
are cut. Try several adjustments on a 

261 



scrap of the same wire until you have it 
set correctly. One at a time, press each 
wire into the correct fork or close the 
hook around the pin shaft, and solder it. 
The pin I end should be marked with 
light-colored fingernail polish, model 
enamel, or white typing correction fluid 
covered with clear fingernail polish. 
Sometimes the plastic top of the socket 
comes loose and must be glued back on 



Controller Corner, continued... 

Figure 2. Multiple socket with isolation diodes. 



mi 




0U00000D 
0000D0Q0 



■<y 



TOP VIEW 



SIDE CABLES NOT SHOWN 



SIDE VIEW 



f 



=^y 




OQ9iQQ, 








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FOAM BLOCK 



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with Super Glue or clear fingernail 
polish. 

Testing the Stacked Plug Unit 

If you have a multimeter you should 
check your wiring for continuity and to 
insure against shorts. Pin 1 to pin 8 must 
measure in excess of 50 ohms, and the 
measurement is usually much greater. 

If you have difficulty inserting a plug 
into the new socket the first time you try 
it, stick a medium sewing needle into 
each of the holes in the socket to realign 
the internal parts with the holes. If you 
plug the control with this stacked socket 
into the Apple and then plug a standard 
set of paddles or a joystick into the new 
socket, pot of the second joystick acts 



as pot 2, and its pot 1 acts as pot 3. Simi- 
larly, its pushbutton acts as 
pushbutton 2, but its pushbutton 1 re- 
mains pushbutton 1 and is shared with 
the original joystick. (Apple II has only 
three pushbuttons.) Incidentally, if you 
have made the shift key modification for 
upper/lower case, it will hold 
pushbutton 2 closed unless the shift key 
is pressed. This will interfere with the 
use of the pushbutton on the second joy- 
stick plugged into the stacked plug. 

You now have all the hardware you 
need to play two-person competitive 
games with full joystick control. There is 
not much software available that makes 
use of this feature, but you can dream, 
or write your own. 



262 






The Selection Switch Unit 

Now let's look at the construction of a 
multiple socket that can be placed beside 
the Apple to let you choose between two 
controls with the flick of a switch. Fig- 
ure 2 is a sketch of this unit showing the 
component layout. The terminations of 
the main cable wires and two side cables 
are not shown because they would hide 
the components. These cables will be 
discussed later. 

This multiple socket extension has all 
the most popular features, including 
sockets, a click switch, and isolation di- 
odes. If you don't need all of these fea- 
tures and want to leave one or more of 
them off, the cost of the parts will be 
reduced. 

May 1 983 « Creative Computing 



BMC. The logical choice. 
Best for your system. Better for y " 



.• ^U 




If you choose your display monitor with the same care you've given to the other components 

of your business or personal computer system, you II choose BMC 

The BM|-12AU features a P31 picture tube that gives you a large, bright 12inch diagonal green 

display with a bold 80x24 character format that is remarkably easy on your eyes And each 

unit is given a careful underscan adjustment at the factory so even the corners are clear and 

sharp. TheBM-12AU ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

connects quickly and ^ ^ BM-12AU 

simply to most popular 

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BM-12AU is designed to 

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N 



Controller Comor, continued. 



Figure 3. Multiple socket with isolation diodes. 




SOFTWARE 



Applied Software Technology 

Verseform $291.75 

Art-Sci./Softape 

Magic Window S74.95 

Bade Mailer 52.49 

Magic Spell 52.49 

Avant Garde) 

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Hi Rti Secret* 94.95 

Zaro-Gravltv Plnball 22.50 

Sentence Diagramming 18.75 

Br odar bund 

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Apple Panic 22.50 

Payroll 296.25 

General Ledger 371.25 

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Ratter Blaster $22.60 

California Pacific 

Budge's 3D Graphics $29.95 

Continentel Software 

General Ledger $188.75 

Accounts Receivable 188.75 

Accounts Payable 188.75 

Payroll 188.75 

Property Management 371.25 

Home Accountant 56.50 

Guardian 22.50 

First Class Mall 56.50 

DakinS 

Rings of Saturn $29.95 

Depreciation Planner 295.00 

Budget Planner 1 1 1.50 

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Real Estate Anal Program 97.50 

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Perception (3.0) 18.75 

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Creative Financing $146.75 

Real Estate Analyzer 146.75 

Tex Preparer 1 50.00 

Innovative Design 

Pool 1.5 $24.95 

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DateOex 112.50 

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Crossword Magic $37.95 

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Deta Perfect 75.00 

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Investment Decisions $75.00 

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The Leernlng System 1 1 2.50 

The Invoice Fectory 150.00 

Tax Manager 112.50 

Asset Manager 150.00 

Vislfactory 56.95 

Vislblend 37.50 

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Data Fectory (5.0) 225.00 

Muse 

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Three Mile Island 29.95 

ABM 18.75 

Data Plot 43.95 

Elementery Meth 29.95 





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• • • 



Apple II compatible 
64K of RAM 
Upper and lower case 
Typewriter-style keyboard 
12-Key numeric pad 
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VisiCalc keys 
50-watt power supply 
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On-Line Systems 




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House 


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Word Handler 


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List Handler 


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Appointment Handler 


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Space Eggs 


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Gamma Goblins 


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Gorgon 


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Sneakers 


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Beer Run 


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Computer Footbell 


22.95 


Fly Wars 


22.95 


Penguin Software 




Complete Graphics II 


$60.00 


3D Drawing System 


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100 Color Drawing 




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Special Effects 


29.95 


The Grephics Megicien 


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Controller Corner, continued... 

The zip plugs used for this unit cost 
about S6.20 each (see Parts List), com- 
pared to $1.00 for a good standard 
socket. The zip plugs are larger and have 
a small lever on the side that locks and 
unlocks the socket. If you have only one 
set of paddles and a joystick and want to 
switch back and forth between them, 
you probably won't want to pay extra 
ibr zip plugs, so buy standard, gold- 
plated sockets. 

We prefer a switch that clicks and 
makes positive contact to the simple 
slide switches commonly used on 
commercial extension sockets. A click 
switch, however, extends below the cir- 
cuit board, requiring the foam block 
shown in Figure I for a base. 

Figure 3 is the schematic for the selec- 
tion socket. It is basically very simple: 
13 pins of the plug are connected to their 
counterparts on each socket. The +5 
suppl> (pin 1 ) is filtered with a capacitor 
and switched between the two sockets. 
The only complication is the isolation 
diodes. 

Each socket has seven 1N9I4 or 
equivalent general purpose silicon di- 
odes. On the pushbutton lines, they pre- 
vent the pull-down resistors or the 
plugged-in paddles from being in par- 
allel. This would waste + 5 current and, 
if more than four paddles were plugged 
in at one time, might overload the +5 
supply. The use of these diodes necessi- 
tates the three 10K pull-down resistors 
(R3, R4. and R5) on this board. 

The four diodes on the game control 
inputs prevent the pots in the unused 
controls from affecting the readings of 
the one in use. These diodes are a must if 
correction caps are used on any paddle. 
They may have a slight effect on the 
paddle readings. Some devices such as 
the sketch pad (the subject of an up- 
coming article) and the quad thermom- 
eter, will have to have their calibrations 
checked for when used in sockets with 
diodes 




<^> 



"That it our finest, vest-pocket nano- 
computer. " 



Parts List 






Number 




Suggested 


Total 


Required 
1 


Description of Part 

276-154A Experimental Bread Board 


Supplier 
Radio Shack 


Cost 


$ 3.70 


2 


216-3340 ZIP DIP II Socket, 16-pin 


Jameco 


12.40 


2 


16-pin WW. Socket, gold plated 


Jameco 


1.40 


1 


16-pin HP. (Header Plug) 


Jameco 


.70 


2 ft. 


Ribbon cable, 20-conductor 


Radio Shack 


.40 


14 


lN914(or 1N4 148) diodes 


Jameco 


1.00 


1 


Capacitor, 10 uf, 15 volt 


Radio Shack 


.40 


3 


Resistor, 10K ohm, % watt, 5% 


Radio Shack 


.40 


2 


Resistor, IK ohm, '/„ watt, 5% 


Radio Shack 


.40 


2 


Light Emitting Diodes 


Radio Shack 


1.50 


Misc. 


Silicone sealant, solder, etc. 




1.10 


Suppliers: 


Total 


$26.00 


Jameco Electronics 






1355 


Shoreway Rd. 






Belmont, CA 94002 







Circuit Board for the Selection Switch 

Figure 4 shows the bottom of half of a 
Radio Shack printed circuit board (Cat- 
alog No. 276-I54A Experimental), with 
modifications to suit this device. The 
board was cut in half by scoring both 
sides with an X-acto knife and breaking 
it over the edge of a table. Each half will 
make a two-socket unit. Drill a hole in 
the board to suit the switch you choose 
and a hole for a wire tie to secure the 
main cable. 

The existing copper lanes must then 
be cut in 24 places, as shown by the 
dashed lines in Figure 4. This is done by 
making two cuts, '/ 32 " apart, with an X- 
acto knife and removing the copper 
sliver between the cuts. Some skill and 
practice as well as a sharp knife blade 
are required for this step. 

Smooth the edges of the board and the 
drilled holes with a fine file. Clean the 
copper lanes by rubbing them vigorously 
with a pink eraser. This last step, a stan- 
dard electronics practice, is vital. 

The sockets are installed first. Figure 
4 shows the pin locations from the bot- 
tom: both #1 pins go toward the cable 
end. The socket pins and all wires 
should be bent over flat for '/,„" before 
soldering, since this circuit board does 
not have the metal-lined holes (often 
called "plated-through") that a more 
expensive board would. 

The 1N914 diodes can now be in- 
stalled on pins 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, and 1 1 of 
each socket. The end with the black 
band is the cathode, or positive, terminal 
and must point away from the socket. 
Bend the wires over flat, solder them, 
and cut off the excess. In the 18 places 
shown in Figure 4, the wires must be 
bent across an open space to make a 
bridge from one small copper pad to an- 
other. Use the wires cut off of the diodes 
to make straight wire jumpers the same 

266 



length as the diodes for pins 5, 12, 13, 
14, and 15 on both sockets. This step 
will make it easier to install the cables. 

One of the long copper traces that 
runs through the socket is used for the 
ground bus. The negative lead of the 
capacitor and one end of each pull-down 
resistor (R3, R4, R5) go to the ground 
bus. In addition, a wire from pin 8 of 
each socket must be run to this bus as 
shown in Figure 2. 

The single-pole double-throw switch 
requires three insulated wires on the 
underside of the board. The first wire 
runs from the plus wire of the cap to the 
center common of the switch, and the 
other two wires run from pin 1 of each 
socket to the opposite switch terminal. 

The LEDs (light emitting diodes) used 
for the prototype are small and rectan- 
gular, one red, one green. They are 
slightly more expensive than round 
LEDs, but that is the only difference. 
Purchase round ones of any color, if you 
prefer them. Install the LEDs beside the 
socket and even with its top. From the 
positive terminal, run a wire around to 
pin 1 of each socket. Then install the 
current-limiting resistors Rl and R2 on 
a wire run to the ground bus for each. 
The LED for socket 1 is in an area 
where there are no copper pads, so loop 
one wire around the other one before 
you solder them. 

On the pin 1 side (see Figure 4), three 
bus lanes are used for the pull-down 
resistors of the pushbuttons. Short in- 
sulated jumper wires are needed to run 
between pins 3 and 4 and these buses on 
each end, as shown in Figure 2. Both 
#2 pins are jumped to a bus below the 
board. As detailed in Figure 5, two of 
these jumper wires go into holes through 
which cable wires must also be inserted, 
so you must wait until the second wire is 
ready before you solder them both. 

May 1983 *- Creative Computing 



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Controller Corner, continued... 




R-l 



O WIRE TIE O 



BOTTOM VIEW 

SOLDER JOINTS 

• SINGLE WIRE 

• MAJOR PART 

0TWO WIRES 
■ MAIN CABLE 
WIRE BRIDGE 

CUT TRACE 

O HOLES 



1/2 RADIO SHACK 

CAT NO 2 76 -154 A 



Figure 4. Circuit board for multiple socket with diodes. 




MAIN CABLE 



268 



May 1 983 ° Creative Computing 



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Controller Comer, continued. 



Figure 5. Multiple socket for double paddle games. 




270 



May 1983 • Creative Computing 



There is a total of five such double-wire 
holes, and it is somewhat tricky to install 
and solder the wires. When using a gen- 
eral-purpose circuit board, you will run 
into a few difficulties like this as a 
matter of course. 

Cables for the Selection Switch 

The two side cables noted previously 
must now be made up and installed. 
(They were omitted from Figure 2 for 
the sake of clarity; their locations are 
shown on Figure 5.) The one on the pin 
1 side has three conductors, for pins 5, 6, 
and 7. The one on the pin 16 side has six 
conductors, for pins 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 
and 1 5. You can use two pieces of ribbon 
cable or individual wires for these cables. 
The main cable requires 14 conduc- 
tors. You can use a DIP jumper cable; 
these come with DIP plugs on each end. 
Cut off one plug and fan out the wires. 
Be certain to check the jumper for con- 
tinuity end-to-end and for each wire 
since DIP jumpers sometimes have open 
pins. 

We prefer to use 16-wire ribbon cable 
(cut from 20-wire ribbon) and double up 
the wires on pins 1 and 8. This improves 
the electrical characteristics of the unit 
and lets you add the stacked plug socket 
described earlier. The pull-down resis- 
tors R3, R4, and R5 need not be put in- 
side the plug since they are on the board, 
but careful soldering is required to place 
16 wires in so small a space. 

Separate 2" of ribbon on the board 
end of the cable into individual wires 
and trim them to the required length. 
The longest wire is the double ground 
that runs to the central bus. The +5 
wires that run to the plus end of the cap 
are only a bit shorter. The rest of the 
wires connect along each side of socket 
1. Each wire is trimmed, stripped, 
twisted, tinned, inserted into its hole, 
and soldered. 

People with small hands have a defi- 
nite advantage in doing this type of elec- 
tronic work. You will find that a stand 
or clamp to hold the board is also a great 
help. 

The cables should be laid down neatly 
and secured with a wire wrap. A 1" 
thick block of white plastic foam, stiff 
but flexible, from a shipping box makes 
an excellent base for the unit. Cut out a 
hole for the switch and secure the board 
in place with a small amount of silicone 
sealant. If you are concerned about the 
exposed wires you could cover the top 
with a sheet of plastic with three holes 
cut into it. 

Testing the Selection Switch 

To test the selection unit, measure the 
resistance from pin 1 to pin 8 of each 
socket. The reading should be infinite at 
all switch positions. Inspect the solder 

May 1 983 • Creative Computing 



side of the circuit board, looking for 
bridges between copper lanes and cold 
solder joints that have an excess of dark 
resin. To double check your work, ask a 
friend to check conductance wire-by- 
wire, with the multimeter on a low ohms 
setting, and color in the second photo- 
copy of the schematic. 

When you are satisfied that the circuit 
tests out correctly, plug in the selection 
socket and turn on the Apple. (We as- 
sume that you first turned off your com- 
puter if it was already on.) If the 
computer does not start up in a com- 
pletely normal fashion, turn it off at 
once and recheck your work. If the com- 
puter starts up correctly, try the switch 
and watch the LEDs. Next, turn off the 
computer and plug a trusted paddle into 
your new socket extension. Start up the 
computer again and run a paddle check 
program (for an example of such a pro- 
gram, refer to "Rebuilding Game Pad- 
dles and Joysticks" in the February 
issue.) 

If there are any bugs in the unit, they 
will quickly become apparent. Turn off 
the computer and carefully check the 
solder joints associated with any feature 
that didn't work properly. Most prob- 
lems are visible on close inspection. 
Also, remember to test the stacked plug 
that is now inside the computer case. 

Construction of Other Types 
of Extensions 

Figure 5 is the circuit schematic for a 
two-person game multiple socket board. 
This unit has an on/off switch for both 
sockets and does not need isolation di- 
odes. Pins 2 and 4, 6 and 7, and 10 and 
11 are cross wired. Like the stacked 
plug, this circuit gives you the two-per- 
son game feature, but makes it available 
outside the Apple case.. 

Alternatively, you could make up a 
four-socket board that included both 
schematics (Figures 4 and 5), with a 
three-position rotary switch in the cen- 
ter. The rotary switch would direct 
power to socket 1, 2, or 3, while the 
fourth socket on the board would be at- 
tached to socket 3 as shown in Figure 5. 
Seven isolation diodes would be required 
for socket 3 (none for socket 4), but the 
connection to socket 4 would be located 
between the diodes and the sockets. But 
why stop at four sockets? There is no 
particular limit except the size of the cir- 
cuit board. 

Owners of computers other than the 
Apple will also find it beneficial to bring 
the game ports out of the case and add a 
choice switch. The type of plug is dif- 
ferent for each computer, and of course 
the pin numbers will change. In many 
systems, all the plugs and sockets would 
be on short cables, with the switch, di- 
odes, and resistors on a circuit board in 

271 



the center. It will take some work to find 
the correct pin out information and lo- 
cate a supplier for the connectors. Some 
systems may use pull-up resistors, con- 
nected to the +5 supply rather than the 
ground, instead of the Apple pull-down 
resistors. Other systems may not need 
resistors at all. 

There is one other type of multiple 
control worth mentioning. The multi- 
plexing control, for which the computer 
chooses the active control, is not used 
for games. When the control input is a 
measurement (for example, of tem- 
perature or light level) and you must log 
the measurements from more than four 
sensors automatically, you would use a 
multiplexing control. In this way you 
could monitor a solar hot water system 
or a science project. This type of mul- 
tiple socket is quite similar to the units 
we have just described. We will try to 
cover the multiplexing control at a later 
date. 

In Conclusion 

The multiple socket extension is one 
of the most popular additions to the Ap- 
ple and other personal computers. The 
home built version not only costs less 
than a commercial unit but has more 
features and is an excellent beginning 
project in computer hardware. 

Next time we will discuss the 
construction of a sketch pad and digi- 
tizer. With this unit you can draw on a 
piece of paper and on the hi-res screen at 
the same time. You can also use it to en- 
ter information from charts and graphs 
directly off paper into the computer 
memory. □ 





Is it possible that there is a touch of 
spring in the air? Could it be that those 
are buds on the trees? Can the sun be 
turning warm and rich with promise? Is 
it time for a young man's fancy to turn 
to thoughts of— yes — the viability of 
Atari marketing? 

Maybe you are the kind of devout 
Atari follower who is offended by any 
critical comment aimed at the makers of 
your impressive array of hardware. I'll 
bet the last place you would want to en- 
counter these is in the Outpost. If so, 
please skip ahead to our next topic. 

Scuttlebytes 

"What's good for General Motors," 
they used to say, "is good for the USA." 
Well that may or may not have ever 
been true, but it seems now that a good 
part of the USA is worried about Atari. 
From the Wall Street Journal to Rolling 
Stone magazine and ABC news, word 
has it that Atari is "demoralized," due 
in large part to the plummeting of 
Warner Communications stock in early 
1983. It has lost 1.3 billion (yes folks, 
that's billion) dollars in share value since 
the end of last year, and when pressed 
for a reason, Warner points a shaky fin- 
ger at Atari. It is only fair: when Warner 
was making more profits from Atari 
than all of its other subsidiaries com- 
bined, that was Atari's doing, too. They 
can now at least take the heat. 

The thing that has Wall Street really 
skitterish is the fear that Atari will suck 
other video game interests down the 
drain with it if it goes the way of the 
Titanic. Companies such as Mattel are 
already hurting through no fault of their 
own. The key word is "saturation." Has 
the video games market reached "satura- 
tion"? If so, it is time to sell out and 
head for the lifeboats. Unsinkable Atari 
may have struck an iceberg, and Ameri- 
ca's economic waters are frigid. Backers 
and brokers first! 



John Anderson 

While remaining one of its most loyal 
fans, I have been a follower and some- 
times vocal critic of Atari for some years 
now, observing its occasionally erratic 
market behavior. It is amazing to me, 
first of all, that Atari has survived its 
own remarkable rate of expansion. It is a 
credit to the company that it has held to- 
gether through periods of growth so 
rapid that a more rigid organization 
might have shattered. And Atari did 
more than that — it continued developing 
quality products. 

But the company has made some 
wrong turns lately. One of the least 
productive and most destructive affairs 
to befall Atari recently is the vitu- 
perative feuding between its Home Com- 
puter Division and Consumer 
Electronics (home video game) Division. 
This rift has compromised the effective- 
ness of each, and the proof is in the 
latest products. 

At a time when categories of home 
computers and home entertainment ma- 
chines are meshing, Atari has in- 
troduced the 5200 Supersystem, which is 




The infamous 5200 controller, with the 
slowest action in the West, East, or in 
between. It is also next to impossible to 
get one back together once it 's apart. 



a somewhat redesigned Atari 400, 
undercutting and completely incompat- 
ible with it or any other Atari computer. 
This was a serious marketing error, es- 
pecially coming from a company that 
prides itself on marketing savvy. 

The reason? Well the only one that I 
can posit is fear on the part of the 
powerful Consumer Electronics Division 
that it would be made obsolete or ab- 
sorbed by the Home Computer Division, 
if the 400/800 became the games "heir 
apparent" to the ubiquitous VCS model 
2600. Witness the introduction of a key- 
board peripheral for the VCS that will 
be upwardly incompatible with any 
other Atari product. It just doesn't make 
sense. 

Although the Supersystem is selling, it 
is up against some very stiff competition, 
and its poorly designed controllers de- 
tract seriously from game playability 
(they are even slower than those on the 
Bally Astrocade). I would much rather 
play the 400/800/1200 versions of its 
game cartridges to avoid the sluggish 
5200 joysticks, which make Pac-Man 
play like he's stuck in quicksand. What- 
ever was on the design team's mind (I 
suspect the design of a single controller 
to act as paddle and joystick, and open- 
ing up the possibility of an analog 
trackball), they went wrong here. 

Then there is the model 1200 XL 
computer, the Home Computer Di- 
vision's "next generation." If it had been 
announced at $499 instead of $899, it 
would have been a welcome addition to 
the Atari computer line. As it stands, it 
is strike two for Atari. The 1200 has met 
with nearly universal insouciance in the 
microcomputer community, and for 
good reason. It has an extra 16K in a de- 
signer case, without a right cartridge 
slot, expansion slots, or a third and 
fourth controller jack. It has no standard 
parallel or RS-232 ports. Only sub- 
stantive price cuts will help its image in 
any tangible way. 



272 



May 1 983 e Creative Computing 






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Outpost: Atari, continued... 

And what of the Atari 600? Well, it 
seems we may never see such a product, 
because word has it the Atari 600 has 
been postponed indefinitely. The reason? 
Nowhere to fit it into the product line. 
With the 800 now discounted to as low 
as $450, the 600 can't fit between the 
400 and the 800 in pricing. 

Even more damaging to the Atari 
Home Computer Division is the down- 
right hostility that it has displayed to 
third-party support. It seems that 
marketing resents, and seeks to eliminate 
or absorb, those who develop third-party 
hardware. Interfacing is kept in- 
tentionally nonstandard, expansion slots 
are phased out, and potential interfacing 
controller jacks are removed. One of the 
more enlightened sales points of the 
original 800 was its modularity — it 
would never be obsolete, said Atari, be- 
cause the operating system was on a 
plug-in board, as was RAM memory, 
and all could be replaced in a matter of 
seconds. 

Well the new 800s are not modular. In 
fact, the memory slot area on the new 
800 machines is no longer accessible! 
This means a new 64K OS for the 800 is 
not on the docket from Atari, and 
operating systems from other sources 
will be discouraged. 

These moves constitute a very serious 
underestimation by Atari concerning the 
attitude of the home computer con- 
sumer. While the home user is in most 
cases not a computer "hacker," he 
should not be patronized, either. He 
might want modularity, 80 column 
capability, or bank-selectable RAM. He 
may see uses for the machine that no- 
body has yet dreamed, and should have 
every opportunity to realize those 
applications. 

This is the kind of open-ended flexibil- 
ity that made the Apple the most popu- 
lar microcomputer of its day. It is the 
kind of attitude that Commodore is tak- 
ing to get the model 64 off to a strong 
start. It is an attitude that Atari has 
continually misunderstood, discouraged, 
and somehow confused with 
piracy — "it's our machine," I imagine 
them saying, "we'll design the 
peripherals." They should really rethink 
that outlook, and quickly. 

For if Atari misses with its next 
swing, reports of its death may not be so 
exaggerated. This is a fickle business, 
and the early lead of the VCS, as well as 
the inspiration that bred the magnificent 
400 and 800, has now been spent. Atari 
must play it smart now. It can do so 
only by responding to the needs and de- 
sires of an increasingly discriminating 
and well-versed buyer. 

Well enough of that. It is well known 
that the Atari is my favorite micro- 



computer, and it is time to underscore 
the positive side of that opinion. 

Light Pen Revisited 

Though it was years ago, I can still 
vividly remember my frustration. I was 
new to the Atari, and starved for 
programming applications to help me 
get the most from, and learn the most 
about, my machine. And there I was, 
having typed in a program from a maga- 
zine four hours on end, to discover not 
only that it didn't run, but that it 
couldn't run as it was printed. Some- 
times I would be able to institute my 
own fix, and other times I couldn't. 
Sometimes the magazine would 
acknowledge the problem in a sub- 
sequent issue, and print a fix. Sometimes 
the flaw would never be addressed. 

As a lasting result of these trials, I try 
very hard to make sure that everything 
that makes it into this column is correct 
when it gets here. It is hard for me to 
prove that assertion right this minute, 
however, because of a reversed figure, 
dropped program line, and lack of atten- 
tion to the unique features of the Atari 
400 in the March home-brew light pen 
column. This has caused a lot of 
consternation. All I can do is tender my 
sincere apologies, and set out the 
corrections. 

The first person to bring these prob- 
lems to my attention was my friend 
Greg Leslie, sysop of the 
GREKELCOM Atari BBS in Oklahoma 
City (give them a call 24 hours a day at 
(405) 722-5056). The patches for the 800 
are as simple as a pair of switched wires 
and a missing program line, but that's 
quite enough to cause aggravating foul- 
ups for many readers. The touch ring on 
a pen constructed as originally indicated 
will not work, returning a PADDLE (0) 
value of 228 no matter what. 

The touch switch is actually part of a 
circuit that feeds a small voltage from 
the wire loop, through the user, and into 
the body of the pen. The voltage feeds 
into pin 9 on port 1 of the computer, 
causing the PADDLE (0) value to dip 
below 228. With the pen body grounded, 
no voltage can flow. The following swap 
is needed: 

Inside the pen, disconnect the loop 
wire from the wire that leads to pin 9. 
Then solder the loop wire to the end of 
the resistor that is not connected to the 
phototransistor. There should be an- 
other wire soldered there which goes to 
pin 7 on the DE-9 plug. 

The wire that is friction-fit against the 
metal pen body needs to be disconnected 
from the emitter of the phototransistor 
and soldered to the wire that leads to pin 
9 (the disconnected lead described 
above). 




r Q © <3> <2> d) 
® (D <3> (S> 



NOTE: THIS IS THE PLUG. 

THE JACK WIRES UP IN 

MIRROR IMAGE. 

6 - (PENHOT) - DIRECTLY TO 
COLLECTOR 

7 - ( + 5v) - TO RESISTOR AND 
TOUCH RING 

8 - (GROUND) - TO EMITTER 

9 - (PADDLE HOT) - TO PEN 
BODY 



274 



Figure I. This supercedes Figure 8 in the 
March Outpost. 

Now, if all is well, the wire loop will 
be connected to +5v (pin 7), the pen 
body will be connected to the paddle in- 
put (pin 9), and the switch should work 
as advertised. A revised Figure 8 appears 
here as Figure 1 . 

As I first mentioned, it may be nec- 
essary to dampen your finger for best re- 
sults. Pen sensitivity may also be 
improved by increasing the brightness 
control on your TV or monitor. 

That's not all. Line 130 is missing 
from Figure 12, and should be exactly 
the same as line 1 30 in Figure 11: 1 30 
Y = PEEK(565). 

In addition, there are some hardware 
differences between the Atari 400 and 
800 models which cause the light pen to 
be read from port 4 on the 400. If you 
have a 400, plug the pen into port 4 and 
substitute PADDLE(6) for all references 
to PADDLE(O) in the demo programs. 
From there everything should be 
peachy. 

Jeepers. I'm sorry about that. I hope it 
didn't cause too many readers to throw 
their light pens in the trash. It really can 
be done, and with impressive results. 
Greg told me he was quite happy with 
his pen once he had worked out the 
gremlins, and that it compared favorably 
to some commercial models. 

And I promise I'll check possible 
patches for the 400 on all hardware 
projects to come! I've had a lesson on 
those differences here, as well as the 
need for triple-checking of figures and 
listings. 

Programming Utilities 

Have you ever wished you had a pro- 
gram editor for developing Atari Basic 
or assembler code? The Atari Program- 
Text Editor, available from APX, has 



May 1 983 c Creative Computing 






At last, the first home video joystick 

that puts the firing button where it should 

have been in the first place. 



The new Triga-Command is like no 
other home video joystick controller you've 
ever used. 

The firing button is directly under your 
trigger finger, the finger with the fastest 
reflex action. Which means your thumb 
doesn't ache any more after playing long 
games, your firing is more accurate, and 
your scores are higher. 

No other joystick gives you such a terri- 
fic grip either. That's because the handle is 
big and comfortable, not thin and spindly 
like the others. It's shaped to fit your hand, 

and has a diamond-cut textured sur- 

face to give you the "feel" of "^^^ 

genuine Arcade-style joysticks. 

Another unique feature 
are our removable suction 
cups under the base 
which clamp Triga- 



Command firmly to any smooth playing 
surface for total single handed operation. 

And our joystick is tough. It's made 
from high impact plastic, so it won't crack 
underpressure. 

Do you use an Atari 400 or 800 compu- 
ter, the Atari 2600 system, Vic-Commodore 
computers, or Sears Tele-Games? No prob- 
lem. Triga-Command fits them all. 

All thumbs with ordinary home video 
joysticks? Get a grip with Triga-Command. 
It's the first joystick to put the firing button 
under your trigger finger. — And isn't that 
where it should 
have been in 
the first / 

place? > 



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Outpost: Atari, continued... 

long been the only sophisticated tool 
available in this category. Now a new 
and powerful entry, ERedit brings over 
25 separate editing commands to the dis- 
posal of the Atari programmer. 

Among its standard features are com- 
mands to search for strings, search and 
replace strings, move, copy, insert, and 
delete portions of the files; full cursor 
control; file comparison; formatting of 
disks; locking and unlocking, as well as 
renaming of files, and renumbering. 

In addition, the editor provides in- 
depth help functions for each of its com- 
mands, and best of all, English error 
messages when the master disk is acces- 
sible in drive I. 

The program supports multiple drive 
systems as well as printers. 

Once you use an editor such as ERedit 
to aid program development, you'll 
never want to work "raw" again. The te- 
dious and sometimes dangerous editing 
processes (beware the infamous key- 
board lock-up syndrome) are made 
fussless and trouble free. 

ERedit is a new product, and its retail 
price was not fixed at press time. It re- 
quires a 24K system with at least one 
disk drive. For more information con- 
tact EHR3 Inc., 174 Summit Ave., Sum- 
mit, NJ 07901. (201) 277-6785. 

Another product that can be of mas- 
sive help during programming is Basic 
Commander, from MMG Micro Soft- 
ware. It contains a mini-DOS, allowing 
the user to list, save, enter, load, run, de- 
lete, lock, unlock, and format disks, 
without needing to invoke the main 
DOS program. "But many mini-DOS 
programs are on the market with similar 



features," you may say. Well, Basic 
Commander also features automatic line 
numbering, block delete, and transpar- 
ency during use. "All well and good," 
state the skeptics, "but ERedit and Mon- 
key Wrench do those things just fine." 
Yeah, but do they allow three user-pro- 
grammable function keys for simulta- 
neous macro definition? This program 
does, and it is a very convenient 
potential. 

For example, you might assign the 
keystrokes control-l to the string 
"LOAD Dl:", CONTROL'S to the string 
"SAVE Dl:", and control-r to the 
string "RUN Dl:". Cursor placement 
can then be determined within the 
macro so that the user need only type 
the file name and return to execute the 
desired command. Or the string can just 
as easily be embedded within a bit of 
code. Who says the IBM can do things 
that the Atari can't? 

This is another of the category of fea- 
tures that a programmer learns to lean 
on during program development, and 
would from that moment on miss dearly 
were they not available. 

Basic Commander lists for $34.95. For 
more information, contact MMG Micro 
Software, P.O. Box 131, Marlboro, NJ 
07746. 

DOS Access from Forth 

Valpar International has added yet 
another package to its growing ValForth 
series, which is without a doubt the fore- 
most Forth implementation available for 
the Atari computer. This new package is 
ValDOS, which allows access to con- 
ventional DOS files from the Forth 




environment. Think of it: no more in- 
compatibility between Forth screens and 
DOS files. 

The ValDOS package is documented 
in the same professional manner as pre- 
vious ValForth packages, and retails for 
S45. This includes a file editor that al- 
lows Forth code to be saved in DOS 
format. 

For more information, contact Valpar 
International, 3801 E. 34th St., Tucson, 
AZ 85713. (602)790-7141. 

Reference Books Revisited 

In the Decembei 1982 Outpost, we 
took a look at reference books for the 
Atari computer owner. These ranged 
from books for the child or beginner to 
advanced technical notes for machine 
language programmers. Let's add to that 
list the following new titles: 

Atari Programming With 55 Pro- 
grams, by Linda M. Schreiber. 244 pp. 
TAB Books, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 
17214. This crisply organized introduc- 
tion to programming uses generic 
information alongside an Atari-specific 
manual to approach the fundamentals of 
Basic. Programs are neat and really do 
work. There are nicely presented tech- 
niques to dispel the fears of flowcharting 
so common in beginners (and not-so- 
beginners) and the best description of er- 
ror-trapping I've seen in an Atari work. 
The book offers quick immersion into 
assembler and then sets you back out 
again before shock can set in. It would 
be even nicer if it came with a disk. 

Inside Atari Basic, by Bill Carris. 1 8 1 
pp. Rest on Publishing, Reston, VA 
22090. Word has it that this book will 
replace Atari Basic in the carton 
accompanying Atari computers, and it is 
an improvement over that beginner's 
text (though not of the caliber of Your 
Atari Computer). Carris touches on basic 
points with humor and common sense. 
The book is quite short, and therefore 
necessarily rather shallow most of the 
time, but of great help to the beginner. It 
is not for the intermediate or advanced 
programmer. 

And heaven save me from the invet- 
erate programming punster. Ever take 
note of how often "programming-made- 
painless" texts inflict sadistic puns at ev- 
ery turn? Best (worst) one in this book: 
"Hip Hip Array." As my buddy Arlan 
says, somebody please gag that man with 
a spoon. 

Understanding Atari Graphics, by Mi- 
chael Boom. 49 pp. Alfred Publishing, 
Sherman Oaks, CA 91403. Though 
really not much more than a tall pam- 
phlet, this work contains a great deal of 
valuable reference material pertaining to 
Atari graphics, including a keypress to 
AT ASCII character chart, which can be 



276 



May 1 983 e Creative Computing 



found in no other reference I have seen, 
and a color chart showing the hues 
available with SETCOLOR commands. 
It also contains interesting material 
pertaining to the GTIA chip. I just wish 
there were more than 49 pages available 
to the author, so he might have taken up 
a meaty subject or two, like player- 
missile graphics or display list 
manipulation. 

The Visicalc Book, Atari Edition, by 
Donald H. Beil. 298 pp. Reston Publish- 
ing, Reston, VA 22090. The best Visicalc 
reference around is now in an edition to 
complement Atari Visicalc. This primer 
on accessing the real power of the pro- 
gram, and the creation of templates to 
best serve user's needs, is available in 
hard and softcover editions. 

There are at least a couple of other 
new publications on the Atari now 
appearing, and I hope to get a look at 
them soon. I will report my book find- 
ings again shortly. 

Supertext Revisited 

I created a monster. When I posed a 
challenge to readers of the February col- 
umn to send in a self-modifying version 
of the title card generator I had written, 
I little expected to be buried in a bliz- 
zard of entries (we've had enough bliz- 
zards out this way for one year, thank 
you). I wish I could reply to everybody 
personally, but that just isn't possible. If 
you receive mystery software in the mail, 
it is probably from me. And my thanks 
to you for participating, and for the 
many words of encouragement you sent. 
As many of you have suggested, I hope 
to pose another challenge in an up- 
coming column. 

As promised, in a month or so you 
will see an entire self-modifying 
supertext program, encompassing the 
best of the many techniques we have 
seen for accomplishing it. In the mean- 
time, I'd like to single out a few contes- 
tants for programs that showed, for one 
reason or another, what I thought was 
exceptional originality, elegance, or 
cleverness. 

The names of these people appear as 
Figure 2. The order of the names does 
not represent any sort of ranking, but 
merely the order in which they were re- 
ceived. I salute these folks, whose 
programming savvy in many cases far 
exceeds mine, and wish them the best in 
their further efforts on the Atari, as well 
as in all of their endeavors. 

Mail Bag Revisited 

While we're revisiting so many things, 
I shall take an opportunity to answer a 
few of the many questions that have 
come my way. Yes, there will be a Logo 
for the Atari, and we should see it some 



time soon. It will be on a 16K ROM car- 
tridge. Yes, there will be a 16K 
Microsoft Basic ROM cartridge as well, 
but no, Microsoft is not built into the 
1200 XL. Nice thought, though. Nor do 
I know much about the rumored new 
graphics modes of that machine, as we 
still have not received one at the lab. 

In answer to a common query, I un- 
fortunately know of no way to toggle off 
the internal speaker through software. I 
attached a toggle switch to the underside 
of my original 800, and pulled the speak- 
ers entirely from two other units I use 
regularly. A description of the speaker 
switch project will appear in next 
month's Outpost. The 1200, by the way, 
has no internal speaker at all, and routes 
its beeps, glurps, and gurgles to the TV 
or monitor speaker. Apparently I was 
not the only Atari user being driven 
slowly looney by keyclick and razzes. 

Until next time, do try to keep your 
Computing Creative . . . 



Contest Entries Of Special Merit 

Kaiwing Kenner, Great Falls, VA 
Mark Warner, Milwaukee, WI 
Fred Tedsen, Sonoma, CA 
Page Starr, Philadelphia, PA 
Dave Adair, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 
Sol Guber, Saint Louis, MO 
Alan Belke, Belvidere, IL 
Eric Vaterlaus, Beaverton, OR 
Harold Watson, Dayton, OH 
Rod Smoliak, New Hope, MN 
Scott Zimmerman, Salt Lake City, UT 
David Thigpen, Killen, AL 
Adam Kao, Walnut Creek, CA 
Jim Lauman, Oregon City, OR 
Larry West, Burlington, Ontario 
Jeffrey Olkin, North Miami Beach, FL 
James Brezden, Northglenn, CO 
Debby Keen, Raccoon, K.Y 
Richard Cole, Mobile, AL 
Brian Fitzpatrick and 

Gary Herzenstiel, Lansing, MI 
David Brandman, Manchester, MO 
Richard Kulas, Winona, MN 
John Davis, Lubbock, TX 
Alfred Arnold, Mountain Home, ID 
Jorge Villasenor, Mexico City, Mexico 
Brian Biggs, Falls Church, VA 
Eldon Black, Colorado City, AZ 
Timothy Connor, Saint Petersburg, FL 
Philip Kreiker, Loveland, CO 
Alfred Louie, Flushing, NY 
Allen Warren, Tyler, TX 
Alan Stockbridge, Grand Ledge, MI 
Gordon Oppenheimer, Milford, CT 
Gordon Burnham. Orlando, FL 
Dick Peterson, Lansing, MI 
Mark Odendahl, Bloomington, MN 
Paul Richard, Maurepas, LA 



Figure 2. The honor roll. 



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May 1983 e Creative Computing 



277 



CIRCLE 224 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



pt...commodope'8 port...cc 




Joel Swank 



Our guest columnist this month is 
Joel Swank, who will present a tutorial 
concerning screen manipulation with 
the Vic-20. If you have questions for 
Mr. Swank, please contact him directly 
at 12550 SW Colonv tt.l Beaverton. 
OR 97005. -JJA 



Expanding the Vic 20 Screen 

Most Vic owners know that the Vic 
displays information on a screen that has 
23 lines of 22 characters each. Routines 
in the Vic KERNAL (control program) 
take care of formatting output to match 
this screen size. But the Vic is not lim- 
ited to this screen configuration. In fact, 
the 6560 VIC (Video Interface Chip) TV 
controller IC (Integrated Circuit) can 
display a wide variety of other screen 
formats. After the 6502 microprocessor 
IC that controls all operations in the 
VIC, the 6560 is the most important. It 
generates the color display and sound 
that are the most impressive features of 
the Vic. 

The Vic uses a technique called mem- 
ory-mapped video for displaying 
information on a TV. This technique is 



SCREEN CODI 

SET 1 SET 2 POKE 

| 


:S 

SET1 SET 2 POKE 
U II 21 


SET1 SET 2 POKE 
42 


SET 1 SET 2 POKE 
» 63 

| — 64 


SET1 SET 2 POKE 
T 84 

r U 85 


SET 1 SET 2 POKE 
| .08 

> 


A a 1 


V v 


22 


+ 


43 


♦ 


A 


65 


X v 


88 


■ 


108 


B b 2 


W w 


23 




44 


l 


B 


66 




87 


L 


109 


C c 3 


X « 


24 


- 


45 


— 


C 


67 


♦ x 


88 


E 


110 


D a 4 


* y 


25 




46 





D 


68 


I » 


89 


- 


111 


E e 5 


Z 1 


76 


/ 


47 


I — 


E 


69 


♦ i 


90 


r 


112 


F 1 6 


1 


27 


t 


48 


c 


F 


70 


m 


91 


-L 


113 


G 7 


I 


28 


1 


49 


I 


G 


71 


i 


92 


B 


114 


H h g 


] 


29 


2 


50 


I 


H 


72 




93 


a 


115 


1 i 9 


♦ 


30 


3 


51 


Q 


I 


73 


^ a 


94 


i 


116 


J 1 10 

K k 11 


d 


31 
32 


4 

5 


52 
53 


9 
-> 


J 
K 


74 
75 


^ ss 


95 
96 


i 

i 


117 
118 


L 1 12 


i 


33 


6 


54 


D 


L 


76 


i 


97 


~ 


119 


M m 13 




34 


7 


55 


\ 


M 


77 


m 


98 


H 


120 


N n u 


• 


35 


8 


56 


/ 


N 


78 




99 


B 


121 


O o 15 


$ 


36 


9 


57 


r 


O 


79 


_ 


100 


□ ^ 


122 


P P 16 


V. 


37 




58 


~i 


P 


SO 


i 


101 


■ 


123 


O q 17 


( 


38 




59 


• 


O 


81 


m 


102 


■ 


124 


R 1 18 




39 


< 


60 


L_ 


R 


82 


i 


103 


J 


125 


S s 19 
T 1 20 


( 
) 


40 
41 


> 


61 
62 


V 


S 


83 


H 


104 
105 


■ 


126 
127 



Table 1. A list of the screen code for each Vic character. Two possible characters 
can be displayed for each code, depending on which of the Vic's two standard 
character sets is being used. Vic character sets can be switched by pressing the 
shift and Commodore keys at the same time. 



278 



May 1 983 c Creative Computing 




38400 
38422 

it-444 
-4- ■ 

MM 
38510 

185 V 

K664 

38576 . 
38598 . 
38620 
38642 , 

38708 ' 
38730 ! 
38752 1 


1 2 3 4 i 6 11 » 10 11 i? 13 14 IS i« tr i« l9 20 21 


; ; ; 


38774 




36796 




38818 
38840 ' 
38862 
38884 








.It it 




PAGE 2: COLOR CODES MEMORY MAP 



Figure I. Maps of the Vic screen buffer 
and color buffer. Codes from Table 1 
are poke*/ into the page 1 of this figure 
to place characters on the screen. Color 
codes from Table 2 are poKhd into 
locations on page 2 of this figure to set 
the color of each character. 

common among low cost computers. 
With memory-mapped video, a section 
of the computer memory or RAM (Ran- 
dom Access Memory) serves a dual pur- 
pose. It appears to the microprocessor as 
normal memory, but is also used by the 
video interface to determine what is dis- 
played on the screen. Each byte of mem- 
ory determines what pattern of dots is 
displayed in each area, or character, of 
the screen. 

The video controller reads this section 
of memory every thirtieth of a second 
and displays it on the TV. So, whenever 
the microprocessor alters a byte of this 
memory, the change is immediately vis- 
ible on the screen. This special section of 
memory is called the screen buffer. Each 
byte in the screen buffer contains the 
number, called the screen code, of the 
character that is to be displayed in one 
part of the screen. 

If the display is to have color there 
must also be a section of memory that 



APPENDIX I: SCREEN MEMORY MAPS 

Use this appendix to find the memory location of any position on the 
screen. Just find the position in the grid and add the numbers on the 
row and column together. For example, if you want to poke the 
graphic "ball" character onto the center of the screen add the 

2!^ b ?. r8 3t ,he edge of row 1 1 and co| i"™ 1 1 (7900 + 10) for a total of 
ll\ n l you .P° k „ e J ,he code 'or a ball (81, see Appendix H) into location 
7910 by typing POKE 7910,81, a white ball appears on the screen To 
change the color of the ball (or other character), find the correspond- 
ing position on the color codes memory map, add the row and column 
numbers together (38620 + 10, or 38630) for the color code and type a 
second poke statement. For example, if you poke a color code into 
this location, POKE 38630,3 the ball will change color to cyan Note 
that when POKEing, the character color numbers are one less than 
the numbers on the color keys— as shown below. 

Abbreviated List of Color Codes: 
Code Color 




1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 



Black 

White 

Red 

Cyan 

Purple 

Green 

Blue 

Yellow 



Table 2. The color codes for the Vic character colors. 



Location 
Hex Decimal Function 

Horizontal centering and interlace scan 

Vertical centering 

Characters per line and screen buffer address 

Lines per screen and character size 

TV raster beam line 

Character pattern address and screen buffer address 

Horizontal position of light pen 

Vertical position of light pen 

Digitized value of paddle X 

Digitized value of paddle Y 

Sound port low frequency 

Sound port medium frequency 

Sound port high frequency 

Sound port noise 

Volume of sound and auxiliary color 

Screen and border color 

Table 3. The location and use of the 16 registers used to communicate with the 
6560 Video Interface Chip. 



9000 


36864 


9001 


36865 


9002 


36866 


9003 


36867 


9004 


36868 


9005 


36869 


9006 


36870 


9007 


36871 


9008 


36872 


9009 


36873 


900A 


36874 


900B 


36875 


900C 


36876 


900D 


36877 


900E 


36878 


900F 


36879 



determines the color of the characters on 
the screen. This is called the color 
buffer. Each byte of the color buffer 
determines the color of one character. 
So, each character on the screen must 
have one byte that determines its pattern 
of dots and one byte that determines its 
color. 

Table I is a list of the screen codes for 
each Vic character from page 141 of the 
Vic user's manual. Table 2 is a list of the 
Vic color codes from page 144 of the 
user's manual. 

To place a character directly onto the 



screen, first look up the screen code of 
the character in Table 1 and the location 
of the desired spot on the screen in the 
top half of Figure 1. Then poke the 
screen code into the desired location. 
For example, to place an asterisk on the 
third character of the tenth row, type 
poke 7880,42. 

If you do this on an empty screen you 
will not see the character. This is be- 
cause the color code in the color buffer is 
still set to white, the screen color. Now 
find the location in the color buffer of 
the desired spot on the screen from the 



May 1983 * Creative Computing 



279 



Commodore's Port, continued... 

second half of Figure 1 , and the code for 
the desired color from Table 2, and 
poke the color code into the color 
buffer: poke 38600,2. Since 2 is the code 
for red, a red asterisk should now appear 
on row 10, character 3. 

This technique can be used to place 
any character of any color anywhere on 
the screen. 

Mapping The Display 

The details of how the computer 
memory is used to map the display vary 
from one video controller to another. 
Many controllers have a fixed format 
and a fixed character set. The Vic 6560 
controller has registers that allow the 
computer to change the way the 6560 
displays memory. This adds a great deal 
of flexibility not found in simpler video 
controllers. 

Table 3 gives a summary of the reg- 
isters in the 6560. These registers control 
the size and format of the Vic screen, the 
color of the screen and border, and the 
location in memory of the screen buffer 
and color buffer. They also control other 
functions of the 6560 not normally 
found in a video controller, such as 
sound, game paddle inputs, and light 
pen. A complete description of all reg- 
isters in the 6560 is given in the Vic pro- 
grammer's reference guide, starting on 
page 212. 

I will now explain and give some 
examples of using five of these registers 
to change the size and location of the 
Vic screen. Vic addresses will be given in 
decimal and hexadecimal for conve- 
nience. Hexadecimal numbers will be de- 
noted with a leading dollar sign ($). 

The first two registers in the 6560 are 
the horizontal and vertical centering reg- 
isters, located at 36864 ($9000) and 
36865 ($9001). These are used to center 
the Vic screen within the border. Loca- 
tion 36864 is the horizontal control reg- 
ister. Increasing the value in this register 
moves the screen to the right , while 
decreasing the value moves the screen to 
the left. 

The high order bit of this register is 
used for another function (interlace 
scan), so it should always be off. This 
means that the valid range for horizontal 
centering is 1 to 127. 

Location 36865 controls the vertical 
position of the Vic screen within the bor- 
der. Increasing the value in this register 
causes the screen to move down, and 
decreasing the value causes the screen to 
move up. The valid range of this register 
is to 255. You can experiment with 
these registers by POKEing different val- 
ues into them and watching the change 
in screen location. Pressing the 
stop/run and restore keys will re- 
store them to the default values. 

The next two registers in the 6560 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 



STOPWATCH PROGRAM 



Fl • 

F3 - 

F5 - 

FT - 



START 

STOP 

CLEAR 

END PROGRAM 



M ILL 
TH IS 



POt E64S 



NOT MORt WITH 
pp.;..3RAM MOVES 
. 30 SVS58648 



AS'I ■ MID* • TT* . 3 
HID*' T T » . 4 

58 

ASC • M II* • TTI .5 
HIM' T T * . 6 

storm* r< H 

RE TURN 



100 

see 

300 
400 
500 
600 

700 

800 

900 

1000 

1100 

1200 

14 00 
1500 
1600 

1790 

2200 

£400 
2500 
2600 

2700 
2800 

3 300 
4001 i 

-I 108 

4 4O0 

• 
READY . 

Listing 1. Stopwatch program. A stopwatch 

control the line length and the number 
of lines on the screen. Location 36866 
($9002) controls the number of charac- 
ters per line. Only the low order seven 
bits of this register are used for line 
length. Bit 7 is part of the screen buffer 
address and should not be changed. 

This should allow from one to 127 
characters per line, but the 6560 will ac- 
cept no more than 29 characters per line. 
Location 36867 ($9003) controls the 
number of lines on the screen. This value 
is kept in bits 1-6. Bits and 7 are used 
for other functions. Six bits allow from 
one to 63 lines on the screen. 

The Vic screen can be from one to 63 
lines or from one to 29 characters. Just 
how much of the screen is actually vis- 
ible at one time depends on the TV being 
used. Some TVs can barely display all of 
the standard Vic screen. Others display 
the screen with a wide border. My Sony 
can display a maximum of about 30 lines 
of 24 characters. 

Some TVs have vertical and hori- 
zontal size adjustments on the back that 
can be used to increase the amount of 



US INO 



1 • ' 

1 • ■ 



1 • • 
1 • ■ 



PROGRAMMERS AID «.____ 
THE SCREED RESET AFTER 
POKE 52.30 POKE56. 30 CLR 
K<64 6. FOHE646.2 GOSUB 1906 POKE646,. 
OOSUB 4600 GOSUB 2600 
•SET A* IF A*-"" THEN 1760 
A-ASC .A«>-132 

IF A<1 OR A>4 THEN 1700 
..It m OOSUB 3400 .4000 .4660 5 1O0 
IF OO0 THEN GOSUB 2606 

i 1 300 
REM SCREEN IN IT SUBROUTINE 

36867.48 ,-....- , , t 4F T 

1-37888 TO 37888-16 POKE I .1NE..T 

<r .b T«C,1S6 TO 8186*6 POKE 1.3*-' ME .T 

FOR lilies TO 38966*6 POKE I. FEE-. 646. ME I 

RETURN _ 

REM CLOCK UPDATE SUBROUTINE 
TTI-TII 

8187 
p;h E 8183 
POKE 3 189 

S190 
F >• I. 8191 
RE TURN 
REM START 
IF o=l THEN 
T I *= 1 '» 
O-l 

PR IN T "S TAR I " 
FE TURN 

REM STOP STi iPWA i ■ H 
IF o-0 THEN RETURN 
T T*-T I * 
O-0 

PR1III "S TOP" 
RE TURN 
REM -.LEAP STOPWATCH 

t r i«"00e@80" 

TH-ITI 

PR IN T'CLEAR" 

IB 2700 
RE TURN 
PR IN T "END" 
END 

is displayed on the expanded Vic screen. 

picture displayed. If these controls are 
external they can easily be adjusted. If 
they are internal, you can only change 
them by operating the TV with the back 
off, a dangerous proposition. Operating 
the TV with the back off should be left 
to experienced TV service personnel. 
The high voltages found in a TV can de- 
stroy the delicate circuits in the Vic. I 
have seen ICs actually explode when 
subjected to such voltages. 

An expanded screen is not compatible 
wiih the Vic KERNAL. The KERNAL 
works properly only with the standard 
22 x 23 screen. This means that print 
statements and the cursor movement 
keys will not work properly. Things 
must be displayed by POKEing screen 
codes into the screen buffer, and color 
codes into the color buffer. Also, if you 
expand or move the screen, the maps in 
Figure 1 are no longer valid, and must 
be redrawn to match the new screen 
configuration. 

The screen buffer normally resides at 
location 7680 ($1E00) through location 
8185 ($1FF9). Vic memory ends at loca- 



280 



May 1983 c Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 213 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Commodore's Port, continued... 

tion 8192 ($1FFF), leavng only six bytes 
for expansion. To expand the screen 
more than six bytes, the screen buffer 
must be relocated. But it is possible to 
expand the screen and use only these six 
bytes. 

Stopwatch Program 

Listing 1 is a short Basic program that 
makes use of these six bytes to display a 
stopwatch. It enlarges the screen by one 
line to 24 lines, but does not change the 
line length. Leaving the line length the 
same allows the KERNAL to be used to 
display information on the top 23 lines 
of the screen. 

Since memory ends at location 8191, 
only the first six bytes of the new line are 
usable. The other 16 bytes are displayed 
from the Vic ROMs and cannot be 
changed. These 16 characters are 
blanked by storing the screen color 
(white) in their color buffer locations 
starting at location 37888 ($9400). 

The first six characters of the last line 
are used to display a four-digit stop- 
watch. The Vic's jiffy clock is used to 
keep time. The function keys also print 
their functions on the screen each time 
that they are pressed. 

As the program runs and keys are 
pressed, the screen behaves normally. 
Lines scroll up just as they should, ex- 
cept that the line with the stopwatch is 
never used. KERNAL does not know 
about this line, and print statements 
can never access it. 

The only way to display anything on 
the last line is to poke screen codes di- 
rectly into the screen buffer. This means 
that the normal ASCII characters must 
be converted into screen codes. For nu- 
meric digits this is easy, since their 
ASCII code is the same as their screen 
code and can be converted by the Basic 
ASC function. Table 1 can be used to 
convert other characters from ASCII to 
screen codes. 



Expanding The Screen Further 

Expanding the screen further requires 
that the screen buffer be moved. Moving 
the screen buffer means telling the 6560 
the new screen buffer address and also 
notifying the KERNAL and Basic of the 
move. Listing 2 is a Basic program that 
moves the screen buffer to location 7168 
($1C00). 

Basic is informed about the new loca- 
tion by POKEing 28 into locations 52 and 
56 and executing a Basic CLR command. 
This tells Basic not to use any memory 
above memory page 28 ($1C). The 
KERNAL is notified by POKEing 28 into 
location 646, and calling the KERNAL 
subroutine at 58648 (SES18) to initialize 
KERNAL pointers. This subroutine 
also stores the new screen buffer location 
in the 6560 register?. 



lee REM TIME OF DAV CLOCK 

360 REM SET Til BEFORE RUNN.NO SCREEN 

:X REM THVrROrR^MojES^y^ ;«CT AFTER USE 

see qosub 2vee 

oee GET A* IF A«-""THEN 860 

ieee if asc(a*>-i7 THENisee 
nee if asc<a«--i4s THENisee 

1268 PRINTASC(A* 



T>2?^ THEN T-e 



.j;- 






13BO IF POS<X>>l« THENPPUIT 

14@Q ooTosee 

1500 !'PEEK(368c'' T«T*1 IF 
leee POKE3«S*5 > T 

170B qoto see 

lett ?.PECK<3MM> T-T-l IF T<e THEN T> 
l-=»ee POKE36865 . T 

2001* ee 

REM CCOCI [NIT UBROUTINE . 

2266 FOR I-T874 TO 76T4*6S RE. 

2300 FOP 1-38394 TO 383»4*«4 POKE I. PEE.. NEXT 

2406 Pvl- E 64S.2S SVSS8848 
2T-00 POKE 36867.T2 
2600 RETURN 
2796 H*-M I £■ t • T I * . 1 
2888 H-VAL ■ H* • 
2O00 IF H<12 1HEH P-l 
3860 IF H->12 THEN P-16 H=H-12 
3 100 IFH-e THEN H-12 
32Q6 H* = STRfH. IF LEN<H«)-3 
^300 p.-.h E 7?e: niOHlU'HM 

7-0 -■: .. M 1 !•* • H« . 2 . 

784 ■ 

re? . *■:•■: (MIDI m 

(MID*- I I r . -» , 1 • 
t . V t-1 7 
39 0,, (MID«( T I« 

• l-l I D « ■ T I I • 
i . P 
4266 PO> E 7712 

W,TA R 32.B. 
4 . 1 1 ■ 
ATA 32 . 32 .32,32.32 .93 2. 32 , 32 

: . 32 . 32 . 32 . 32 

TA 32 .32 . 32 .32 . 32 , 163.64 . - .4 ■ •< 64,64 64.64,64 
4 125. 32 . 32 . 32 . 32 
READY . 

Listing 2. Time of day clock program. The Vic screen is expanded by three lines 
and relocated so that a digital clock can be displayed. 



3466 

3<360 I 

3788 

3888 



THEN H* = M [D*(H» 

. 1 • ■ 
1 I • 






4 . 



The new number of lines must be in- 
serted into the 6560 register at 36867 
($9003) and must be stored in bits 1 
through 6 of this register, not using bits 
and 7. To do this, the number of lines 
must be doubled. So to tell the 6560 26 
lines, 52 must be POKEd into this 
register. 

In this program the screen is ex- 
panded by three lines to 26 lines, and a 
full time of day clock is displayed in the 
three extra lines. Before this program is 
RUN the Vic jiffy clock must be set by 
entering the current time into the vari- 
able Tl$. Twenty-four hour clock time 
must be entered. For example to set the 
current time to 6:33 p.m., 
TI$ = "183300" would be entered. A full 
six digits must always be entered. 

The program updates the clock dis- 
play as it waits for input. When a key is 
pressed, its ASCII equivalent is dis- 
played on the normal Vic screen. Once 
again the extra lines at the bottom are 
not affected by printing on the normal 
Vic screen. 

Depending on the TV being used, all 
of the three extra lines may or may not 
be visible. The screen can be centered by 
pressing the cursor up/down key. When 
it is pressed, the program scrolls the en- 



tire screen up or down by incrementing 
or decrementing the vertical centering 
register in the 6560. 

These three extra lines on the screen 
could be used for a wide variety of other 
things. A program could put status 
information there or a trace of where the 
program is executing. Any desired 
information can be displayed totally in- 
dependently of what is happening on the 
standard screen. 

It is also possible to expand the width 
of the screen by increasing the value in 
the line length register at location 36866 
($9002), but doing this makes Basic 
print statements totally unusable. All 
data to be displayed anywhere on the 
screen must be POKEd into the screen 
buffer. Expanding the screen this way is 
most useful for graphic displays such as 
video games. 

The Vic has great flexibility in its 
screen format. There are many more 
possibilities than the simple examples 
given here. You can use this flexibility to 
add a personal touch to your applica- 
tions and tailor the display to the spe- 
cific needs of each application. Using the 
techniques presented here, you can make 
your programs easier and more pleasant 
to use. 



282 



May 1 983 > Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 214 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




xmm&ftft 



nra§es.Jbffi images... ibm to 



Here we go with another technical 
column, this time for you fans of Basic. 
Wait a minute, don't go away yet! Even 
if the word technical scares you, I think 
you might find the results of my work 
this month of some interest, and for a 
variety of reasons. 

First and foremost, I have kept my 
promise to demonstrate how to interface 
Basic with routines in BIOS. Second, I 
have chosen to interface to the routine 
that handles scrolling of windows, since 
this is the only major feature of the video 
display system that is not directly avail- 
able to the Basic programmer. Third, I 
have uncovered some interesting facts as 
a result of my work. Finally, the window 
handling routine is a handy one in 
general. 

And don't be scared off by the assem- 
bly language routine printed herein: I'll 
show you how to use the routine without 
having to own or use the assembler. 
What's that? Still scared? Okay, forget 
it. I'll see you next month. 

But if you're still here, let's get to 
work. 

The Problem 

Basic, of course, is the only program- 
ming language that is immediately avail- 
able to the IBM PC owner. It comes 
"free" with the operating system. Basic- 
is well known, and pretty easy to learn, 

WHI attic, Suite 21 1. The World Trade Cenlcr, li.il- 
limofc MD 21202 Correspondence can only be 
acknowledged when j stamped. Ktf-addreiaed envelope 
has been provided Source Address rep .'<».». 



WillFastie 



so it is in widespread use. As a pro- 
fessional programming tool, it leaves 
much to be desired, but its combination 
of price and distribution are compelling. 

Basic is often not well suited to the 
task at hand, especially if performance is 
an issue. This can partly be solved with 
the Basic Compiler, a truly valuable as- 
set to the Basic program developer. 
However, there are some things which 
even the Basic Compiler cannot deal 
with, and an entirely different set of 
things which the language can handle, 
but for which assembly language pro- 
vides considerably more performance. 
We will discuss a feature that falls in the 
first category, something for which 
assembly language is required. The fea- 
ture is the control of independent "win- 
dows" on the display screen. 

As you probably know, the PC is 
delivered with a considerable amount of 
software in Read Only Memory (ROM). 
Part of this is the resident Basic inter- 
preter, but the other part is called BIOS, 
for Basic Input/Output System. The so- 
called "primitive" routines for handling 
most of the devices which can be 
attached to the PC are part of BIOS, 
including a very large section devoted to 
the video display devices, both color and 
monochrome. One of the features sup- 
ported by the video I/O section is 
scrolling. Two routines are provided, 



one for scrolling up and one for scrolling 
down. 

Scrolling is the act of moving all the 
lines of text on the screen up (or down) 
by a line (or more). The top (or bottom) 
lines disappear from view, as if they had 
passed behind the edge of the screen. 
The space created at the bottom (or top) 
of the screen is usually blanked by the 
scrolling operation so that the program 
can insert new information for display. 
It is easy to see the effect simply by 
pressing the enter key repeatedly at the 
DOS prompt: sooner or later you get to 
the bottom of the screen and the display 
at the top begins to rise and go away. 

The PC version of scrolling is very 
sophisticated, both because it can go 
either up or down and because it can be 
applied to a rectangular window any- 
where on the screen. Since the BIOS 
program provides only the scrolling 
function and not the management of 
windows, the application program is free 
to operate as many windows as are 
needed. And that is a vital point: your 
program does the real work, while BIOS 
provides a little bit of very fast help. 

The Demonstration 

Listing 1 is the program I wrote in 
Basic to demonstrate how windows and 
scrolling work. It uses two routines, 
SCROLLUP and SCROLLDN, which I 
will describe in a minute. It allows you 
to give scrolling commands and watch 
the effect of the command on the 
display. 



284 



May 1 983 » Creative Computing 









Listing I. 



1000 
1010 
1 020 
1030 

1O40 

1050 
106O 

1070 

ioeo 
1090 
1100 
1110 
1120 
1 1 •■" 

1140 
11SO 
1160 
1170 
11BO 
1190 
120O 
1210 
1220 
1230 
1240 
1250 
1260 
1270 
1280 
1290 
1300 
1310 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 
1380 
1390 
1400 
1410 
1420 
1430 
1440 
14SO 
1460 
1470 
14BO 



Program to dnonitritc intw<«» routin* to BIOS video scroll function 

Author: Hill Fastis 

Source: DEMO.BAS 

Created: IS Jan 83 

Edited: 07 Feb 83 1100 

This program defines three windows on the screen. Two are filled with 
text and occupy the first 22 lines on the screen, half to each. 
The third occupies 3 lines at the bottom, and is the command and status 
mrm*. The commands that can be given mrml 



w 
s 
c 

F 
A 
R 

X 



selects Top or Bottom window 

scrolls the selected window Up or Down 

clears the selected window 

fills the selected window with new text 

sets the scroll line attribute. Default is white on black. 

reset: clear screen, reset attributes, start over 

exits the program. 



LRCX(2> 

LRCX(3> 



79 
79 
79 



' Initialize memory and load the machine code interface routine. 

CLEAR ,32000 * < Depends on your memory size '• 

BL0AD "scrol 1 . abs" 

DEF SE6 - *H1FFC ' < Depends on your memory size !! 

SCROLLUP - O 
SCROLLDN - IHE 

• Setup the screen and initialize the control parameters 

DIM ULRX(3>, ULCX(3>, LRRX(3>, LRCX(3>, ATTRX(3> 
ULRX(l) - 0: ULCX(l) - O: LRRX(l) - 9: LRCX(1> 
ULRX(2> -11: ULCX(2> - 0: LRRX(2> -20: 
ULRX(3> -22: ULCX(3> - 0: LRRX<3> -23: 
GOSUB 1790 ' reset screen 

' Command Processing Section 

PROMPT* ■ "Enter command: "I GOSUB 1670 

X - INSTR("WSCFAXR",C*> 

IF X - THEN BEEP: GOTO 1330 

ON X GOSUB 13BO, 1430, 150O, 1540, 1620, 1650, 1790 

GOTO 1330 

' Select Window 

PROMPT* - "Which window, T or B? ": GOSUB 1670 
IF C* <> "T" AND C* <> "B" THEN BEEP: GOTO 1390 
IF C* - "T" THEN W - 1 ELSE w - 2 
RETURN 

' Scroll Current Window 

PROMPT* - "Which way, U or D? "I GOSUB 1670 

IF C* <> "U" AND C« <> "D" THEN BEEP: GOTO 1440 

GOSUB 1740: INPUT "Enter number of lines to scroll: 

IF NRLINESX < O THEN BEEP: GOTO 1460 

IF C* - "U" 

THEN CALL SCROLLUP (NRLINESX, ULRX<W>, ULCX<W), LRR7.(W>, LRCX(W>, ATTRX<W>) 

ELSE CALL SCROLLDN (NRLINESX, ULRX(W>, ULCX(W>, LRRX(W), LRCX(W), ATTRX(W> ) 



•.NRLINESX 



1490 RETURN 

1500 ' Clear Current Window 

1510 NRLINESX - 

1520 CALL SCROLLUP (NRLINESX, ULRX(W), ULCX(M), LRRX(W), LRCX(W), ATTRX(W>> 

1530 RETURN 

1540 ' Fill Current Window with Text 

1550 NRLINESX - 1 

1S60 FOR I - 1 TO 10 

1570 CALL SCROLLUP (NRLINESX, ULRX(W>, ULCX(W>, LRRX(W>, LRCX(W), ATTRX(W)) 

15GO LOCATE LRRX(W)*1, ULCX(w)*l 

1590 PRINT USING "This is line •• of 10 lines of text in window e"II|W| 

1600 NEXT I 

1610 RETURN 

1620 ' Set Attribute for scrolled line 

1630 GOSUB 1740: INPUT "Enter new attribute: ",ATTRX(W> 
1640 RETURN 

16SO * Exit Program 

I66O END 

1670 ' Input command character and upperfy 

168© GOSUB 1740: PRINT PROMPT*! 

1690 C* - INKEV*: IF C* - "" THEN 1690 

1700 C* - LEFT*(C*,1) 

1710 IF C* >- "a" AND C* <- "z" THEN C* - CHR*(ASC(C*> - (ASC( "a") -ASC("A" > ) > 

1720 PRINT C»l 

1730 RETURN 

1740 ' Routine to clear command mrm* 

1750 NRLINESX - 

1760 CALL SCROLLUP (NRLINESX, ULRX(3>, ULCX(3), LRRX(3>, LRCX(3), ATTRX(3>) 

1770 LOCATE 23, 1 
1780 RETURN 

1790 ' reset both windows 

1800 KEY OFF: CLS 

1810 LOCATE 11, II PRINT STRING*(80,CHR* (205) ) 

1B20 LOCATE 22, 11 PRINT STRING* (80, CHR*(205) ) 

1830 FOR W - 1 TO 2: ATTRX(W) - 7: GOSUB 1540: NEXT W 

1840 ATTRX(3> - 7: GOSUB 1740 

1850 W - 1 ' default is top window 

I860 RETURN 



IBM Images, continued... 

The program is clear, and instructions 
for its use are included in the comments. 
The commands are single letters, which 
are interpreted immediately without 
need of an enter key depression. When 
parameters are required, the program 
prompts for them; if letters, they are 
taken immediately, and if numbers, an 
enter is required. 

When invoked, the program clears the 
screen, divides it into three windows, 
and fills the two upper windows with 
text. The bottom window is the com- 
mand area in which the program 
prompts are displayed. The routines 
SCROLLUP and SCROLLDN are used 
in the program whenever the windows 
are to be scrolled, cleared, or filled. The 
reset command (R) can be used to re- 
store the program to its initial state in 
case things go awry (they can). 

The section of the program in lines 
1200 to 1250 is the really tricky part in 
which the assembly language routine is 
loaded into memory. The first step 
(1210) is to specify how much memory 
Basic will use for its workspace. This is 
needed to reserve memory space outside 
the Basic workspace area for the assem- 
bly language program. If you are using 
Basic (as opposed to BasicA), the num- 
ber 32000 should leave plenty of space. 
BasicA is bigger, so it might be nec- 
essary to specify a smaller number when 
it is used. In any case, the workspace 
size is a number which should be ad- 
justed for your exact configuration. The 
second step is to load the program using 
bload. The file created by the bsave 
command contains specific memory ad- 
dresses, so line 1220 works without any 
additional parameters. 

Lines 1230 through 1250 establish the 
values Basic will need to call the assem- 
bly language routines. What you have to 
do is specify the precise memory address 
for each routine loaded. Addresses for 



A Note on Diskettes 

I have previously written about my 
great success with Radio Shack 
diskettes, even when used in double 
sided drives. I recently bought two 
boxes (this is diskette sale time, an 
annual affair it seems) and I ran into 
some problems. 

I was immediately struck by the 
change in packaging, not so much for 
the form/factor as for the bold words 
on the front of the box: Single-Sided 
Diskettes. Even though all the Radio 
Shack computers use only single 
sided drives, they had never made a 
big deal about the diskettes before. I 
was a little hesitant, because I 
thought the media had changed in 
some way and was really only usable 
on one side. I tried the new box of 
diskettes within days. 

Of the six disks I tried, only two 
formatted without error. Of the other 
four, two never made it past the 
formatter program and the other two 
both had bad tracks allocated. This 
problem occurred with both single 
and double sided formatting. 

I called my local store manager, 
who was very nice about the whole 
thing and offered to take everything 
back. It turns out that she had some 
boxes of the previous batch of disks, 
so I was able to trade back for the 
ones I have been using all along. I 
have no complaints about the way the 
problem was handled at the store. 

I suspected some major manufac- 
turing change because an examina- 
tion of one of the new diskettes next 



to the older one revealed a half dozen 
physical differences. I called Fort 
Worth and talked with Bob 
MacQuigg, Tandy's buyer for 
diskettes. I related my story to him, 
along with my suspicions, and gave 
him a description of the differences. 

His response was surprise, and he 
told me straight out that there had 
been no change in vendor or formula- 
tion of the product. He said there had 
been no reports of field problems, but 
more to the point that no internal 
problems had been reported. All the 
Radio Shack software is placed on 
these same diskettes, and Bob felt 
that any problem with the media 
would have been caught inside. 

Bob made one very interesting 
point. He said that Tandy had "over- 
built" when it came to diskettes be- 
cause of the many different brands of 
disk drives used by Radio Shack 
computers. In order to avoid prob- 
lems caused by minor variations in 
the drives, Tandy buys diskettes able 
to perform in all the drives without 
error. This might explain why I have 
had no problem using them with my 
double sided drives. 

The problem may well have been 
localized to the box of diskettes I 
picked up, or even to that lot from 
the vendor. Under ordinary circum- 
stances I would have let the matter 
rest since, after all, my problem was 
solved. However, I have rated Radio 
Shack diskettes so highly in the past 
that I felt compelled to tell this story. 



the 8088 processor have two compo- 
nents, the segment address and the offset 
within the segment. In Basic, the dm 
seg statement is used to establish the 




DIVORCE 
COURT 



S? 



"Well, at least you got to keep the IBM PC. 



segment address, and the names of the 
subroutines are assigned the offset 
values. In this case, SCROLLUP is at 
location in segment &H1FFC, while 
SCROLLDN is at location &HE. (Note. 
The &H is the Basic convention to de- 
note a hexadecimal number.) 

In this program the def seg state- 
ment has been used once, so its "scope" 
is the entire program. That means that 
Basic statements like call, poke, peek, 
and others that specify an offset against 
the current segment address are affected. 
This is not a problem for DEMO, but 
care must be exercised if a program of 
yours uses such statements to be sure 
that the correct address is being speci- 
fied in each case. This might imply a 
def seg before every such statement. 

The two scroll routines require six 
arguments, of which four are the 
coordinates that define the position of 
the window on the display. Each co- 
ordinate is a pair, one to specify the row 



286 



May 1983 « Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 245 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







IBM Images, 


continued... 


Listing 2. 


1 






page 54,130 


2 
3 

4 






; SCROLL UP/DN - Interface for BASIC to BIOS Scrolling Routines 






i 

; Author: Mill Fastie 


5 






; Source: SCROLL. asi 


6 






; Created: 15 Jan 83 


7 

8 

9 

10 

11 






i Edited: 02 Feb 83 1520 






i 

; BASIC calling sequence: 






5 

; CALL SCROLLUP (NRLIMESX, ULRX, ULCX, LRRX, LRCI. ATTRI) 


12 
13 
14 






i CALL SCROLLDN (NRLINESI, ULRZ, ULCX, LRRX, LRCI, ATTRX) 






5 

i where 


15 






; NRLINES - the nuwber of lines to scroll. If 0, clear entire window. 


16 






; ULR, ULC - the 'R'mt and 'C'oluin of the upper left corner of the 


17 






; window to be scrolled. 


18 






; LRR, LRC - the 'R'on and 'C'oluen of the loner right corner of the 


19 






; window to be scrolled. 


20 






; ATTR - the display attribute to be used on the blank lines 


21 






i scrolled into the Hindoo. 


22 






i Notes 


23 






! 


24 






i 1. All arguments passed to these two routines lust be declared as BASIC 


25 






i integers. The simplest «ay to do this is to use the I suffix. 


26 






; 2. The row values range frow to 24. Coluon values range froe. to 79. 


27 
28 
29 






; 3. See article text for description of legal ATTRX values. 






i 

; When a BASIC CALL is executed, BASIC'S »ork segaent offset of each argument 


30 






; is pushed onto the stack. The arguments *rt pushed onto the stack left to 


31 






; right, that is, in the order they are written on the page. This Mans that 


32 






i the last argument's address is on top of the stack. The following structure 


33 






i shows the organization of the stack after the call. 


34 
35 
36 






; (I use the suffix V to denote 'address of,' out of long habit.) 






! 

stack struc 


37 


0000 


wfYiwin 


retx dd I?) ; caller's return address « — SP) 


38 


0004 


ym 


bpteap dw (?) ; caller's frate pointer 


39 


0006 


W 


attrx dw (?) ; attribute argument 


40 


0008 


???? 


lrcx dw (?) ; coordinate of lower right corner of window 


41 


000A 


mi 


lrrx dw (?) i 


42 


OOOC 


???? 


ulcx dw (?) ; coordinate of upper left corner of window 


43 


000E 


W 


ulrx dw (?) ; 


44 


0010 


■>■>■>■> 


nrx dw (?) ; nueber of lines to scroll 


45 


0012 




stack ends 


46 
47 


* OOOC 


fns: egu (offset nrx - offset attrx) ♦ 2 5 fraae size 


48 


0000 




i 

cseg segtent 


49 






assuee cs:cseg 



position and one to specify the column. 
The coordinates are stored in arrays 
named UL (upper left) and LR (lower 
right). The suffixed letter is either R (for 
row) or C (by now, you should have the 
idea). The first argument to the routines 
is the number of lines to be scrolled, and 
for which a value of zero means that the 
window is to be cleared. The last argu- 
ment specifies the display attribute to be 
used on the bl